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Edward Cardinal Egan
Cardinal, Archbishop Emeritus of New York
|See||New York (Emeritus)|
|Appointed||May 11, 2000|
|Installed||June 19, 2000|
|Term ended||February 23, 2009|
|Predecessor||John Joseph O'Connor|
|Successor||Timothy M. Dolan|
|Other posts||Cardinal-Priest of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo|
|Ordination||December 15, 1957|
by Martin John O'Connor
|Consecration||May 22, 1985|
by Bernardin Gantin
|Created cardinal||February 21, 2001|
by John Paul II
|Birth name||Edward Michael Egan|
|Born||April 2, 1932|
Oak Park, Illinois, US
|Died||March 5, 2015 82) (aged|
Manhattan, New York City, US
|Buried||St. Patrick's Cathedral, New York, New York, United States|
|Parents||Thomas J. and Genevieve Costello Egan|
|Motto||In the Holiness of Truth|
|Coat of arms|
Ordination history of
|Reference style||His Eminence|
|Spoken style||Your Eminence|
|See||New York (emeritus)|
Edward Michael Egan (April 2, 1932 – March 5, 2015) was an American Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Bishop of Bridgeport from 1988 to 2000, and as Archbishop of New York from 2000 to 2009. He was elevated to the cardinalate in 2001. He was the twelfth Bishop, ninth Archbishop, and seventh Cardinal of the See of New York.
Americans are nationals and citizens of the United States of America. Although nationals and citizens make up the majority of Americans, some dual citizens, expatriates, and permanent residents may also claim American nationality. The United States is home to people of many different ethnic origins. As a result, American culture and law does not equate nationality with race or ethnicity, but with citizenship and permanent allegiance.
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Bridgeport is located in the southwestern part of the state of Connecticut, and its boundaries are the same as that of Fairfield County, Connecticut. There are 82 parishes in the diocese. Its cathedral is St. Augustine in Bridgeport.
The Roman CatholicArchdiocese of New York is a Latin Catholic archdiocese in New York State. It encompasses the boroughs of Manhattan, the Bronx and Staten Island in New York City and the counties of Dutchess, Orange, Putnam, Rockland, Sullivan, Ulster, and Westchester in New York. The Archdiocese of New York is the second-largest diocese in the United States, encompassing 296 parishes that serve around 2.8 million Catholics in addition to hundreds of Catholic schools, hospitals and charities. The Archdiocese also operates the well-known St. Joseph's Seminary, commonly referred to as Dunwoodie. The Archdiocese of New York is the metropolitan see of the ecclesiastical province of New York which includes the suffragan dioceses of Albany, Brooklyn, Buffalo, Ogdensburg, Rochester, Rockville Centre and Syracuse.
The third of four children, Edward Egan was born in Oak Park, Illinois, the son of Thomas J. and Genevieve (née Costello) Egan. His father was a sales manager and his mother was a homemaker and former teacher; his parents' families were from County Mayo and County Clare, Ireland. In 1943, Egan and his older brother contracted polio, causing them to miss two years of school while convalescing at home.
Oak Park is a village adjacent to the West Side of Chicago, Illinois. It is the 29th largest municipality in Illinois as measured by population in the 2010 U.S. census. As of the 2010 United States Census the village had a population of 51,878.
A teacher is a person who helps others to acquire knowledge, competence or virtue.
County Mayo is a county in Ireland. In the West of Ireland, in the province of Connacht, it is named after the village of Mayo, now generally known as Mayo Abbey. Mayo County Council is the local authority. The population was 130,507 at the 2016 census. The boundaries of the county, which was formed in 1585, reflect the Mac William Íochtar lordship at that time.
He graduated from Archbishop Quigley Preparatory Seminary, where he had been student body president and editor of the student newspaper and yearbook, in 1951. Egan then entered St. Mary of the Lake Seminary, where he obtained a Bachelor's degree in philosophy. He was then sent to continue his formation for the priesthood at the Pontifical North American College in Rome, taking his academic courses in theology at the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome.
Archbishop Quigley Preparatory Seminary was an American seminary preparatory school administered by the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Chicago for young men considering the priesthood. Located in downtown Chicago at 103 East Chestnut Street, adjacent to Loyola University Chicago's Water Tower campus, it closed on 22 June 2007, and became the Archbishop Quigley Center, the pastoral center and headquarters of the archdiocese after renovations ending 19 November 2008. Between 1961 and 1990, the seminary was split into two campuses: Quigley South and Quigley North, with Quigley North housed at the original building. The south campus was closed in 1990, with all seminary operations returning to the original building.
