Edward Foxe

Last updated

Edward Foxe
Bishop of Hereford
Church Church of England
Diocese Diocese of Hereford
In office1535–1538
Predecessor Charles Booth
Successor Edmund Bonner
Other posts Archdeacon of Leicester, Archdeacon of Dorset, Dean of Salisbury
Personal details
Born1496
Dursley Gloucestershire
Died8 May 1538 (age 41–42)
Buried St Mary Mounthaw London
Alma mater King's College Cambridge

Edward Foxe (c. 1496 – 8 May 1538) was an English churchman, Bishop of Hereford. He played a major role in Henry VIII's divorce from Catherine of Aragon, and he assisted in drafting the Ten Articles of 1536.

England Country in north-west Europe, part of the United Kingdom

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to the west and Scotland to the north-northwest. The Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, and includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.

Bishop of Hereford Diocesan bishop in the Church of England

The Bishop of Hereford is the ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Hereford in the Province of Canterbury.

Catherine of Aragon first wife of Henry VIII of England

Catherine of Aragon was Queen of England from June 1509 until May 1533 as the first wife of King Henry VIII; she was previously Princess of Wales as the wife of Henry's elder brother Arthur.

Contents

Early life

He was born at Dursley in Gloucestershire, and may have been related to Richard Fox, Bishop of Exeter and Lord Privy Seal under King Henry VII. [1] Foxe was educated at Eton College and at King's College, Cambridge. [2] After graduating in 1520, he was made secretary to Cardinal Wolsey in 1527. In 1528 he was sent with Bishop Stephen Gardiner to Rome to obtain from Pope Clement VII a decretal commission for the trial and decision of the case between King Henry VIII and his first wife, Catherine of Aragon. [1]

Dursley town and civil parish in southern Gloucestershire, England

Dursley is a market town and civil parish in southern Gloucestershire, England, situated almost equidistantly between the cities of Bristol and Gloucester. It is under the northeast flank of Stinchcombe Hill, and about 3 34 miles (6.0 km) southeast of the River Severn. The town is adjacent to Cam which, though a village, is a slightly larger community in its own right.

Gloucestershire County of England

Gloucestershire is a county in South West England. The county comprises part of the Cotswold Hills, part of the flat fertile valley of the River Severn, and the entire Forest of Dean.

Bishop of Exeter Diocesan bishop in the Church of England

The Bishop of Exeter is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Exeter in the Province of Canterbury. The current incumbent, since 30 April 2014, is Robert Atwell. The incumbent signs his name as his Christian name or forename followed by Exon., abbreviated from the Latin Episcopus Exoniensis.

Academic career

Foxe served as Provost of King's College from 22 September 1528 until 8 May 1538, and in August 1529 was the means of conveying to the king Thomas Cranmer's historic advice that he should apply to the universities of Europe rather than to the pope. [3] After a brief mission to Paris in October 1529, Foxe in January 1530 befriended Hugh Latimer at Cambridge and took an active part in persuading the English universities to decide in the king's favour. He was sent to employ similar methods of persuasion at the French universities in 1530–1531, and was also engaged in negotiating a closer league between England and France. [4]

A provost is the senior academic administrator at many institutions of higher education in the United States and Canada, the equivalent of a pro-vice-chancellor at some institutions in the United Kingdom and Ireland, or a deputy (vice-)chancellor (academic) at most Australian universities.

Thomas Cranmer 16th-century English Archbishop of Canterbury and Protestant reformer

Thomas Cranmer was a leader of the English Reformation and Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI and, for a short time, Mary I. He helped build the case for the annulment of Henry's marriage to Catherine of Aragon, which was one of the causes of the separation of the English Church from union with the Holy See. Along with Thomas Cromwell, he supported the principle of Royal Supremacy, in which the king was considered sovereign over the Church within his realm.

Paris Capital of France

Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, diplomacy, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts.

Clerical career

Foxe served as the king's almoner c. 1532 – 1537, and as prolocutor of convocation in April 1533 when it decided against the validity of Henry's marriage with Catherine. In 1534 he published his treatise De vera differentia regiae potestatis et ecclesiae, defending the Royal Supremacy by use of the documents collated in the Collectanea satis copiosa . [5] Various ecclesiastical preferments were now granted him, including the archdeaconry of Leicester (1531–1535), the archdeaconry of Dorset (1533–1535), the deanery of Salisbury (1533) and the bishopric of Hereford (1535). He was nominated to the See of Hereford on 20 August 1535, elected by the college of Hereford on 25 August, confirmed on 15 September, and ordained a bishop on 26 September 1535; he received the temporalities on 7 September and the spiritualities on 14 October 1535. [6]

Almoner chaplain in charge of assisting the poor

An almoner is a chaplain or church officer who originally was in charge of distributing money to the deserving poor. The title almoner has to some extent fallen out of use in English, but its equivalents in other languages are often used for many pastoral functions exercised by chaplains or pastors. The word derives from the Ancient Greek: ἐλεημοσύνη eleēmosynē (alms), via the popular Latin almosinarius.

