Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby

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The Earl of Derby

Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby-1865.jpg
Lord Derby in 1865
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
In office
28 June 1866 25 February 1868
Monarch Victoria
Preceded by Lord John Russell
Succeeded by Benjamin Disraeli
In office
20 February 1858 11 June 1859
Monarch Victoria
Preceded by Lord Palmerston
Succeeded byLord Palmerston
In office
23 February 1852 17 December 1852
Monarch Victoria
Preceded by Lord John Russell
Succeeded by The Earl of Aberdeen
Leader of the Opposition
In office
11 June 1859 28 June 1866
Monarch Victoria
Prime Minister
Preceded by Lord Palmerston
Succeeded by Lord John Russell
In office
19 December 1852 20 February 1858
Monarch Victoria
Prime Minister
Preceded by Lord John Russell
Succeeded by Lord Palmerston
Leader of the Conservative Party
In office
29 June 1846 27 February 1868
Preceded by Sir Robert Peel
Succeeded by Benjamin Disraeli
Secretary of State for War and the Colonies
In office
3 September 1841 23 December 1845
Prime Minister Sir Robert Peel
Preceded by Lord John Russell
Succeeded by William Ewart Gladstone
In office
3 April 1833 5 June 1834
Prime Minister The Earl Grey
Preceded by The Viscount Goderich
Succeeded by Thomas Spring Rice
Chief Secretary for Ireland
In office
29 November 1830 29 March 1833
Prime Minister The Earl Grey
Preceded by Sir Henry Hardinge
Succeeded by Sir John Hobhouse, Bt
Under-Secretary of State for War and the Colonies
In office
31 August 1827 21 January 1828
Prime Minister The Viscount Goderich
Preceded by R. W. Horton
Succeeded by Lord Leveson-Gower
Personal details
Born(1799-03-29)29 March 1799
Knowsley Hall, Knowsley, Lancashire, England
Died23 October 1869(1869-10-23) (aged 70)
Knowsley Hall, Knowsley, Lancashire, England
NationalityBritish
Political party Conservative
Other political
affiliations
Whig (before 1841)
Spouse(s)
Children3, including Edward and Frederick
Parents Edward Smith-Stanley, 13th Earl of Derby (father)
Alma mater Christ Church, Oxford
Signature Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby Signature.svg

Edward George Geoffrey Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, KG , GCMG , PC , PC (Ire) (29 March 1799 – 23 October 1869) was a British statesman, three-time Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and, to date, the longest-serving leader of the Conservative Party. He was known before 1834 as Edward Stanley, and from 1834 to 1851 as Lord Stanley. He is one of only four British prime ministers to have three or more separate periods in office. [1] However, his ministries each lasted less than two years and totalled three years and 280 days.

Privy Council of the United Kingdom Formal body of advisers to the sovereign in the United Kingdom

Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, usually known simply as the Privy Council of the United Kingdom or just the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. Its membership mainly comprises senior politicians who are current or former members of either the House of Commons or the House of Lords.

The Privy Council of Ireland was an institution of the Kingdom of Ireland until 31 December 1800 and of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 1801 to 1922. It performed a similar role in the Dublin Castle administration in Ireland to that of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom in the government of the United Kingdom.

Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Head of UK Government

The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, until 1801 known as the Prime Minister of Great Britain, is the head of government of the United Kingdom. The Prime Minister directs both the executive and the legislature, and together with their Cabinet are collectively accountable for their policies and actions to the Monarch, to Parliament, to their political party and ultimately to the electorate. The office of Prime Minister is one of the Great Offices of State. The current holder of the office, Theresa May, leader of the Conservative Party, was appointed by the Queen on 13 July 2016. May resigned as Conservative Party leader on 7 June 2019, remaining as Prime Minister until a new Prime Minister is appointed.