A yearbook, also known as an annual, is a type of a book published annually to record, highlight, and commemorate the past year of a school. The term also refers to a book of statistics or facts published annually. A yearbook often has an overarching theme that is present throughout the entire book.
The University of Saint Mary of the Lake, also called Mundelein Seminary, is the principal seminary and school of theology for the formation of priests in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Chicago, governed from Chicago, Illinois, in the United States. It is recognized as the first institution of higher education in the City of Chicago. Chartered by the Illinois General Assembly in 1844, it has the longest continuous academic charter in the state of Illinois.
Egan was ordained to the priesthood by Archbishop Martin John O'Connor on December 15, 1957, and earned a Licentiate of Sacred Theology from the Gregorian in 1958. Upon his return to the United States, he served as associate pastor of Holy Name Cathedral, Chicago, assistant chancellor for the Archdiocese, and secretary to Cardinal Albert Gregory Meyer until 1960. During this time, he also taught evening classes for potential Catholic converts and served as a chaplain at Wesley Memorial Hospital.
Martin John O'Connor was an American prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as rector of the Pontifical North American College from 1946–1964 and president of the Pontifical Council for Social Communications from 1948–1971.
Licentiate of Sacred Theology (STL) is the second cycle of studies of a faculty of theology offered by pontifical universities or Ecclesiastical Faculties of sacred theology. An ecclesiastical faculty offers three cycles of study: baccalaureate or fundamentals, licentiate or specialized, and the doctorate. The licentiate is a graduate degree with canonical effects in the Roman Catholic Church. STL is the abbreviation of the Latin, sacrae theologiae licentiatus, which translates as "licentiate of sacred theology". "The academic degrees conferred by an ecclesiastical faculty are: Baccalaureate, Licentiate, and Doctorate".
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
In 1960, Egan returned to the Gregorian in Rome to pursue his doctorate. During his studies, he became assistant vice-rector and repetitor of moral theology and canon law at the Pontifical North American College. He received his doctorate in canon law summa cum laude in 1964. Egan, returning to the Archdiocese of Chicago, became secretary to John Cardinal Cody. As his secretary, he "saw Cardinal Cody take the heat for good causes" such as the Civil Rights Movement and desegregation.
A doctorate or doctor's degree or doctoral degree, is an academic degree awarded by universities, derived from the ancient formalism licentia docendi. In most countries, it is a research degree that qualifies the holder to teach at university level in the degree's field, or to work in a specific profession. There are a variety of names for doctoral degrees; the most common is the Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), which is awarded in many different fields, ranging from the humanities to scientific disciplines.
A rector is a senior official in an educational institution, and can refer to an official in either a university or a secondary school. Outside the English-speaking world the rector is often the most senior official in a university, whilst in the United States the most senior official is often referred to as President and in the United Kingdom and Commonwealth of Nations the most senior official is the Chancellor, whose office is primarily ceremonial and titular. The term and office of a rector can be referred to as a rectorate. The title is used widely in universities in Europe. and is very common in Latin American countries. It is also used in Brunei, Turkey, Russia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Indonesia, Israel and the Middle East. In the ancient universities of Scotland the office is sometimes referred to as Lord Rector, is the third most senior official, and is usually responsible for chairing the University Court.
A tutor, also called an academic tutor, is a person who provides assistance or tutelage to one or more people on certain subject areas or skills. The tutor spends a few hours on a daily, weekly, or monthly basis to transfer their expertise on the topic or skill to the student. Tutoring can take place in different settings, such as a classroom, a formal tutoring center, or the home of the tutor/learner. As a teaching-learning method, tutoring is characterized by how it differs from formal teaching methods on the basis of the (in)formality of the setting as well as the flexibility in pedagogical methods in terms of duration, pace of teaching, evaluation and tutor-tutee rapport.
