Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon

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The Earl of Clarendon
JP PC
Peter Lely (1618-1680) (after) - Sir Edward Hyde (1609-1674), 1st Earl of Clarendon - 1257076 - National Trust.jpg
Portrait by Peter Lely
First Lord of the Treasury
In office
19 June 1660 8 September 1660
Arms of Edward Hyde, Earl of Clarendon: Quarterly, 1st and 4th: Azure, a chevron between three lozenges Or (Hyde); 2nd: Paly of six or and gules a bend azure (Langford); 3rd: Azure, a cross argent (Aylesbury). Earl of Clarendon Arms.svg
Arms of Edward Hyde, Earl of Clarendon: Quarterly, 1st and 4th: Azure, a chevron between three lozenges Or (Hyde); 2nd: Paly of six or and gules a bend azure (Langford); 3rd: Azure, a cross argent (Aylesbury).

The rest of Clarendon's life was passed in exile. He left Calais for Rouen on 25 December, returning on 21 January 1668, visiting the baths of Bourbon in April, thence to Avignon in June, residing from July 1668 till June 1671 at Montpellier, whence he proceeded to Moulins and to Rouen again in May 1674. His sudden banishment entailed great personal hardships. His health at the time of his flight was much impaired, and on arriving at Calais he fell dangerously ill; and Louis XIV, anxious at this time to gain popularity in England, sent him peremptory and repeated orders to quit France. He suffered severely from gout, and during the greater part of his exile could not walk without the aid of two men. At Évreux, on 23 April 1668, he was the victim of a murderous assault by English sailors, who attributed to him the non-payment of their wages, and who were on the point of despatching him when he was rescued by the guard. For some time he was not allowed to see any of his children; even correspondence with him was rendered treasonable by the Act of Banishment; and it was not apparently until 1671, 1673, and 1674 that he received visits from his sons, the younger, Lawrence Hyde, being present with him at his death. [42]

He spent his exile updating and expanding his History, the classic account of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, [42] and for which he is chiefly remembered today. The sale proceeds from this book were instrumental in building the Clarendon Building and Clarendon Fund at Oxford University Press. [43]

He died in Rouen, France, on 9 December 1674. Shortly after his death, his body was returned to England, and he was buried in a private ceremony in Westminster Abbey on 4 January 1675. [44]

Portrayals in drama and fiction

Nigel Bruce played Sir Edward Hyde in the 1947 film The Exile , with Douglas Fairbanks, Jr. as Charles II.

In the film Cromwell , Clarendon (called only Sir Edward Hyde in the film), is portrayed by Nigel Stock as a sympathetic, conflicted man torn between Parliament and the king. He finally turns against Charles I altogether when the king pretends to accept Cromwell's terms of peace but secretly and treacherously plots to raise a Catholic army against Parliament and start a second civil war. Clarendon reluctantly, but bravely, gives testimony at the king's trial which is instrumental in condemning him to death.

In the 2003 BBC TV mini-series ' Charles II: The Power and The Passion , Clarendon was played by actor Ian McDiarmid. The series portrayed Clarendon (referred to as 'Sir Edward Hyde' throughout) as acting in a paternalistic fashion towards Charles II, something the king comes to dislike. It is also intimated that he had arranged the marriage of Charles and Catherine of Braganza already knowing that she was infertile so that his granddaughters through his daughter Anne Hyde (who had married the future James II) would eventually inherit the throne of England.

In the 2004 film Stage Beauty , starring Billy Crudup and Claire Danes, Clarendon (again referred to simply as Edward Hyde) is played by Edward Fox.

In fiction, Clarendon is a minor character in An Instance of the Fingerpost by Iain Pears, and he is also a recurring character in the Thomas Chaloner series of mystery novels by Susanna Gregory; both authors show him in a fairly sympathetic light.