Contents

Historian Frances Walsh has written that it was Derby:

who educated the party and acted as its strategist to pass the last great Whig measure, the 1867 Reform Act. It was his greatest achievement to create the modern Conservative Party in the framework of the Whig constitution, though it was Disraeli who laid claim to it. [2]

The Whigs were a political faction and then a political party in the parliaments of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland and the United Kingdom. Between the 1680s and 1850s, they contested power with their rivals, the Tories. The Whigs' origin lay in constitutional monarchism and opposition to absolute monarchy. The Whigs played a central role in the Glorious Revolution of 1688 and were the standing enemies of the Stuart kings and pretenders, who were Roman Catholic. The Whigs took full control of the government in 1715 and remained totally dominant until King George III, coming to the throne in 1760, allowed Tories back in. The Whig Supremacy (1715–1760) was enabled by the Hanoverian succession of George I in 1714 and the failed Jacobite rising of 1715 by Tory rebels. The Whigs thoroughly purged the Tories from all major positions in government, the army, the Church of England, the legal profession and local offices. The Party's hold on power was so strong and durable, historians call the period from roughly 1714 to 1783 the age of the Whig Oligarchy. The first great leader of the Whigs was Robert Walpole, who maintained control of the government through the period 1721–1742 and whose protégé Henry Pelham led from 1743 to 1754.

Reform Act 1867 United Kingdom legislation

The Representation of the People Act 1867, 30 & 31 Vict. c. 102 was a piece of British legislation that enfranchised part of the urban male working class in England and Wales for the first time. It took effect in stages over the next two years, culminating in full enactment on January 1, 1869.

Background and education

Stanley was born to Lord Stanley (later the 13th Earl of Derby) and his wife, Charlotte Margaret (née  Hornby), the daughter of the Reverend Geoffrey Hornby. The Stanleys were a long-established and very wealthy landowning family whose principal residence was Knowsley Hall in Lancashire. Stanley was educated at Eton College and at Christ Church, Oxford.

Edward Smith-Stanley, 13th Earl of Derby British politician

Edward Smith-Stanley, 13th Earl of Derby, KG, of Knowsley Hall in Lancashire, was a politician, peer, landowner, builder, farmer, art collector, and naturalist. He was the patron of the writer Edward Lear.

Knowsley Hall

Knowsley Hall is a stately home near Liverpool in the Metropolitan Borough of Knowsley, Merseyside, England. Since 1953 it has been designated a Grade II* listed building, and is the ancestral home of the Stanley family, the Earls of Derby. The hall is surrounded by 2,500 acres (10 km2) of parkland, which contains the Knowsley Safari Park. Though the hall is still owned by the Stanley family, and remains the seat of the Earldom of Derby, it is no longer a family home and instead used for functions such as corporate events, conferences and weddings.

Eton College British independent boarding school located in Eton

Eton College is a 13–18 independent boarding school and sixth form for boys in the parish of Eton, near Windsor in Berkshire, England. It was founded in 1440 by King Henry VI as Kynge's College of Our Ladye of Eton besyde Windesore , as a sister institution to King's College, Cambridge, making it the 18th-oldest Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference school.

Early political career, 1822–52

In 1822 Edward Stanley, as he was then, was elected to Parliament in the rotten borough of Stockbridge as a Whig, the traditional party of his family. [3] In 1824, however, he alienated some of his Whig colleagues by voting against Joseph Hume's motion for an investigation into the established Protestant Church of Ireland. [4] When the Whigs returned to power in 1830, Stanley became Chief Secretary for Ireland in Lord Grey's Government, and entered the Cabinet in 1831. As Chief Secretary Stanley pursued a series of coercive measures which frequently brought him into conflict with the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, Lord Anglesey. [5] In October 1831, Stanley wrote a letter, the Stanley Letter, to the Duke of Leinster establishing the system of National Education in Ireland. This letter remains today the legal basis for the predominant form of primary education in Ireland.[ citation needed ] In 1833, Stanley moved up to the more important position of Secretary of State for War and the Colonies, overseeing the passage of the Abolition of Slavery Bill. [6]

Stockbridge, Hampshire town and civil parish in west Hampshire, England

Stockbridge is a small town and civil parish in the Test Valley district of Hampshire, England. It is one of the smallest towns in the United Kingdom with a population of 592 as of the 2011 census. It sits astride the River Test and at the foot of Stockbridge Down.

Joseph Hume Scottish surgeon and Radical politician

Joseph Hume FRS was a Scottish doctor and Radical MP.

