Ehud Barak

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Ehud Barak
Ehud Barak 2016 - Herzliya Conference 2016 3015 (cropped).jpg
Barak in 2016
10th Prime Minister of Israel
In office
6 July 1999 7 March 2001
President Ezer Weizman
Moshe Katsav
Deputy Yitzhak Mordechai
David Levy
Binyamin Ben-Eliezer
Preceded by Benjamin Netanyahu
Succeeded by Ariel Sharon
Minister of Defense
In office
18 June 2007 18 March 2013
Prime Minister Ehud Olmert
Benjamin Netanyahu
Deputy Matan Vilnai
Preceded by Amir Peretz
Succeeded by Moshe Ya'alon
In office
6 July 1999 7 March 2001
Prime MinisterHimself
Deputy Efraim Sneh
Preceded by Moshe Arens
Succeeded by Binyamin Ben-Eliezer
Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
22 November 1995 18 June 1996
Prime Minister Shimon Peres
Deputy Eli Dayan
Preceded byShimon Peres
Succeeded by David Levy
Chief of General Staff
In office
1 April 1991 1 January 1995
President Chaim Herzog
Ezer Weizman
Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir
Yitzhak Rabin
Deputy Amnon Lipkin-Shahak
Matan Vilnai
Minister Moshe Arens
Yitzhak Rabin
Preceded by Dan Shomron
Succeeded by Amnon Lipkin-Shahak
Personal details
Born
Ehud Brog

(1942-02-12) 12 February 1942 (age 77)
Mishmar HaSharon,
Mandatory Palestine
Political party Israel Democratic Party
Other political
affiliations
Labor Party (until 2011)
Independence (2011–2012)
Independent (2012-2019)
Spouse(s)Nava Cohen (1968–2003; divorced)
Nili Priel (since 2007)
Children3
Alma mater Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Stanford University
Profession Military officer
Awards Medal of Distinguished Service
Tzalash (4)
Legion of Merit
DoD Medal for Distinguished Public Service
Signature Ehud Barak Signature.svg
Military service
AllegianceFlag of Israel.svg Israel
Branch/service Flag of the Israel Defense Forces.svg Israeli Defense Forces
Years of service1959–1995
Rank IDF rav aluf rotated.svg Rav Aluf (Lieutenant general; highest rank)
Unit Sayeret Matkal
Commands Chief of General Staff
Deputy Chief of General Staff
Central Command
Military Intelligence Directorate Aman
Sayeret Matkal
Battles/wars Six-Day War
Yom Kippur War
Operation Entebbe

Ehud Barak (Hebrew :  Loudspeaker.svg אֵהוּד בָּרָק  , born Ehud Brog; 12 February 1942) is an Israeli general and politician who served as the tenth Prime Minister from 1999 to 2001. He was leader of the Labor Party until January 2011. [1] He previously held the posts of Minister of Defense and Deputy Prime Minister under Ehud Olmert and then in Benjamin Netanyahu's second government from 2007 to 2013, as he retired from politics at the end of the tenure, [2] though he returned in June of 2019 with the formation of a new party. [3]

Hebrew language Semitic language native to Israel

Hebrew is a Northwest Semitic language native to Israel, the modern version of which is spoken by over nine million people worldwide. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name "Hebrew" in the Tanakh itself. The earliest examples of written Paleo-Hebrew date from the 10th century BCE. Hebrew belongs to the West Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family. Hebrew is the only Canaanite language still spoken, and the only truly successful example of a revived dead language.

Prime Minister of Israel Head of government of Israel

The Prime Minister of Israel is the head of government and chief executive of Israel.

Contents

A Rav Aluf (Lieutenant general) in the Israel Defense Forces (IDF), Barak is the joint most highly decorated soldier in Israel's history, having taken part in many battles and combat missions. Following a highly decorated career, he was appointed Chief of General Staff in 1991, serving until 1995. He is a graduate in physics, mathematics, and economics from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and Stanford University.

Israel Defense Forces combined military forces of Israel

The Israel Defense Forces, commonly known in Israel by the Hebrew acronym Tzahal, are the military forces of the State of Israel. They consist of the ground forces, air force, and navy. It is the sole military wing of the Israeli security forces, and has no civilian jurisdiction within Israel. The IDF is headed by its Chief of General Staff, the Ramatkal, subordinate to the Defense Minister of Israel; Lieutenant General Aviv Kochavi has served as Chief of Staff since January 15, 2019.