Egan was later appointed Secretary of the Archdiocesan Commissions on Ecumenism and Human Relations, sitting on several interfaith organizations and establishing dialogue with Jews and Protestants alike. From 1969 to 1971, he served as co-chancellor for the Archdiocese. Egan once again returned to Rome in 1971, when Pope Paul VI named him an auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota. While serving on the Roman Rota, he was also a professor of canon law at the Gregorian and of civil and criminal procedure at the Studio Rotale. Egan served as a commissioner of the Congregation for the Sacraments and Divine Worship and a consultor of the Congregation for the Clergy as well. In 1982, he was chosen to be one of the six canonists who reviewed the new Code of Canon Law with Pope John Paul II before its promulgation in 1983.
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term dioikesis (διοίκησις) meaning "administration". Today, when used in an ecclesiastical sense, it refers to the ecclesiastical district under the jurisdiction of a bishop.
The Catholic Church has engaged in the modern ecumenical movement especially since the Second Vatican Council (1962-1965) and the issuing of the decree Unitatis redintegratio and the declaration Dignitatis humanae. It was at the Council that the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity was created. Before that time, those outside of the Catholic Church were categorised as heretics or schismatics.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively between 800 million and more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians. It originated with the 16th century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church. Protestants reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of papal supremacy and sacraments, but disagree among themselves regarding the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist. They emphasize the priesthood of all believers, justification by faith alone rather than by good works, and the highest authority of the Bible alone in faith and morals. The "five solae" summarise basic theological differences in opposition to the Roman Catholic Church.
On April 1, 1985, Egan was appointed Auxiliary Bishop of New York and Titular Bishop of Allegheny by John Paul II. He received his episcopal consecration in Rome on the following May 22 from Cardinal Bernardin Gantin, with Archbishop John Joseph O'Connor and Bishop John Richard Keating serving as co-consecrators. He selected as his episcopal motto: "In the Holiness of the Truth" (Ephesians 4:24). As an auxiliary, he served as Vicar for Education in the Archdiocese from 1985 to 1988.
Egan was later named the third Bishop of Bridgeport, Connecticut, on November 5, 1988. He was formally installed on December 14 of that year.
During his tenure, he oversaw the reorganization of Catholic schools. He also raised $45 million for diocesan schools through a fundraising campaign, "Faith in the Future." The diocesan Catholic Charities under his tenure became the largest private social service agency in Fairfield County. To support the 12 Hispanic parishes in the diocese, he brought Spanish-speaking priests to Bridgeport from Colombia. He also established a home for retired priests and a school for children with special needs.
Within the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, he served as Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Pontifical North American College and of the Committee on Science and Human Values. He was also a member of the Committee on Canonical Affairs, the Committee on Education, the Committee on National Collections, and the Committee on Nominations, and served two terms on the Conference's Administrative Board.
Egan was appointed Archbishop of New York on May 11, 2000, and installed in that position on June 19, 2000. Soprano Renée Fleming sang at the ceremony.
On becoming archbishop of New York, Egan made it a priority to encourage vocations to the priesthood. Besides private initiatives, each year on the Feast of St. Joseph (March 19) he offered a Mass to which high school and college men attracted to the priestly vocation were invited. He appointed two priests as vocation directors to aid him in promoting the vocation to the priesthood.
He was elevated to the Cardinalate by Pope John Paul II at the Consistory of February 21, 2001, becoming the Cardinal-Priest of Ss. Ioannis et Pauli (Sts. John and Paul). This was the same title held by all of the archbishops of New York since Cardinal Francis Spellman in 1946 was given the title by Pope Pius XII, who had held it himself when he was Cardinal Pacelli.
A main concern of the Cardinal was the archdiocesan seminary in Yonkers, New York. In March 2001, he announced his decision to restructure the seminary faculty. A Staten Island pastor, Monsignor Peter Finn, was chosen as seminary rector. Among others, the Cardinal added Avery Dulles, S.J., Sister Sara Butler, M.S.B.T., and Father John Augustine DiNoia, O.P., to the faculty. The minor seminary, then in Riverdale, New York was moved to the campus of the major seminary. To maintain regular contact with the seminarians, Egan invited them to serve his 10:15 am Mass at Saint Patrick's Cathedral on one Sunday each month, and afterward would meet with them in his residence. Moreover, each year, he personally led a day of prayer and reflection for the seminary students and faculty.