A prolocutor is a chairman of some ecclesiastical assemblies in Anglicanism.

The Convocations of Canterbury and York are the synodical assemblies of the bishops and clergy of each of the two provinces which comprise the Church of England. Their origins go back to the ecclesiastical reorganisation carried out under Archbishop Theodore of Canterbury (668-90) and the establishment of a separate northern province in 733. Until 1225 the synods were composed entirely of bishops, but during the thirteenth century more and more clergy were cited until by 1283 the membership was established as the bishops, deans, archdeacons and abbots of each province together with one proctor (representative) from each cathedral chapter and two proctors elected by the clergy of each diocese. The main purpose of the convocations was to take counsel for the well-being of the church and to approve canonical legislation, but in practice much time was spent in discussing the amount of tax to be paid to the Crown since the clergy were a separate estate of the realm and refused to be taxed in or through Parliament. Before the end of the nineteenth century, the Convocation of Canterbury, which was numerically very much larger, played the major role and the activity of the Convocation of York was often little more than giving formal approval to the decisions taken by the southern province.

In 1535–36 he was sent to Germany to discuss the basis of a political and theological understanding with the Lutheran princes and divines, and had several interviews with Martin Luther, who could not be persuaded of the justice of Henry VIII's divorce. [4] Henry was unwilling to endorse the Augsburg Confession and, in 1536, the Wittenberg articles were drafted by Foxe and Lutheran clergymen as a compromise. The articles met strong opposition within convocation in June of the same year, leading Henry to personally intervene to bring about an agreement. This led to the drafting and passing of the Ten Articles by convocation. [7] In 1536, Martin Bucer dedicated his Commentaries on the Gospels to Foxe.

Germany Federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe

Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, and the Alps, Lake Constance and the High Rhine to the south. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, and Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands to the west.

Martin Luther Saxon priest, monk and theologian, seminal figure in Protestant Reformation

Martin Luther, was a German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk, and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation.

Augsburg Confession primary confession of faith of the Lutheran Church and one of the most important documents of the Protestant Reformation

The Augsburg Confession, also known as the Augustan Confession or the Augustana from its Latin name, Confessio Augustana, is the primary confession of faith of the Lutheran Church and one of the most important documents of the Protestant Reformation. The Augsburg Confession was written in both German and Latin and was presented by a number of German rulers and free-cities at the Diet of Augsburg on 25 June 1530.

Death and legacy

Foxe died on 8 May 1538 and was buried in the church of St Mary Mounthaw, London. Foxe is credited with the authorship of several proverbial sayings, such as "the surest way to peace is a constant preparedness for war" and "time and I will challenge any two in the world." However, the former is a paraphrase of si vis pacem, para bellum , while the latter is more usually ascribed to Philip II of Spain. [4]

St Mary Mounthaw Church in London

St Mary Mounthaw or Mounthaut was a parish church in Old Fish Street Hill in the City of London. Of medieval origin, it was destroyed in the Great Fire of London in 1666 and not rebuilt.

London Capital of the United Kingdom

London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile (80 km) estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans. The City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles (2.9 km2) and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow closely its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is also an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly.

<i>Si vis pacem, para bellum</i> Latin adage translated as, "If you want peace, prepare for war"

Si vis pacem, para bellum is a Latin adage translated as "If you want peace, prepare for war". The phrase is used above all to affirm that one of the most effective means to ensure peace for a people is always to be armed and ready to defend oneself.

Related Research Articles

Thomas Cromwell English statesman and chief minister to King Henry VIII of England

Thomas Cromwell, 1st Earl of Essex, was an English lawyer and statesman who served as chief minister to King Henry VIII of England from 1532 to 1540, when he was beheaded on orders of the king.

Thirty-nine Articles doctrinal statement of the Church of England and other Anglican churches

The Thirty-nine Articles of Religion are the historically defining statements of doctrines and practices of the Church of England with respect to the controversies of the English Reformation. The Thirty-nine Articles form part of the Book of Common Prayer used by both the Church of England and the Episcopal Church. Several versions are available online.