Bibliography

See also

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References

  1. "Edward Hyde & family". Westminster Abbey. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  2. "Henry Hyde, MP". Geni.com. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  3. Seaward 2008.
  4. Wagner 1958, p. [ page needed ].
  5. 1 2 3 4 Chisholm 1911, p. 428.
  6. Naylor 1983.
  7. Chisholm 1911 , p. 428 cites Life, i., 25
  8. Hyde 2009, p. 440.
  9. Hugh Trevor-Roper "The Great Tew Circle" in "Catholics, Anglicans and Puritans-Seventeenth-century essays" Secker and Warburg 1987 reprinted Fontana 1989 p.166
  10. Ollard 1987, p. 20.
  11. 1 2 Ollard 1987, p. 43.
  12. Willis 1750, pp. 229–239.
  13. Holmes 2007, p. 44.
  14. Firth 1891 , p. 372 cites Life, ii. 14, 15; cf. Gardiner, x. 169.
  15. Firth 1891 , p. 373 cites Life, ii. 77; Black, Oxford Docquets, p. 351.
  16. Hyde 2009, p. 182.
  17. Hutton 2004.
  18. Hyde 2009, p. 231.
  19. Hyde 2009, p. 335.
  20. Firth 1891 , p. 376 cites Lister , i. p. 441.
  21. Eales 2019.
  22. 1 2 Ollard 1987, p. 226.
  23. Firth 1891 , p. 378 cites Lister , ii. p. 81
  24. Firth 1891 , p. 385 cites Kennett, Register, pp. 294, 310, 378; Macray, Annals of the Bodleian Library, ed. 1890, p. 462.
  25. Firth 1891, p. 382.
  26. Wheatley, Henry Benjamin Round about Piccadilly and Pall Mall (1870) Reprinted by Cambridge University Press 2011 p.85
  27. Ollard 1987, p. 341.
  28. Kenyon 1978, p. 215.
  29. Firth 1891, p. 379.
  30. Wheatley p.85
  31. Ollard 1987, p. 266.
  32. Ollard 1987, p. 276.
  33. Antonia Fraser King Charles II Mandarin Edition 1993 p.253
  34. Ollard 1987, p. 270.
  35. Diary of Samuel Pepys 2 September 1667
  36. Ollard goes so far as to say that Clarendon detested William Coventry- Clarendon and his Friends (1987) p.272
  37. Fraser, Antonia King Charles II p.251
  38. Fraser p.254
  39. Ollard 1987, p. 348.
  40. Clarendon & Rochester 1828, p. 285.
  41. Maclagan & Louda 1999, p. 27.
  42. 1 2 Chisholm 1911, p. 432.
  43. Trevor-Roper 1979, pp. 73–79.
  44. Firth 1891, p. 384.

[1]

Sources

Attribution

Bibliography

Parliament of England
Preceded by
Parliament suspended since 1629
Member of Parliament for Shaftesbury
1640
With: William Whitaker
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Parliament suspended since 1629
Member of Parliament for Wootton Bassett
1640
With: Sir Thomas Windebanke, 1st Baronet
Succeeded by
Preceded by Member of Parliament for Saltash
1640–1642
With: George Buller (MP)
Succeeded by
Political offices
Preceded by Chancellor of the Exchequer
1643–1646
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Vacant – last held by Sir Edward Herbert
Lord Chancellor
1658–1667
Succeeded by
Orlando Bridgeman
(Lord Keeper)
Preceded by
The Lord Cottington
(Lord High Treasurer)
First Lord of the Treasury
1660
Succeeded by
The Earl of Southampton
(Lord High Treasurer)
Preceded by
Interregnum
Chancellor of the Exchequer
1660–1661
Succeeded by
Academic offices
Preceded by Chancellor of the University of Oxford
1660–1667
Succeeded by
Honorary titles
Preceded by Lord Lieutenant of Oxfordshire
1663–1668
Succeeded by
Vacant
Title last held by
The Duke of Ormonde
Lord High Steward
1666
Vacant
Title next held by
The Lord Finch
Preceded by Lord Lieutenant of Wiltshire
1667–1668
Succeeded by
Peerage of England
New creation Earl of Clarendon
1661–1674
Succeeded by
Baron Hyde
1660–1674
  1. BCW Project. "Sir Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon, 1609-74". BCW Project.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)