For the retired priests of the archdiocese, Egan established the John Cardinal O'Connor residence in the Riverdale section of the Bronx. In 2002 the "Institución del Mérito Humanitario" with its seat in Barcelona (Spain) awarded him with the "Gran Cruz al Mérito Humanitario". In 2002 Pope John Paul II named Egan, along with five other cardinals, to the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, the Church's highest court in matters of Canon Law. In addition to his native English, Egan spoke French, Italian, Latin, and Spanish.
In June 2003, Egan was accused of concealing the names of priests who have been accused of child molestation and found not guilty by the Church. His spokesman argued that the innocent should be protected, while groups such as Voice of the Faithful criticized the process as being out of the public view.
Egan was one of the cardinal electors who participated in the 2005 papal conclave that selected Pope Benedict XVI.
In December 2006, Egan began hosting a weekly program on The Catholic Channel of Sirius Satellite Radio in which he discussed a variety of topics, including events in the Archdiocese and issues in the Church. The station launched by the Cardinal's initiative also broadcast his Sunday Mass from the Cathedral. At other times, scheduled programs included news, human-interest stories and inspirational themes, reflections on Scripture, Catholic education, social ministry, sacred music, interviews, call-in, and spiritual guidance.
On January 19, 2007, after more than a year of careful study and consultation, Egan announced that ten parishes of the Archdiocese would be canonically suppressed and eleven would be merged with other parishes. At the same time, he made known that he had decided not to close or merge nine parishes and six missions originally recommended either for closing or merger. Moreover, five new parishes would be established, three in Orange County, and one each in Staten Island and Dutchess County due to population increases. Building projects were also approved for nine parishes.The closures caused some discontent.
On December 15, 2007, Egan celebrated his 50th anniversary as a priest. Pope Benedict XVI appointed him to the Congregation for the Oriental Churches on January 26, 2008. Egan then hosted the papal visit to New York during April 18–20, 2008. In January 2009, Egan publicly condemned controversial statements made by Society of Saint Pius X Bishop Richard Williamson about the Holocaust.
Egan, in keeping with the Code of Canon Law, offered his resignation as archbishop of New York to Pope Benedict XVI on April 2, 2007, when he reached 75 years of age. His resignation became official on February 23, 2009, when Pope Benedict XVI appointed Archbishop Timothy Dolan as his successor. Dolan took possession of the archdiocese on April 15, 2009. Egan was the first Archbishop of New York to retire; all previous Archbishops of New York had died in office, even after the introduction of the requirement for bishops to offer their resignation from their positions of pastoral care upon reaching age 75.
He was a member of the Board of Trustees at the Catholic University of America and a member of the Board of Governors at Ave Maria School of Law. He reached age 80 on April 2, 2012, and from then on ceased to be Cardinal-elector.
Egan was admitted to St. Vincent's Hospital on April 4, 2009, after experiencing stomach pains.After undergoing various tests, he was released from the hospital on April 7, and was later given a pacemaker in a low-risk surgery. He was well enough to preside over the following liturgical services for Holy Week.
Cardinal Egan died, shortly after eating lunch, at his residence at the Chapel of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary, on Thursday, March 5, 2015, having been rushed to NYU Langone Medical Center in Manhattan, New York City, after suffering cardiac arrest. He was pronounced dead at 2:20 PM.Before his death, he had been given the sacraments by his priest secretary, Father Douglas Crawford. His death was publicly announced by his successor, Cardinal Timothy Dolan. Many other bishops released statements mourning Egan's abrupt death.
Pope Francis, in an official telegram of condolence from the Vatican, stated: "To Cardinal Timothy M. Dolan, Archbishop of New York: Having learned with sadness of the death of Cardinal Edward M. Egan, Archbishop Emeritus of New York, I offer heartfelt condolences to you and to the faithful of the Archdiocese. I join you in commending the late Cardinal's noble soul to God, the father of mercies, with gratitude for his years of episcopal ministry in Christ's flock in Bridgeport and New York, his distinguished service to the Apostolic See, and his expert contribution to the revision of the Church's law in the years following the Second Vatican Council. To all assembled in Saint Patrick's Cathedral, and to all those who mourn Cardinal Egan in the sure hope of Christ's Resurrection, I cordially impart my Apostolic Blessing as a pledge of consolation and peace in the Lord. – Francis, Pp."
