Edward C. Walthall

Last updated
Edward Cary Walthall
Edward Cary Walthall.jpg
United States Senator
from Mississippi
In office
March 9, 1885 January 24, 1894
Preceded by Lucius Q. C. Lamar
Succeeded by Anselm J. McLaurin
In office
March 4, 1895 April 21, 1898
Preceded by Anselm J. McLaurin
Succeeded by William V. Sullivan
Personal details
Born(1831-04-04)April 4, 1831
Richmond, Virginia
DiedApril 21, 1898(1898-04-21) (aged 67)
Washington, D.C.
Political party Democratic
Military service
Allegiance Flag of the Confederate States of America (1865).svg Confederate
Branch/serviceBattle flag of the Confederate States of America.svg  Confederate States Army
Years of service1861–1865
Rank Brigadier General
(temporary) Major General
Unit 15th Mississippi Infantry
CommandsWalthall's Division—III Corps
Walthall's Brigade
29th Mississippi Infantry
Battles/wars American Civil War

Edward Cary Walthall (April 4, 1831 April 21, 1898) was a general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War and a postbellum United States Senator from Mississippi.

Confederate States Army Southern army in American Civil War

The Confederate States Army was the military land force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War (1861–1865), fighting against the United States forces. On February 28, 1861, the Provisional Confederate Congress established a provisional volunteer army and gave control over military operations and authority for mustering state forces and volunteers to the newly chosen Confederate president, Jefferson Davis. Davis was a graduate of the U.S. Military Academy, and colonel of a volunteer regiment during the Mexican–American War. He had also been a United States Senator from Mississippi and U.S. Secretary of War under President Franklin Pierce. On March 1, 1861, on behalf of the Confederate government, Davis assumed control of the military situation at Charleston, South Carolina, where South Carolina state militia besieged Fort Sumter in Charleston harbor, held by a small U.S. Army garrison. By March 1861, the Provisional Confederate Congress expanded the provisional forces and established a more permanent Confederate States Army.

American Civil War Internal war in the U.S. over slavery

The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War began primarily as a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people. War broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States. The loyalists of the Union in the North, which also included some geographically western and southern states, proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights in order to uphold slavery.

Mississippi U.S. state in the United States

Mississippi is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Mississippi is the 32nd largest and 34th-most populous of the 50 United States. Mississippi is bordered to the north by Tennessee, to the east by Alabama, to the south by the Gulf of Mexico, to the southwest by Louisiana, and to the northwest by Arkansas. Mississippi's western boundary is largely defined by the Mississippi River. Jackson is both the state's capital and largest city. Greater Jackson, with an estimated population of 580,166 in 2018, is the most populous metropolitan area in Mississippi and the 95th-most populous in the United States.

Contents

Early life

Edward C. Walthall was born in Richmond, Virginia on April 4, 1831. [1] [2] Walthall moved to Mississippi with his family in 1841. [1] [2] He attended St. Thomas Hall in Holly Springs, studying law. [2] He was admitted to the bar in 1852. [2] Then, he practiced law in Coffeeville. [1] He was elected district attorney for the tenth judicial district of Mississippi in 1856 and reelected in 1859. [2]

Richmond, Virginia Capital of Virginia

Richmond is the capital city of the Commonwealth of Virginia. It is the center of the Richmond Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) and the Greater Richmond Region. Richmond was incorporated in 1742 and has been an independent city since 1871.

Holly Springs, Mississippi City in Mississippi, United States

Holly Springs is a city in and the county seat of Marshall County, Mississippi, United States at the border with southern Tennessee. Near the Mississippi Delta, the area was developed by European Americans for cotton plantations and was dependent on enslaved Africans. After the American Civil War, many freedmen continued to work in agriculture but as sharecroppers and tenant farmers.

A bar association is a professional association of lawyers. Some bar associations are responsible for the regulation of the legal profession in their jurisdiction; others are professional organizations dedicated to serving their members; in many cases, they are both. In many Commonwealth jurisdictions, the bar association comprises lawyers who are qualified as barristers or advocates in particular, versus solicitors. Membership in bar associations may be mandatory or optional for practicing attorneys, depending on jurisdiction.

American Civil War

During the Civil War, Walthall entered the Confederate Army as a lieutenant in the 15th Mississippi Infantry on April 27, 1861, and was promoted to lieutenant colonel on July 21, 1861. [1] He fought with his regiment at the Battle of Mill Springs on January 19, 1862. [3] [4] Walthall was elected colonel of the 29th Mississippi Infantry on April 11, 1862 and fought at the Siege of Corinth and in the Confederate Heartland Offensive. [1] [3] [4] Commanding one of the Army of Tennessee's brigades during November 1862 he was appointed brigadier general on December 13, 1862. [1]

A lieutenant is the junior most commissioned officer in the armed forces, fire services, police, and other organizations of many nations.

Lieutenant colonel (United States) officer rank of the United States military

In the United States Army, U.S. Marine Corps, and U.S. Air Force, a lieutenant colonel is a field-grade military officer rank just above the rank of major and just below the rank of colonel. It is equivalent to the naval rank of commander in the other uniformed services.

Battle of Mill Springs battle fought in Wayne and Pulaski counties during the American Civil War

The Battle of Mill Springs, also known as the Battle of Fishing Creek in Confederate terminology, and the Battle of Logan's Cross Roads in Union terminology, was fought in Wayne and Pulaski counties, near current Nancy, Kentucky, on January 19, 1862, as part of the American Civil War. The Union victory concluded an early Confederate offensive campaign in eastern Kentucky.