Soldier one who serves as part of an organized armed force

A soldier is one who fights as part of an army. A soldier can be a conscripted or volunteer enlisted person, a non-commissioned officer, or an officer.

Hebrew University of Jerusalem Israeli University in Jerusalem

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem is Israel's second-oldest university, established in 1918, 30 years before the establishment of the State of Israel. The Hebrew University has three campuses in Jerusalem and one in Rehovot. The world's largest Jewish studies library is located on its Edmond J. Safra Givat Ram campus.

Personal life

Barak was born on 12 February 1942 in kibbutz Mishmar HaSharon in what was then Mandatory Palestine. [4] He is the eldest of four sons of Esther (née Godin; 25 June 1914 – 12 August 2013) and Yisrael Mendel Brog (24 August 1910 – 8 February 2002).

Kibbutz collective settlement in Israel and in the occupied Palestinian territories

A kibbutz is a collective community in Israel that was traditionally based on agriculture. The first kibbutz, established in 1909, was Degania. Today, farming has been partly supplanted by other economic branches, including industrial plants and high-tech enterprises. Kibbutzim began as utopian communities, a combination of socialism and Zionism. In recent decades, some kibbutzim have been privatized and changes have been made in the communal lifestyle. A member of a kibbutz is called a kibbutznik.

Mishmar HaSharon Place in Central

Mishmar HaSharon is a kibbutz in central Israel. Located in the Sharon plain, it falls under the jurisdiction of Hefer Valley Regional Council. In 2018 it had a population of 606.

Mandatory Palestine A geopolitical entity formed from territory ceded by Turkey following WW1

Mandatory Palestine was a geopolitical entity established between 1920 and 1923 in the region of Palestine under the terms of the "Mandate for Palestine".

His paternal grandparents, Frieda and Reuven Brog, were murdered in Pušalotas (Pushelat) in the northern Lithuania (then ruled by Russian Empire) in 1912, leaving his father orphaned at the age of two. Barak's maternal grandparents, Elka and Shmuel Godin, died at the Treblinka extermination camp during the Holocaust.

Pušalotas Town in Panevėžys County, Lithuania

Pušalotas is a small town in Panevėžys County, in northeastern Lithuania. According to the 2011 census, the town has a population of 692 people.

Lithuania Republic in Northeastern Europe

Lithuania, officially the Republic of Lithuania, is a country in the Baltic region of Europe. Lithuania is considered to be one of the Baltic states. It is situated along the southeastern shore of the Baltic Sea, to the east of Sweden and Denmark. It is bordered by Latvia to the north, Belarus to the east and south, Poland to the south, and Kaliningrad Oblast to the southwest. Lithuania has an estimated population of 2.8 million people as of 2019, and its capital and largest city is Vilnius. Other major cities are Kaunas and Klaipėda. Lithuanians are Baltic people. The official language, Lithuanian, is one of only two living languages in the Baltic branch of the Indo-European language family, the other being Latvian.

Russian Empire former country, 1721–1917

The Russian Empire was an empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

Ehud hebraized his family name from "Brog" to "Barak" in 1972. It was during his military service that he met his future wife, Nava (née Cohen, born 8 April 1947 in Tiberias). They had three daughters together: Michal (born 9 August 1970), Yael (born 23 October 1974) and Anat (born 16 October 1981). He has grandchildren. [5] Barak divorced Nava in August 2003. On 30 July 2007, Barak married Nili Priel (born 25 April 1944) in a small ceremony in his private residence. In his spare time, Barak enjoys reading works by writers such as Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, [6] and he is a classical pianist, with many years of study behind him.

Hebraization of surnames act of adopting a Hebrew surname in exchange for diaspora name

The Hebraization of surnames is the act of adopting a Hebrew surname in exchange for a diaspora name. For many diaspora Jews who migrated to the Land of Israel, taking a Hebrew surname was a way to erase remnants of their diaspora experience and to assimilate into a new shared identity with Mizrahi Jews and Palestinian Jews and later as Israeli Jews.