Church of Ireland Anglican church in Ireland

The Church of Ireland is a Christian church in Ireland and an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion. It is organised on an all-Ireland basis and is the second largest Christian church on the island after the Catholic Church. Like other Anglican churches, it has retained elements of pre-Reformation practice, notably its episcopal polity, while rejecting the primacy of the Pope. In theological and liturgical matters, it incorporates many principles of the Reformation, particularly those espoused during the English Reformation. The church self-identifies as being both Catholic and Reformed. Within the church, differences exist between those members who are more Catholic-leaning and those who are more Protestant-leaning (evangelical). For historical and cultural reasons, the Church of Ireland is generally identified as a Protestant church.

Stanley, a conservative Whig, broke with the ministry over the reform of the Church of Ireland in 1834 and resigned from the government. He then formed a group called the "Derby Dilly" and attempted to chart a middle course between what they saw as the increasingly radical Whiggery of Lord John Russell and the conservatism of the Tories. Tory leader Sir Robert Peel's turn to the centre with the 1834 Tamworth Manifesto, published three days before Stanley's "Knowsley Creed" speech, robbed the Stanleyites of much of the uniqueness of their programme. [7]

The Derby Dilly was a name given to a group of dissident Whigs who split from the main party under the leadership of Edward, Lord Stanley on the issue of the reorganisation of the Church of Ireland in 1834. Stanley and three others resigned from the cabinet of Lord Grey on this particular issue but other factors included their fear that the Whigs were appeasing their radical and Irish allies with further reforms.

The Tamworth Manifesto was a political manifesto issued by Sir Robert Peel in 1834 in Tamworth, which is widely credited by historians as having laid down the principles upon which the modern British Conservative Party is based.

The term "Derby Dilly" was coined by Irish Nationalist leader Daniel O'Connell. Besides Stanley, the other principal members of the Dilly were Sir James Graham, who had resigned as First Lord of the Admiralty; Lord Ripon, who had resigned as Lord Privy Seal; and the Duke of Richmond, who had resigned as Postmaster General. These four ministers had come from notably different political backgrounds—Stanley and Graham were old Whigs, Ripon was a former Canningite Tory prime minister, while Richmond was an arch-conservative Tory who had incongruously found himself in the Grey cabinet.

Daniel OConnell Irish political leader

Daniel O'Connell, often referred to as The Liberator or The Emancipator, was an Irish political leader in the first half of the 19th century. He campaigned for Catholic emancipation—including the right for Catholics to sit in the Westminster Parliament, denied for over 100 years—and repeal of the Acts of Union which combined Great Britain and Ireland.

Sir James Graham, 2nd Baronet British statesman

Sir James Robert George Graham, 2nd Baronet, was a British statesman. He was descended from a family long famous in the history of the English border. He was the eldest son of Sir James Graham, 1st Baronet, by Lady Catherine, eldest daughter of the 7th Earl of Galloway. In 1819, he married Fanny Callander, youngest daughter of Sir James Campbell of Craigforth and Ardkinglas Castle. Sir James was created Doctor of Laws at the University of Cambridge in 1835, was Lord Rector of the University of Glasgow, 1840. He was First Lord of the Admiralty from 1830 to 1834 when he resigned on account of the government pressing for a reform of the Irish Church. He became Secretary of the Home Department from September 1841 to July 1846 and again First Lord of the Admiralty from December 1852 until February 1855. He was a member of the Council of the Duchy of Lancaster, and Deputy Lieutenant for county of Hertfordshire. He represented Hull from 1818 to 1820; for St Ives in 1820; for Carlisle from 1826 until 1829; for East Cumberland from 1830 until 1837; for Pembrokeshire District from 1838 until 1841; for Dorchester from 1841 until 1847; for Ripon from 1847 until July 1852; and was again returned for Carlisle from 1852 until his death in 1861. Graham Land in Antarctica is named after him.

First Lord of the Admiralty Political head of the Royal Navy

The First Lord of the Admiralty, or formally the Office of the First Lord of the Admiralty, was the political head of the Royal Navy who was the government's senior adviser on all naval affairs and responsible for the direction and control of Admiralty as well as general administration of the Naval Service of the United Kingdom, that encompassed the Royal Navy, the Royal Marines and other services. It was one of the earliest known permanent government posts. Apart from being the political head of the Royal Navy the post holder simultaneously held the title of the President of the Board of Commissioners for Exercising the Office of Lord High Admiral. The office of First Lord of the Admiralty existed from 1628 until it was abolished when the Admiralty, Air Ministry, Ministry of Defence and War Office were all merged to form the new Ministry of Defence in 1964.