Hugh Latimer British bishop

Hugh Latimer was a Fellow of Clare College, Cambridge, and Bishop of Worcester before the Reformation, and later Church of England chaplain to King Edward VI. In 1555 under the Catholic Queen Mary he was burned at the stake, becoming one of the three Oxford Martyrs of Anglicanism.

First Succession Act

The First Succession Act of Henry VIII's reign was passed by the Parliament of England in March 1534. The Act was formally titled the Succession to the Crown Act 1533, or the Act of Succession 1533; it is often dated as 1534, as it was passed in that calendar year. However, the legal calendar in use at that time dated the beginning of the year as March 25, and so considered the Act as being in 1533.

Richard Foxe 15th and 16th-century Bishop of Bath and Wells, Exeter, Durham, and Winchester

Richard Foxe was an English churchman, successively Bishop of Exeter, Bath and Wells, Durham, and Winchester, Lord Privy Seal, and founder of Corpus Christi College, Oxford.

John Stokesley was an English church leader who was Catholic Bishop of London during the reign of Henry VIII.

Lorenzo Campeggio Catholic cardinal

Lorenzo Campeggio (1474–1539) was an Italian cardinal and politician. He was the last cardinal protector of England.

Nicholas West Bishop of Ely

Nicholas West, was an English bishop and diplomatist, born at Putney, and educated at Eton and at King's College, Cambridge, of which he became a fellow in 1486. He also had periods of study at Oxford and Bologna.

The Submission of the Clergy was a process by which the Catholic Church in England gave up their power to formulate church laws without the King's licence and assent. It was passed first by the Convocation of Canterbury in 1532 and then by the Reformation Parliament in 1534. Along with other Acts passed by the Parliament, it further separated the Church from Rome.

Nicholas Shaxton was an English Reformer and Bishop of Salisbury.

Events from the 1530s in England.

Francis Mallet was an English churchman and academic, and chaplain to Mary Tudor.

John Hilsey was an English Dominican, prior provincial of his order, then an agent of Henry VIII and his church reformation, and Bishop of Rochester.

Sir Thomas LeighorLegh (?1511-1545) was an English jurist and diplomat, who played a key role as agent of Henry VIII and Thomas Cromwell in the Dissolution of the Monasteries.

Dr Richard Gwent was a senior ecclesiastical jurist, pluralist cleric and administrator through the period of the Dissolution of the Monasteries under Henry VIII. Of south Welsh origins, as a Doctor of both laws in the University of Oxford he rose swiftly to become Dean of the Arches and Archdeacon of London and of Brecon, and later of Huntingdon. He became an important figure in the operations of Thomas Cromwell, and as Commissary and legal draftsman to Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury. He was an advocate on behalf of Katherine of Aragon in the proceedings against her, and helped to deliver the decree of annulment against Anne of Cleves.

Peter Vannes was an Italian Catholic churchman who became a royal official in England, and Dean of Salisbury.

Simon Haynes or Heynes was Dean of Exeter between 1537 and 1552.

Richard Woleman or Wolman was an English churchman, Archdeacon of Sudbury from 1522; and the Dean of Wells between 1529 and 1537.

William Buckmaster was an English cleric and academic, three times vice-chancellor of the University of Cambridge.

Nicholas Hawkins, LL.D. (c.1495–1534) was an English cleric and diplomat.

References

  1. 1 2 Wikisource-logo.svg Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Fox, Edward"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . 10 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 765.
  2. "Fox, Edward (FS512E)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
  3. Andrew A. Chibi, ‘Fox, Edward (1496–1538)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, Jan 2008 accessed 24 March 2017
  4. 1 2 3 Wikisource-logo.svg One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Fox, Edward"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . 10 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 765.
  5. Haigh, Christopher (1993). English reformations : religion, politics, and society under the Tudors (Reprinted. ed.). Oxford: Clarendon Press. p. 122. ISBN   0198221622.
  6. Horn, Joyce M., ed. (1962), Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1300–1541, 2, pp. 1–3
  7. Haigh, Christopher (1993). English reformations : religion, politics, and society under the Tudors (Reprinted. ed.). Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 126–28. ISBN   0198221622.
Academic offices
Preceded by
Robert Hacomblen
Provost of King's College, Cambridge
1528–1538
Succeeded by
George Day
Church of England titles
Preceded by
Charles Booth
Bishop of Hereford
1535–1538
Succeeded by
Edmund Bonner