During Alfredo Stroessner Mattiauda’s presidency (1954–89), education initiatives took a backseat to economic concerns and the task of controlling political adversaries, and teacher salaries fell to extremely low levels. The constitution of 1992 attempted to remedy the long neglect of education. Article 85 of the constitution mandates that 20% of the government dibudget be designated for educational expenditures. This measure, however, has proven to be impractical and has been largely ignored.
Nevertheless, democratization has been accompanied by a gradual improvement in the education system. Spending on education has increased, reaching 4.7 percent of gross domestic product in 2000, up from 1.7 percent in 1989. Much of the increased funding went to raise teacher salaries and update curricula. Students are required to attend school from ages seven to 13, and surveys indicate that Paraguay has a net primary school attendance rate of 92 percent. Public education is free to all, but dropout rates remain high.
Until the 1990s, the state Universidad Nacional de Asunción and the Universidad Católica Nuestra Señora de la Asunción served Paraguay’s entire population. As part of the educational reforms of the 1990s, the government created 10 new universities. In 2003 Paraguay’s national military academy admitted female cadets for the first time, opening another door for women pursuing education.
In 2003 Paraguay had an estimated literacy rate of 94 percent, with very little differential between men and women (94.9 percent to 93 percent, respectively). Illiteracy rates exceed the national average in rural areas. The 2001 census found that 15 percent of women and 10 percent of men living in rural areas were illiterate.
|Preschool (Educación Inicial)|
|Elementary School (Educación Primaria)|
|1st Grade (primera Grado)||6-7|
|2nd Grade (Segundo Grado)||7–8|
|3rd Grade (Tercer Grado)||8–9|
|4th Grade (Cuarto Grado)||9–10|
|5th Grade (Quinto Grado)||10–11|
|6th Grade (Sexto Grado)||11–12|
|7th Grade (Séptimo Grado)||12–13|
|8th Grade (Octavo Grado)||13–14|
|9th Grade (Noveno Grado)||14-15|
|High school (Educación Secundaria)|
|1st Year (Primer Año de la Media)||15-16|
|2nd Year (Segundo Año de la Media)||16-17|
|3rd Year (Tercer Año de la Media)||17–18|
|Tertiary education-University (Educación Terciaria-Universidad)|
Formal, technical and vocational education in Paraguay exists through two main curriculum: The “Bachilleratos Técnicos” and the “Formación Profesional Media”. The "Bachilleratos Técnicos" lasts 3 years and leads to the “Bachiller Técnico" which grants a direct access to tertiary education. It gathers 60000 students across the country split in 600 Technical High Schools. The “Formación Profesional Media” is less academic and aims at a direct integration to the world of work after graduation. People who have left the education system sooner can nevertheless join professional training programmes handled by the ministry of education and culture, provided sufficient results at an entrance examinaniation. Graduates from those programmes and of the "Formacion Profesional Media" have to pass the Academic Competency Assessment Test (ACAT) to eventually pursue into tertiary education. Finally, students can join the “Técnicos Superiores” curriculum(post-secondary education) offered by 287 institutions (88% are private) and which grants an “Advanced Technician” degree after 3 years.
Out of the formal education system, a curriculum exists for people over 15 years old: Vocational Training, Initial Professional Training, Professional Training, with various entry requirements and programmes, offered by both public and private institutions. The ministry of Justice also provides education and training through the National Service for Professional Promotion (Servicio Nacional de Promoción Profesional de Paraguay). The "SNPP" offers classes in computer programme; distance training programme; apprenticeship programme for young people; business development programme; and instructors training programme. The students are mainly young adults. Other public institutions (Ministry of agriculture, of health, the Paraguayan Chamber of Construction, the Paraguayan Centre of Productivity and Quality etc.) handle besides vocational and technical programmes. Informal education also has some importance in Paraguay, albeit hard to measure.
Vocational education is education that prepares people to work as a technician or in various jobs such as a tradesman or an artisan. Vocational education is sometimes referred to as career and technical education. A vocational school is a type of educational institution specifically designed to provide vocational education.
Sixth grade is in many nations, the first year of middle school or the last year of elementary school, last year of primary school in Scotland and Australia.
Education in Botswana is provided by public schools and private schools. Education in Botswana is governed by Ministry of Education and Skills Development.
In recent years the Government of Egypt has given greater priority to improving the education system. According to the Human Development Index (HDI), Egypt is ranked 115 in the HDI, and 9 in the lowest 10 HDI countries in the Middle East and Northern Africa, in 2014. With the help of the World Bank and other multilateral organizations Egypt aims to increase access in early childhood to care and education and the inclusion of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) at all levels of education, especially at the tertiary level. The government is responsible for offering free education at all levels. The current overall expenditure on education is about 12.6 percent as of 2007. Investment in education as a percentage of GDP rose to 4.8 in 2005 but then fell to 3.7 in 2007. The Ministry of Education is also tackling a number of issues: trying to move from a highly centralized system to offering more autonomy to individual institutions, thereby increasing accountability.
Education in Colombia includes nursery school, elementary school, high school, technical instruction and university education.
Education in Mauritius is managed by the Ministry of Education & Human Resources, which controls the development and administration of state schools funded by government, but also has an advisory and supervisory role in respect of private schools. The Tertiary education is maintained by the Ministry of Tertiary Education, Science, Research and Technology. The government of Mauritius provides free education to its citizens from pre-primary to tertiary levels. Since July 2005, the government also introduced free transport for all students. Schooling is compulsory up to the age of 16. Mauritian students consistently rank top in the world each year for the Cambridge International O Level, International A and AS level examinations.