Although they did not participate in Peel's short-lived 1835 ministry, over the next several years they gradually merged into Peel's Conservative Party, with several members of the "Derby Dilly" taking prominent positions in Peel's second ministry. Joining the Conservatives, Stanley again served as Colonial Secretary in Peel's second government in 1841. [8] In 1844 he was summoned to the House of Lords as Lord Stanley of Bickerstaffe in his father's Barony of Stanley by Writ of Acceleration. [9] [10] He broke with the Prime Minister again in 1845, this time over the repeal of the Corn Laws, and managed to bring the majority of the Conservative Party with him (including, among others, the young Benjamin Disraeli). He thereafter led the protectionist faction of the Conservative Party. In the House of Lords, on 23 November 1847, he accused the Irish Catholic clergy of using the confessional to encourage lawlessness and crime. [11] This was disputed in a series of letters by the coadjutor Bishop of Derry, Edward Maginn. In 1851 he succeeded his father as Earl of Derby.

The party system was in a state of flux when the Conservatives left office in 1846, the outstanding issues being the question of Ireland and the unresolved franchise. The protectionists had a core of leaders, of whom Disraeli was a leading light. But in opposition, the party was still infighting, although Disraeli was determined to heal rifts.

Premierships, 1852–69

First premiership

1852 illustration of Derby Lord-Derby-1852.jpg
1852 illustration of Derby

Derby formed a minority government in February 1852 following the collapse of Lord John Russell's Whig Government. In this new ministry, Benjamin Disraeli was appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer. With many senior Conservative ministers having followed Peel, Derby was forced to appoint many new men to office—of the Cabinet, only three were pre-existing Privy Counsellors. When the aged Duke of Wellington, by then very deaf, heard the list of inexperienced cabinet ministers being read aloud in the House of Lords, he gave the government its nickname by shouting "Who? Who?". From then this government would be known as the "Who? Who?" ministry. [12]

Traditionally Derby's ministries were thought in hindsight to have been dominated by Disraeli. However, recent research suggests that this was not always the case, especially in the government's conduct of foreign policy. There, Derby and his Foreign Secretaries, Lord Malmesbury and later his son Lord Stanley, pursued a course of action that was aimed at building up power through financial strength, seeking to avoid wars at all costs, co-operating with other powers, and working through the Concert of Europe to resolve diplomatic problems. This contrasted sharply with the policy of military strength and prestige that Disraeli would later pursue, and Derby's very different take on foreign policy could be seen as the precursor of "splendid isolation", as well as the diplomatic settlement of Europe pursued by later Conservatives in the late 19th century and the 1930s.

In the general election of June 1852, the Conservative party under Derby and Disraeli won only 330 seats in the House of Commons—42.9% of the total. Although the Whigs actually won fewer seats—292 seats—there were several small groups in Parliament that might be willing to side with the Whigs on particular issues, including the 38 Conservative members of Parliament who were Peelites, who had already joined with the Whigs in June 1846 to repeal the Corn Laws; the 113 members who were Free Traders and who were interested in eliminating all tariffs on consumer goods; and the 63 members of the Irish Brigade who were interested in the independence of Ireland and Tenant's Rights for Irish tenants. [13] Immediately following the election in June 1852, none of these small groups were willing to work with the Whigs to form a government. Accordingly, the Earl of Derby was invited to form a minority government. Derby did so and appointed Disraeli as the new Chancellor of the Exchequer. [14]

As with all minority governments, Derby's minority government had a difficult time governing. Their main preoccupation was avoiding any issue which might cause any of the government's small components to go over to Whigs and cause a "no confidence" vote. However, the real issues facing Parliament could not be postponed for long, and when Disraeli submitted his first budget to Parliament in December 1852, it proved so unpopular with the Peelites, the Free Traders, and the Irish Brigade that it was voted down in a "no confidence" vote. As a result, Derby's minority government fell, making way for a Peelite–Whig coalition under Lord Aberdeen. When Aberdeen's administration fell in 1855, Queen Victoria asked Derby to form a government. [15] Much to the consternation of some sections of his party, including Disraeli, Derby declined this offer, believing that he would be in a position to form a stronger government after a short-lived failed administration led by one of the Conservative Party's rivals such as Lord John Russell or Lord Palmerston. [16] [17]