Walthall led his brigade in the Tullahoma Campaign and fought at the Battle of Chickamauga on September 19–20, 1863. [3] Walthall distinguished himself at the Battle of Missionary Ridge, where he led his brigade over a ridge and held back the Federal troops until the Confederate army made its escape; however he was wounded in the foot and captured on November 25, 1863; but quickly was exchanged. [1] [4] He was wounded again at the Battle of Resaca on May 15, 1864. [1]

Battle of Chickamauga American Civil War battle

The Battle of Chickamauga, fought on September 18 – 20, 1863, between U.S. and Confederate forces in the American Civil War, marked the end of a Union offensive in southeastern Tennessee and northwestern Georgia — the Chickamauga Campaign. It was the first major battle of the war fought in Georgia, the most significant Union defeat in the Western Theater, and involved the second-highest number of casualties after the Battle of Gettysburg.

Battle of Missionary Ridge Battle of the American Civil War

The Battle of Missionary Ridge was fought on November 25, 1863, as part of the Chattanooga Campaign of the American Civil War. Following the Union victory in the Battle of Lookout Mountain on November 24, Union forces in the Military Division of the Mississippi under Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant assaulted Missionary Ridge and defeated the Confederate Army of Tennessee, commanded by Gen. Braxton Bragg, forcing it to retreat to Georgia.

Battle of Resaca Battle of the American Civil War

The Battle of Resaca was part of the Atlanta Campaign of the American Civil War. The battle was waged in both Gordon and Whitfield counties, Georgia, May 13–15, 1864. It ended inconclusively with the Confederate Army retreating. The engagement was fought between the Military Division of the Mississippi on the side of the Union and the Army of Tennessee for the Confederates.

Afterwards he advanced to division command in Lieutenant General Alexander P. Stewart's corps, receiving a temporary promotion to major general on June 6, 1864. [1] [4]

Alexander P. Stewart Confederate Army general

Alexander Peter Stewart was a career United States Army officer, college professor, and a general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. He fought in many of the most significant battles in the Western Theater of the war, and briefly took command of the Army of Tennessee in 1865.

At the Battle of Franklin on November 30, 1864, Walthall was wounded (at least badly bruised) as he had two horses shot from under him, but he quickly returned to duty. [1] [4]

Battle of Franklin (1864) major battle of the American Civil War

The Battle of Franklin was fought on November 30, 1864, in Franklin, Tennessee, as part of the Franklin–Nashville Campaign of the American Civil War. It was one of the worst disasters of the war for the Confederate States Army. Confederate Lt. Gen. John Bell Hood's Army of Tennessee conducted numerous frontal assaults against fortified positions occupied by the Union forces under Maj. Gen. John M. Schofield and was unable to break through or to prevent Schofield from executing a planned, orderly withdrawal to Nashville.

Walthall covered the retreat of General Hood's army after the defeat at Nashville. [3] [4] While Lieutenant General Alexander P. Stewart was in command of the remnant of the Army of Tennessee which was under the overall command of General Joseph E. Johnston during the Carolinas Campaign, Walthall acted as III corps commander of the Army of Tennessee from March 16, 1865 until April 9, 1865 when he returned to division command in that corps. [1] [3] He and his division surrendered with General Joseph E. Johnston at Bennett Place on April 26, 1865. He was paroled at Greensboro, North Carolina on May 1, 1865. [1]

Post-war

Edward C. Walthall House in Grenada, Mississippi in 2019 Sen. Edward C. Walthall House.jpg
Edward C. Walthall House in Grenada, Mississippi in 2019
Walthall's grave in Holly Springs Grave of Gen. Walthall, Hillcrest Cemetery.jpg
Walthall's grave in Holly Springs

After the war, Walthall resumed the practice of law in Coffeeville. In 1871, he moved to Grenada, Mississippi, and continued practicing law until 1885. [5]

Walthall was appointed as a Democrat to the U.S. Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Lucius Q. C. Lamar. [5] He was subsequently elected to fill the vacancy, and was reelected in 1889. [5] He served from March 9, 1885, to January 24, 1894, when he resigned due to ill health. [1] [5] While in the Senate, he was chairman of the Committee on Military Affairs (Fifty-third Congress) and a member of the Committee on Revolutionary Claims (Fifty-fifth Congress). [5]

Walthall was again elected for the term beginning March 4, 1895, and served from that date until his death in Washington, D.C. on April 21, 1898. [1] [5] Funeral services were held in the Chamber of the United States Senate. [5] He was buried at the Hillcrest Cemetery in Holly Springs, Mississippi. [1] [6] [7]

Legacy

Walthall County, Mississippi is named after him.

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Eicher, John H., and David J. Eicher, Civil War High Commands. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN   978-0-8047-3641-1. p. 552.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 Warner, Ezra J. Generals in Gray: Lives of the Confederate Commanders. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1959. ISBN   978-0-8071-0823-9. p. 325.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 Sifakis, Stewart. Who Was Who in the Civil War. New York: Facts On File, 1988. ISBN   978-0816010554. p. 689.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Warner, 1959, p. 326.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Edward C. Walthall in The Biographical Directory of the United States Congress Retrieved on 2015-06-20.
  6. "Browse by Cemetery: Hill Crest Cemetery". Find a Grave . Retrieved September 12, 2015.
  7. The Biographical Directory of the United States Congress identifies the cemetery as Holly Springs Cemetery.

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References

U.S. Senate
Preceded by
Lucius Q. C. Lamar
U.S. Senator (Class 2) from Mississippi
1885–1894
Served alongside: James Z. George
Succeeded by
Anselm J. McLaurin
Preceded by
Anselm J. McLaurin
U.S. Senator (Class 2) from Mississippi
1895–1898
Served alongside: James Z. George, Hernando D. Money
Succeeded by
William V. Sullivan