Education in Chile is divided in preschool, primary school, secondary school, and technical or higher education (university).The levels of education in Chile are:
Education in the Palestinian Territories refers to the educational system in Gaza and the West Bank administered by the Palestinian Ministry of Education and Higher Education. Enrollment rates amongst Palestinians are relatively high by regional and global standards. According to a youth survey in 2003, 60% between the ages 10–24 indicated that education was their first priority. Youth literacy rate is 98.2%, while the national literacy rate is 91.1% Enrollment ratios for higher education were 46.2% in 2007, among the highest in the world. In 2016 Hanan Al Hroub was awarded the Varkey Foundation Global Teacher Prize for her work in teaching children how to cope with violence.
Education in Ghana was mainly informal, and based on apprenticeship before the arrival of European settlers, who introduced a formal education system addressed to the elites. Pre-Independent Ghana was known as the Gold Coast. The economy of pre-colonial Gold Coast was mainly dependent on subsistence farming where farm produce was shared within households and members of each household specialized in providing their household with other necessities such as cooking utilities, shelter, home, clothing and furnitures. Trade with other households was therefore practised in a very small scale. This has made economic activities in pre-colonial Gold Coast a family institution/customs; family-owned and family-controlled. As such, there was no need for employment outside the household that would have otherwise called for discipline(s), value(s) and skill(s) through a formal education system. Pre-colonial Gold Cost therefore practised an informal education (apprenticeship) until it was colonized and its economy became a hybrid of subsistence and formal economy.
Education in Lebanon is regulated by the Ministry of Education and Higher Education (MEHE). In Lebanon, English or French with Arabic are taught from early years in schools. English or French are the mandatory medium of instruction for mathematics and science for all schools. Education is compulsory from age 6 to age 14.
Following independence from the Soviet Union, a major economic depression cut "public financing" for education in Kazakhstan, "which dropped from 6% of gross domestic product in 1991 to about 3% in 1994, before rising to 4% in 1999." Elementary- and secondary-school teachers remain badly underpaid; in 1993 more than 30,000 teachers left education, many of them to seek more lucrative employment.
Jordan prides itself on its advanced education system. Jordanians are well educated since education is considered a core value in Jordanian culture. Jordan has the highest ratio of researchers in Research and Development among all 57 Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) member states. In Jordan, there are 8060 researchers per million people, higher than the EU average of 6494, and much higher than the world average of 2532 per million.
Education in Cambodia is controlled by the state through the Ministry of Education in a national level and by the Department of Education at the provincial level. The Constitution of Cambodia establishes that the state shall protect and upgrade citizen's rights to quality education at all levels, guaranteeing that all citizens have equal opportunity to earn a living. The state shall adopt an education program "according to the principle of modern pedagogy including technology and foreign languages," as well as the state controls public and private schools and classrooms at all levels. The Cambodian education system includes pre-school, primary, general secondary, higher education and non-formal education. The education system includes the development of sport, information technology education, research development and technical education. School enrollment has increased during the 2000s in Cambodia. USAID data shows that in 2011 primary enrollment reached 96% of the child population, lower secondary school 34% and upper secondary 21%.
Education in Kyrgyzstan is compulsory for nine years, between ages seven and 15. Following four years of primary and five years of lower secondary school, the system offers two years of upper secondary school, specialized secondary school, or vocational/technical school.
The State of Kuwait, located at the head of the Persian Gulf, supports an educational policy that seeks to provide opportunity to all children, irrespective of their social class, including children with special needs. Kuwait was ranked 63rd on the Human Development Index report for 2011 by the United Nations Development Programme, placing Kuwait above the regional average. The education system in Kuwait has celebrated several achievements; in the year ending 2006, thirteen percent of all public expenditure was given to education, comparable to many OECD countries, although lower than other Arab nations. As a percentage of GDP, at 3.9 percent, it remains well below the OECD average.
In the Dominican Republic, education is free and compulsory at the elementary level, and free but non-mandatory at the secondary level. It is divided into four stages:
Education in Uruguay is compulsory for a total of nine years, beginning at the primary level, and is free from the pre-primary through the university level. In 1996, the gross primary enrollment rate was 111.7 percent, and the net primary enrollment rate was 92.9 percent. Primary school attendance rates were unavailable for Uruguay as of 2001.
The first documented school in Lithuania was established in 1387 at Vilnius Cathedral. The school network was influenced by the Christianization of Lithuania. Several types of schools were present in medieval Lithuania – cathedral schools, where pupils were prepared for priesthood; parish schools, offering elementary education; and home schools dedicated to educating the children of the Lithuanian nobility. Before Vilnius University was established in 1579, Lithuanians seeking higher education attended universities in foreign cities, including Kraków, Prague, and Leipzig, among others. During the Interbellum a national university – Vytautas Magnus University was founded in Kaunas.
Education in Namibia is compulsory for 10 years between the ages of 6 and 16. There are approximately 1900 schools in Namibia of which 100 are privately owned. Namibian subjects' syllabi are based on the International General Certificate of Secondary Education which is part of Cambridge International. The Constitution directs the government to provide free primary education; however, families must pay fees for uniforms, stationery, books, hostels, and school improvements.