Second premiership

Derby in 1861 Edward-Stanley-14th-Earl-of-Derby (cropped).jpg
Derby in 1861

In 1858, Derby formed another minority government upon the resignation of Lord Palmerston following a parliamentary defeat to an opposition motion which, in the context of a failed plot to assassinate Napoleon III of France, charged that "the ministry had admitted they sheltered assassins". [18] Disraeli was again at the Exchequer and Leader of the Commons. Among the notable achievements of this administration was the end of the British East India Company following the Sepoy Mutiny, which brought India under direct British control for the first time. Once again the government was short-lived, resigning after only one year, having narrowly lost a vote of no-confidence brought by Lord Hartington on behalf of various Whig and Radical factions which had coalesced at the Willis's Rooms meetings in St James's Street to mark the birth of the Liberal Party. [19] In July 1859, Derby was appointed a Knight of the Garter. [20]

Back in opposition, Derby pursued a strategy of trying to lure the Prime Minister, Lord Palmerston, away from his more radical colleagues, Lord John Russell in particular. [21] This tactic was thwarted by Russell's declining influence and by Chancellor of the Exchequer Gladstone's 1861 budget which united the cabinet and increased divisions amongst the Conservatives. [22] Palmerston continued as Prime Minister until his death in 1865, when he was succeeded by the frail Russell. [23]

Third premiership

Shield of arms of Edward Smith-Stanley, Earl of Derby (as displayed on his Order of the Garter stall plate in St. George's Chapel) Shield of arms of Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, KG, GCMG, PC.png
Shield of arms of Edward Smith-Stanley, Earl of Derby (as displayed on his Order of the Garter stall plate in St. George's Chapel)

Derby returned to power for the third and last time in 1866, following the collapse of Lord Russell's second government after its failed attempt at further electoral reform. [24] Once again, Disraeli was a leading figure. This administration was particularly notable for the passage of the Reform Act 1867, which greatly expanded the suffrage but which provoked the resignation of three cabinet ministers including the Secretary for India and three-time future Prime Minister, Lord Cranborne (later Lord Salisbury). [25] In early 1868, Derby retired from political life on medical advice, leaving Disraeli to succeed him. [26] In 1869, he was appointed a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George in recognition of his former role as Secretary of State for War and the Colonies. [27]

Although a great orator, Derby was frequently criticised for his languid leadership. Nevertheless, he had many significant achievements, both as minister and Prime Minister, and has been described as the father of the modern Conservative Party.[ citation needed ] His tenure of 22 years as party leader still stands as the longest in Conservative Party history and indeed the history of any other political party in British history. Only Labour's Clement Attlee came close, at 20 years. [28]

Family

Stanley married The Honourable Emma Bootle-Wilbraham, the second daughter of Edward Bootle-Wilbraham, on 31 May 1825. He left three children: [29]

Stanley's ancestors were Kings of Man from 1405 and later Lords of Man. Thomas Stanley, 1st Earl of Derby famously switched sides at the Battle of Bosworth and placed the crown of the fallen King Richard III upon the head of Henry Tudor.

Legacy

Statue in Parliament Square, London Derby (32301277465).jpg
Statue in Parliament Square, London

The National School system in Ireland, the predominant form of primary school education, remains based on the multi-denominational system set up by Stanley in the Stanley Letter. The letter had tried to deal with the seemingly intractable issue of different Christian religions living together in Ireland.

The former site of Fort Langley, British Columbia was renamed Derby by the Royal Engineers in 1858, apparently in honour of the Earl, who was British Prime Minister at the time. Stanley (sometimes referred to as "Port Stanley") on East Falkland, capital of the Falkland Islands, is named after Edward Smith-Stanley as are Port Stanley in Ontario, Canada, as well as the area Stanley in Hong Kong. Stanley was Prime Minister when Queen Victoria opened Wellington College, in Berkshire, a tribute to the Duke of Wellington, where the boarding house Stanley is named after him. The county of Stanley in Queensland, Australia, is named after the Earl. Notably, it contains the important Australian city of Brisbane.