Tiberias Israeli city on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee

Tiberias is an Israeli city on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee. Established around 20 CE, it was named in honour of the second emperor of the Roman Empire, Tiberius. In 2018 it had a population of 44,234.

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 18th/19th-century German writer, artist, and politician

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe was a German writer and statesman. His works include: four novels; epic and lyric poetry; prose and verse dramas; memoirs; an autobiography; literary and aesthetic criticism; and treatises on botany, anatomy, and colour. In addition, numerous literary and scientific fragments, more than 10,000 letters, and nearly 3,000 drawings by him have survived.

Education

Barak earned his bachelor's degree in physics and mathematics from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in 1968, and his master's degree in engineering-economic systems in 1978 from Stanford University, in California.

A bachelor's degree or baccalaureate is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study lasting three to seven years. In some institutions and educational systems, some bachelor's degrees can only be taken as graduate or postgraduate degrees after a first degree has been completed. In countries with qualifications frameworks, bachelor's degrees are normally one of the major levels in the framework, although some qualifications titled bachelor's degrees may be at other levels and some qualifications with non-bachelor's titles may be classified as bachelor's degrees.

Physics Study of the fundamental properties of matter and energy

Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its motion and behavior through space and time, and that studies the related entities of energy and force. Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves.

Stanford University Private research university in Stanford, California

Leland Stanford Junior University is a private research university in Stanford, California. Stanford is known for its academic strength, wealth, selectivity, proximity to Silicon Valley, and ranking as one of the world's top universities.

Military service

Ehud Barak as Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces Ehud Barak military.jpg
Ehud Barak as Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces

Barak joined the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) in 1959. He served in the IDF for 35 years, rising to the position of Chief of the General Staff and the rank of Rav Aluf (Lieutenant-General), the highest in the Israeli military. During his service as a commando in the elite Sayeret Matkal, Barak led several highly acclaimed operations, such as: "Operation Isotope", the mission to free the hostages on board the hijacked Sabena Flight 571 at Lod Airport in 1972; the covert 1973 Israeli raid on Lebanon in Beirut, in which he was disguised as a woman to kill members of the Palestine Liberation Organization; Barak was also a key architect of the June 1976 Operation Entebbe, another rescue mission to free the hostages of the Air France aircraft hijacked by terrorists and forced to land at the Entebbe Airport in Uganda. These highly acclaimed operations, along with Operation Bayonet, led to the dismantling of Palestinian terrorist cell Black September. It has been alluded that Barak also masterminded the Tunis Raid on 16 April 1988, in which PLO leader Abu Jihad was killed. [7]

During the Yom Kippur War, Barak commanded an improvised regiment of tanks which, among other things, helped rescue paratrooper battalion 890, commanded by Yitzhak Mordechai, which was suffering heavy losses in the Battle of the Chinese Farm. He went on the command the 401st armored brigade and the 611st "Pillar of Fire" and 252nd "Sinai" divisions, before his appointment to head the IDF's Planning Directorate. Barak later served as head of Aman, the Military Intelligence Directorate (1983–85), head of Central Command (1986–87) and Deputy Chief of the General Staff (1987–91). He served as Chief of the General Staff between 1 April 1991 and 1 January 1995. During this period he implemented the first Oslo Accords and participated in the negotiations towards the Israel–Jordan peace treaty.

Barak was awarded the Medal of Distinguished Service and four Chief of Staff citations (Tzalash HaRamatkal) for courage and operational excellence. [8] These five decorations make him the most decorated soldier in Israeli history (jointly with close friend Nechemya Cohen and Major Amitai Hason). [9] In 1992 he was awarded the Legion of Merit (Commander) by the United States. [10] In 2012, he was again awarded by the United States with the Department of Defense Medal for Distinguished Public Service. [11]

Political career

On 7 July 1995, Barak was appointed Minister of Internal Affairs by Yitzhak Rabin. When Shimon Peres formed a new government following Rabin's assassination in November 1995, Barak was made Minister of Foreign Affairs (1995–96). [12] He was elected to the Knesset on the Labor Party list in 1996, and served as a member of the Knesset Foreign Affairs and Defense Committee. Following internal elections after Peres' defeat in the election for Prime Minister in 1996, Barak became the leader of the Labor Party.

