|Claimant to the Kingdom of Scotland|
|Tenure||24 September 1332 – 20 January 1356|
|Died||January 1364 (aged around 81)|
|House||House of Balliol|
|Mother||Isabella de Warenne|
Edward Balliol (Scottish Gaelic : Èideard Balliol; c. 1283 – January 1364) was a claimant to the Scottish throne during the Second War of Scottish Independence. With English help, he ruled parts of the kingdom from 1332 to 1356.
Edward was the eldest son of John Balliol and Isabella de Warenne. As a child, Edward was betrothed to Isabelle of Valois, the eldest daughter of Charles, Count of Valois (1271-1325) and his first wife Marguerite of Anjou (1273-1299). His father John resigned his title as King of Scotland in 1296, and it was likely this, that caused the King of France to break the marriage contract, and betroth Isabelle now to John son of Arthur II, Duke of Brittany.
The death of King Robert I left his six-year-old son David II as King and one of King Roberts' ablest lieutenants, Earl of Moraym as regent. However, one of King Robert's most able lieutenants, the Black Douglas was killed in battle shortly afterward his death. Then on his way to meet an invasion by Balliol backed by King Edward III of England, Thomas Randolph suddenly died. Balliol's forces defeated King David's new regent, the Earl of Mar, at the Battle of Dupplin Moor in Perthshire.
Edward Balliol was crowned at Scone in September 1332, but three months later he was forced to flee half-naked back to England, following a surprise attack by nobles loyal to David II at the Battle of Annan. On his retreat from Scotland, Balliol sought refuge with the Clifford family, land owners in Westmorland, and stayed in their castles at Appleby, Brougham, Brough, and Pendragon.
Edward was put back into power by the English in 1333, following the siege of Berwick and the Battle of Halidon Hill. Balliol, under the Treaty of Newcastle (1334), then ceded the whole of the district formerly known as Lothian to Edward and paid homage to him as liege lord while staying in Blackfriars friary in Newcastle upon Tyne. With no serious support in Scotland, he was defeated again in 1334, fleeing Scotland once more. In November 1334, Edward III invaded again, but unable to bring the Scots to battle, he retreated in February 1335. The final blow was the English defeat on 30 November 1335 at the Battle of Culblean which was the effective end of Balliol's attempt to overthrow the King of Scots.
He and Edward Balliol returned again in July 1336 with a large English army and advanced through Scotland, first to Glasgow and then to Perth, Edward III destroying the surrounding countryside as they went. By late 1336, the Scots had regained control over virtually all of Scotland, and by 1338 the tide had turned against the usurper.
Edward returned to Scotland after the defeat of King David II at Battle of Neville's Cross in 1346 and with a small force raised an insurrection in Galloway in a final attempt to gain the crown of Scotland. He only succeeded in gaining control of some of Galloway, with his power diminishing there until 1355.
On 20 January 1356, Balliol surrendered his claim to the Scottish throne to Edward III in exchange for an English pension. He spent the rest of his life living in obscurity. He died childless in January 1364, at Wheatley, Doncaster, Yorkshire, England. The location of his grave has been speculated to be under a Doncaster Post Office.His heirs were his four sisters.
The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of military campaigns fought between the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England in the late 13th and early 14th centuries.
John Balliol, known derisively as Toom Tabard, was King of Scots from 1292 to 1296. Little is known of his early life. After the death of Margaret, Maid of Norway, Scotland entered an interregnum during which several competitors for the Crown of Scotland put forward claims. Balliol was chosen from among them as the new King of Scotland by a group of selected noblemen headed by King Edward I of England.
Robert II was King of Scots from 1371 to his death in 1390. He was the first monarch of the House of Stewart as the son of Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland, and of Marjorie Bruce, daughter of the Scottish king Robert the Bruce by his first wife Isabella of Mar.
David II was King of Scotland for nearly 42 years, from 1329 until his death in 1371. He was the last male of the House of Bruce. Although David spent long periods in exile or captivity, he managed to ensure the survival of his kingdom and left the Scottish monarchy in a strong position.