See also

Notes and references

  1. The other three being William Ewart Gladstone, Lord Salisbury and Stanley Baldwin
  2. Frances Walsh, "Derby, Edward Stanley 14th Earl of," in David Loades, ed. Reader's guide to British history (2003) 1: 348–49.
  3. Hawkins, Angus (2007). The Forgotten Prime Minister – The 14th Earl of Derby Volume I Ascent: 1799–1851 (1st ed.). New York: Oxford University Press Inc. p. 29. ISBN   9780199204403.
  4. Hawkins Vol I p32–3
  5. Hawkins Vol I p75–125
  6. Hawkins Vol I p125–134
  7. Hawkins Vol I p157–60
  8. Hawkins Vol I p224–5
  9. Hawkins Vol I p290
  10. Saintsbury, George (1892). The Earl of Derby. New York: Harper and Brothers. p. 51.
  11. Refutation of Lord Stanley's Calumnies against the Catholic Clergy of Ireland, reprint, Dublin, 1850
  12. Bloy, Marjorie (2011). "Biography-Edward George Geoffrey Smith Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby (1799–1869)". A Web of English History. Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 6 April 2011.
  13. C. H. Stuart, "The Formation of the Coalition Cabinet of 1852." Transactions of the Royal Historical Society (Fifth Series) 4 (1954): 45–68.
  14. J. T. Ward, "Derby and Disraeli." in Donald Southgate, ed., The Conservative Leadership 1832–1932 (1974) pp 58–100.
  15. Hawkins Vol II p106
  16. Hawkins Vol II p106–11
  17. Dick Leonard, "George Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen—Failure or Scapegoat?." in Leonard, Nineteenth-Century British Premiers (2008). 232–244.
  18. Hawkins, Angus (2008). The Forgotten Prime Minister – the 14th Earl of Derby – Volume II Achievement: 1851–1869 (1st ed.). New York: Oxford University Press Inc. p. 156. ISBN   9780199204403.
  19. Hawkins Vol II pp 223–7
  20. "No. 22281". The London Gazette . 1 July 1859. p. 2549.
  21. Hawkins Vol II pp 252–3
  22. Hawkins Vol II pp 259–60
  23. Hawkins Vol II p 298
  24. Hawkins Vol II pp 306–7
  25. Hawkins Vol II p 341
  26. Hawkins Vol II pp 364–6
  27. "No. 7968". The Edinburgh Gazette . 2 July 1869. p. 794.
  28. Stuart, C. H. "The Formation of the Coalition Cabinet of 1852." Transactions of the Royal Historical Society (Fifth Series) 4 (1954): 45–68.
  29. "Stanley, Edward George Geoffrey Smith"  . Dictionary of National Biography . London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.

Further reading

Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Joseph Foster Barham
John Foster-Barham
Member of Parliament for Stockbridge
1822–1826
With: John Foster-Barham
Succeeded by
Thomas Grosvenor
George Wilbraham
Preceded by
Samuel Horrocks
Edmund Hornby
Member of Parliament for Preston
1826–1830
With: John Wood
Succeeded by
Henry Hunt
Preceded by
John Ramsbottom
Sir Hussey Vivian, Bt
Member of Parliament for Windsor
1831–1832
With: John Ramsbottom
Succeeded by
John Ramsbottom
Sir Samuel Brooke-Pechell, Bt
New constituency Member of Parliament for North Lancashire
1832–1844
With: John Wilson-Patten
Succeeded by
John Wilson-Patten
John Talbot Clifton
Political offices
Preceded by
R. W. Horton
Under-Secretary of State for War and the Colonies
1827–1828
Succeeded by
Lord Francis Leveson-Gower
Preceded by
Sir Henry Hardinge
Chief Secretary for Ireland
1830–1833
Succeeded by
Sir John Hobhouse, Bt
Preceded by
The Viscount Goderich
Secretary of State for War and the Colonies
1833–1834
Succeeded by
Thomas Spring Rice
Preceded by
Lord John Russell
Secretary of State for War and the Colonies
1841–1845
Succeeded by
William Ewart Gladstone
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
23 February 1852 – 17 December 1852
Succeeded by
The Earl of Aberdeen
Preceded by
The Marquess of Lansdowne
Leader of the House of Lords
23 February 1852 – 17 December 1852
Preceded by
The Viscount Palmerston
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
20 February 1858 – 11 June 1859
Succeeded by
The Viscount Palmerston
Preceded by
The Earl Granville
Leader of the House of Lords
21 February 1858 – 11 June 1859
Succeeded by
The Earl Granville
Preceded by
The Earl Russell
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
28 June 1866 – 25 February 1868
Succeeded by
Benjamin Disraeli
Leader of the House of Lords
28 June 1866 – 25 February 1868
Succeeded by
The Earl of Malmesbury
Party political offices
Preceded by
Sir Robert Peel, Bt
Leader of the British Conservative Party
1846–1868
Succeeded by
Benjamin Disraeli
Preceded by
The Duke of Wellington
Leader of the Conservative Party in the House of Lords
1846–1868
Succeeded by
The Earl of Malmesbury
Academic offices
Preceded by
Henry Thomas Cockburn
Rector of the University of Glasgow
1834–1836
Succeeded by
Sir Robert Peel
Preceded by
The Duke of Wellington
Chancellor of the University of Oxford
1852–1869
Succeeded by
The Marquess of Salisbury
Peerage of England
Preceded by
Edward Smith-Stanley
Earl of Derby
1851–1869
Succeeded by
Edward Stanley
Peerage of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Edward Smith-Stanley
Baron Stanley of Bickerstaffe
(writ in acceleration)