Prime Minister of Israel

Barak at the Pentagon (1999) Barak pentagon 1999.jpg
Barak at the Pentagon (1999)
Ehud Barak shaking hands with Yasser Arafat, joined by President Bill Clinton (1999) Arafat&Clinton&Barak.jpg
Ehud Barak shaking hands with Yasser Arafat, joined by President Bill Clinton (1999)

In the 1999 Prime Ministerial election, Barak beat Benjamin Netanyahu by a wide margin. However, he sparked controversy by deciding to form a coalition with the ultra-Orthodox party Shas, who had won an unprecedented 17 seats in the 120-seat Knesset. Shas grudgingly agreed to Barak's terms that they eject their leader Aryeh Deri, a convicted felon, and enact reform to "clean up" in-party corruption. Consequentially, the left wing Meretz party quit the coalition after they failed to agree on the powers to be given to a Shas deputy minister in the Ministry of Education.

In 1999 Barak gave a campaign promise to end Israel's 22-year-long occupation of Southern Lebanon within a year. On 24 May 2000 Israel withdrew from Southern Lebanon. On 7 October, three Israeli soldiers were killed in a border raid by Hezbollah and their bodies were subsequently captured. The bodies of these soldiers, along with the living Elhanan Tenenbaum, were eventually exchanged for Lebanese captives in 2004.

The Barak government resumed peace negotiations with the PLO, stating that "Every attempt [by the State of Israel] to keep hold of this area [the West Bank and Gaza] as one political entity leads, necessarily, to either a nondemocratic or a non-Jewish state. Because if the Palestinians vote, then it is a binational state, and if they don't vote it is an apartheid state." [13] As part of these negotiations, Barak took part in the Camp David 2000 Summit which was meant finally to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict but failed. Barak also allowed Foreign Minister Shlomo Ben-Ami to attend the Taba Summit with the leadership of the Palestinian Authority, after his government had fallen.

Domestic issues

On 22 August 1999, Barak appointed the Tal committee which dealt with the controversial issue of ultra-Orthodox Jews' exemption from military service. [14] Following the failure of the Camp David summit with Arafat and Bill Clinton in the summer of 2000, when the original 7 years mandate of the PNA expired, and just after Israel pulled out its last troops out of southern Lebanon in May 2000, the weeks-long Riots in October 2000 led to the killing of twelve Israeli Arabs and one Palestinian by Israel Police and one Jewish civilian by Israeli Arabs.

Resignation

In 2001, Barak called a special election for Prime Minister. In the contest, he was defeated by Likud leader Ariel Sharon, and subsequently resigned as Labor leader and from the Knesset. He left Israel to work as a senior advisor with United States-based Electronic Data Systems. He also partnered with a private equity company focused on "security-related" work.

Return to politics

Israeli Minister of Defense Ehud Barak, with Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu after the Victoria Affair, March 2011 Flickr - Israel Defense Forces - Prime Minister and Defense Minister at Weaponry Display.jpg
Israeli Minister of Defense Ehud Barak, with Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu after the Victoria Affair, March 2011

In 2005, Barak announced his return to Israeli politics, and ran for leadership of the Labor Party in November. However, in light of his weak poll showings, Barak dropped out of the race early and declared his support for veteran statesman Shimon Peres. Following his failed attempt to maintain leadership of the Labor party, Barak became a partner of the investment company SCP Private Equity Partners, Pennsylvania. He also established a company "Ehud Barak Limited" which is thought to have made over NIS 30 million. [15]

After Peres lost the race to Amir Peretz and left the Labor party, Barak announced he would stay at the party, despite his shaky relationship with its newly elected leader. He declared, however, that he would not run for a spot on the Labor party's Knesset list for the March 2006 elections. Barak's attempt to return to a prominent role in Israel politics seemed to have failed. However, Peretz's hold on the Labor leadership proved unexpectedly shaky as he was badly damaged by negative views of his performance as Defense Minister during the 2006 Lebanon War, which was seen as something less than a success in Israel. [16]

In January 2007 Barak launched a bid to recapture the leadership of the Labor party in a letter acknowledging "mistakes" and "inexperience" during his tenure as Prime Minister. [17] In early March 2007, a poll of Labor Party primary voters put Barak ahead of all other opponents, including Peretz. [18] In the first round of voting, on 28 May 2007, he gained 39% of the votes, more than his two closest rivals, but not enough to win the election. [19]