The Mayor of New York City, Bill de Blasio, released an official statement of condolence: "Chirlane and I are saddened to learn of the death of Edward Cardinal Egan. He was a generous man who committed his life to serving others. His compassion was reflected in his deeds, and his ability to inspire those around him. As Archbishop-Emeritus, 12th bishop and 9th archbishop and 7th Cardinal of the See of New York, Cardinal Egan spread love and knowledge, and brought comfort to countless New Yorkers and others across the country and the world who sought his guidance and counsel – especially in the aftermath of 9/11. On behalf of all New Yorkers, Chirlane and I extend our deepest sympathies to Cardinal Egan's family and his extended family at the Archdiocese of New York."
The Governor of New York, Andrew Cuomo, also released an official statement of condolence: "I am deeply saddened to learn of the passing of Edward Cardinal Egan. Throughout his life, Cardinal Egan encouraged others to devote themselves to the greater good. His thoughtful and compassionate stewardship helped New Yorkers grieve and recover following the events of September 11, 2001. Cardinal Egan had a powerful and positive impact on our state and the world that will continue to be felt for years to come. On behalf of all New Yorkers, I extend my deepest condolences to the Cardinal's family and friends, as well as the greater Catholic community throughout New York State."
In a strongly worded article published next to a photo of an unborn baby in the womb, Edward Cardinal Egan compared tolerating abortions to the reasoning used by Adolf Hitler and Joseph Stalin to commit mass murders.With regard to self-professed Catholic politicians who support abortion, Egan adhered to the Church's discipline of forbidding Holy Communion to such persons due to the public scandal. In April 2008, after newspapers had published photographs of former Mayor of New York Rudolph Giuliani receiving Communion at a Mass in St. Patrick's Cathedral offered by Pope Benedict XVI, Egan issued a public statement:
The Catholic Church clearly teaches that abortion is a grave offense against the will of God. Throughout my years as Archbishop of New York, I have repeated this teaching in sermons, articles, addresses, and interviews without hesitation or compromise of any kind. Thus it was that I had an understanding with Mr. Rudolph Giuliani, when I became Archbishop of New York and he was serving as Mayor of New York, that he was not to receive the Eucharist because of his well-known support of abortion. I deeply regret that Mr. Giuliani received the Eucharist during the Papal visit here in New York, and I will be seeking a meeting with him to insist that he abide by our understanding.
Edward Cardinal Egan assailed the notion of gay marriage and criticized Hollywood for "desecrating" marriage and destroying "something sacred and holy." Egan said the specter of legal same-sex marriage would have a devastating effect on traditional values already eroded by a crude pop culture, the Daily News reported.
The Connecticut Supreme Court ruled in May 2009 that records detailing allegations of sexual abuse by priests in the Diocese of Bridgeport should be released. The court's 4-1 ruling covers more than 12,600 pages of documents from 23 lawsuits against six priests that have been under seal since the Roman Catholic Diocese of Bridgeport settled the cases in 2001.
In April 2002, in a letter read out at Mass, Egan apologized saying, "If in hindsight we also discover that mistakes may have been made as regards prompt removal of priests and assistance to victims, I am deeply sorry."Ten years later, in February 2012, the retired archbishop retracted his apology. In an interview with Connecticut magazine he said: "I never should have said that," and "I don't think we did anything wrong." He repeatedly denied any sexual abuse happened while he was leading Bridgeport diocese.
In August 2018, Father Boniface Ramsey said that he once tried to speak with Egan concerning the sexual activities of then-cardinal Theodore McCarrick, who after Egan's death was publicly accused of sexual misconduct against seminarians and minors, but that Egan "didn't want to hear it."McCarrick maintained his innocence but the Vatican found him guilty and dismissed him from the clergy.
In a radio interview given on March 10, 2009, Egan stated that clerical celibacy in the Latin Rite could be open to discussion.He added, "I think it has to be looked at, and I'm not so sure it wouldn't be a good idea to decide on the basis of geography and culture—not to make an across-the-board determination." He further noted that Eastern Rite priests are allowed to marry, with "no problem at all." Egan later moderated his statement, saying, "Celibacy is one of the Church's greatest blessings. I will have to be more careful about trying to explain a somewhat complicated matter in 90 seconds."
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Chicago was established as a diocese in 1843 and elevated to an archdiocese in 1880. It serves the more than 2.3 million Catholics in Cook and Lake counties in Northeastern Illinois, in the United States, an area of 1,411 square miles (3,650 km2). The archdiocese is divided into six vicariates and 31 deaneries.
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