1844–1869
Succeeded by
Edward Stanley

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1852 United Kingdom general election

The 1852 United Kingdom general election was a watershed in the formation of the modern political parties of Britain. Following 1852, the Tory/Conservative party became, more completely, the party of the rural aristocracy, while the Whig/Liberal party became the party of the rising urban bourgeoisie in Britain. The results of the election were extremely close in terms of both the popular vote and the numbers of seats won by the two main parties.

The Peelites were a breakaway dissident political faction of the British Conservative Party from 1846 to 1859. Initially lead by Robert Peel, the former Prime Minister and Conservative Party leader in 1846, the Peelites supported Free Trade whilst the bulk of the Conservative Party remained protectionist. The Peelites later merged with the Whigs and Radicals to form the Liberal Party in 1859.

Leader of the Opposition (United Kingdom) parliamentary position of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom

The Leader of Her Majesty's Most Loyal Opposition is the politician who leads the official opposition in the United Kingdom. The Leader of the Opposition by convention leads the largest party not within the government: where one party wins outright this is the party leader of the second largest political party in the House of Commons. The current Leader of the Opposition is Jeremy Corbyn, Leader of the Labour Party, who was elected to the leadership of the Labour Party on 12 September 2015.

Robert Norman William Blake, Baron Blake,, was an English historian and peer. He is best known for his 1966 biography of Benjamin Disraeli, and for The Conservative Party from Peel to Churchill, which grew out of his 1968 Ford lectures.

Spencer Horatio Walpole British Conservative politician

Spencer Horatio Walpole was a British Conservative Party politician who served three times as Home Secretary in the administrations of Lord Derby.

Who? Who? ministry Government of the United Kingdom

Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby led the "Who? Who?" ministry, a short-lived British Conservative government which was in power for a matter of months in 1852. Lord Derby was Prime Minister and Benjamin Disraeli served as Chancellor of the Exchequer. It marked the first time the protectionist wing of the Conservative Party had taken office since the Corn Laws schism of 1846. It is also called the first Derby–Disraeli ministry.

Third Derby–Disraeli ministry Government of the United Kingdom

The Conservative government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland that began in 1866 and ended in 1868 was led by Lord Derby in the House of Lords and Benjamin Disraeli in the House of Commons.

Leader of the Conservative Party (UK) most senior politician within the Conservative Party in the United Kingdom

The Leader of the Conservative Party in the United Kingdom is the most senior politician of the Conservative Party. To date, two of the leaders have been women: Margaret Thatcher and Theresa May. May resigned on 7 June 2019, triggering a leadership election, and is acting leader until a successor is elected.

Second Peel ministry Government of the United Kingdom

The second Peel ministry was formed by Sir Robert Peel in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in 1841.

Events from the year 1852 in the United Kingdom.

Statue of the Earl of Derby, Parliament Square outdoor bronze sculpture in Parliament Square, London, England

A sculpture of the statesman and three-time Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, is located in Parliament Square, London, England. The sculptor was Matthew Noble and the Grade II-listed statue was unveiled on 11 July 1874.