The Battle of Dupplin Moor was fought between supporters of King David II of Scotland, the son of King Robert Bruce, and English-backed invaders supporting Edward Balliol, son of King John I of Scotland, on 11 August 1332. It took place a little to the south west of Perth, Scotland, when a Scottish force commanded by Donald, Earl of Mar, estimated to have been stronger than 15,000 and possibly as many as 40,000 men, attacked a largely English force of 1,500 commanded by Balliol and Henry Beaumont, Earl of Buchan. This was the first major battle of the Second War of Scottish Independence.
John de Balliol was a leading figure of Scottish and Anglo-Norman life, belonging to the House of Balliol. Balliol College, in Oxford, is named after him.
Patrick de Dunbar, 9th Earl of March, was a prominent Scottish magnate during the reigns of Robert the Bruce and David II.
Dervorguilla of Galloway was a 'lady of substance' in 13th century Scotland, the wife from 1223 of John, 5th Baron de Balliol, and mother of John I, a future king of Scotland.
William Douglas, 1st Earl of Douglas was a Scottish nobleman, peer, and magnate.
The Battle of Culblean was fought on 30 November 1335, during the Second War of Scottish Independence. It was a victory for the Scots led by the Guardian, Sir Andrew Murray over an Anglo-Scots force commanded by David III Strathbogie, titular Earl of Atholl, and a leading supporter of Edward Balliol.
Henry de Beaumont, jure uxoris 4th Earl of Buchan and suo jure 1st Baron Beaumont, was a key figure in the Anglo-Scots wars of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, known as the Wars of Scottish Independence.
The Battle of Dornock was fought on 25 March 1333 during the Second War of Scottish Independence.
Holders of the office of Lord Chamberlain of Scotland are known from about 1124. It was ranked by King Malcolm as the third great Officer of State, called Camerarius Domini Regis, and had a salary of £200 per annum allotted to him. He anciently collected the revenues of the Crown, at least before Scotland had a Treasurer, of which office there is no vestige of until the restoration of King James I when he disbursed the money necessary for the maintenance of the King's Household.
Sir William Douglas, Lord of Liddesdale was also known as the Knight of Liddesdale and the Flower of Chivalry. He was a Scottish nobleman and soldier active during the Second War of Scottish Independence.
Events from the 1330s in England.
Sir Ingram de Umfraville was a Scottish noble who played a particularly chequered role in the Wars of Scottish Independence, changing sides between England and Scotland multiple times, throughout the conflict.
The Battle of Annan, also known in the sources as the Camisade of Annan, took place on 16 December 1332 at Annan, Dumfries and Galloway in Scotland.
The Second War of Scottish Independence, also known as the Anglo-Scottish War of Succession (1332–1357) was the second cluster of a series of military campaigns fought between the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England in the late 13th and the early 14th centuries.
Sir Andrew Murray (1298–1338), also known as Sir Andrew Moray, or Sir Andrew de Moray, was a Scottish military and political leader who supported David II of Scotland against Edward Balliol and King Edward III of England during the so-called Second War of Scottish Independence. He held the lordships of Avoch and Petty in north Scotland, and Bothwell in west-central Scotland. In 1326 he married Christina Bruce, a sister of King Robert I of Scotland. Murray was twice chosen as Guardian of Scotland, first in 1332, and again from 1335 on his return to Scotland after his release from captivity in England. He held the guardianship until his death in 1338.
The Battle of Kinghorn was fought on 6 August 1332 at Wester Kinghorn, Fife, Scotland. An invading seaborne force of 1,500 men was commanded by Edward Balliol and Henry Beaumont, Earl of Buchan. A Scottish army, possibly 4,000 strong, commanded by Duncan, Earl of Fife, and Robert Bruce, Lord of Liddesdale was defeated with heavy loss. Balliol was the son of King John Balliol and was attempting to make good his claim to be the rightful king of Scotland. He hoped that many of the Scots would desert to him.