As a result, Barak faced a runoff against the second-place finisher, Ami Ayalon, on 12 June 2007, which he won by a narrow margin. [20]

Barak has been critical of what he sees as racist sentiments that have recently been expressed by some Israeli rabbis and rebbetzins; he views such statements as a threat to Israeli unity and that they may lead Israeli society into a "dark and dangerous place". [21]

Defense Minister

Ehud Barak and Condoleezza Rice (2007) Barak - Rice 2007 08 01 israel3 600.jpg
Ehud Barak and Condoleezza Rice (2007)

As head of the Labor Party

After winning back the leadership of the Labor party, Barak was sworn in as Minister of Defense on 18 June 2007, as part of Prime Minister Olmert's cabinet reshuffle. However, on 1 July 2007, Barak led a successful effort in the Labor central committee to stipulate that Labor would leave the government coalition if Olmert did not resign by September or October 2007. At that time the Winograd Commission would publish its final report on the performance of the Israel Defense Forces and its civilian leadership. The preliminary Winograd report released earlier this year laid most of the blame on Olmert for poorly planning, executing, and reviewing war strategies in the 2006 conflict against Hezbollah. [22]

From December 2008 to January 2009, Barak led Operation Cast Lead. [23]

Labor won only 13 out of the 120 Knesset seats in the 2009 elections, making them the fourth largest party. Barak and other Labor officials initially stated they would not take part in the next government. However, over the objections of some in the Labor party, Barak later[ when? ] reached an agreement under which Labor joined the governing coalition. Barak retained his position as Defense Minister.

Leaving the Labor Party

In January 2011, Labor Party leader Barak formed a breakaway party, Independence, which enabled him to maintain his loyal Labor's MK faction within Netanyahu's government, and prevented the departure of Labor party as a whole from Netanyahu's coalition-government. Labor previously threatened to force Barak to do so. After Barak's move, Netanyahu was able to maintain a majority of 66 MK (out of 120 in the Knesset), previously having 74 MKs within his majority coalition.

In February 2011, Barak attended a ceremony at the UN for the International Day of Commemoration in memory of the victims of the Holocaust. Barak told the UN General Assembly that "an independent, strong, thriving and peaceful State of Israel is the vengeance of the dead." [24]

In 2012, Barak's Independence party was due to run for election but decided not to, choosing to quit politics. Barak planned to quit since Operation Pillar of Defense and the Gaza War but postponed it till later that year. [25]

Barak stated during an American television interview that he would "probably" strive for nuclear weapons if he were in Iran's position, adding "I don't delude myself that they are doing it just because of Israel". This comment has been criticized and compared to Barak's comment in 1998 during a television interview when he said that if he were a Palestinian he would probably have joined one of the terror organizations. [26]

Return to political life

On 26 June 2019, Barak announced his return to politics and his intention to form a new party named Israel Democratic Party, intending to challenge Netanyahu in the upcoming September 2019 Israeli legislative election. [3]

Wealth

In an interview with Haaretz reported in January 2015, Barak was asked to explain the source of his "big" capital, with which he "bought 5 apartments and connected them," and by which he "lives in a giant rental apartment in a luxury high rise." Barak said he currently earns more than a $1 million a year, and that from 2001–2007, he also earned more than a $1 million every year, from giving lectures and from consulting for hedge funds. Barak also said he made millions of dollars more from his investments in Israeli real estate properties. [27]

In the interview, Barak was asked whether he is a lobbyist that earns a living from "opening doors." The interviewer stated "You have arrived recently at the Kazakhstan despot Nazarbayev and the president of Ghana. You are received immediately." Barak confirmed that he has been received by these heads of state but denied earning money from opening doors for international business deals for Israeli and foreign corporations, and said he does not see any ethical or moral problems in his business activities. He further said there is no logic to demand of him, after "the natural process in democracy has ended" to not utilize the tools he accumulated in his career to secure his financial future. When asked if his financial worth is $10–15 million, Barak said "I'm not far from there." [27]

See also

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References

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  10. An image of Barak receiving the award on 14 January 1993 in the Pentagon. Note that according to IDF regulations foreign medals are not worn on the uniform.
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  15. Blau, Uri (24 May 2007). "Ehud Barak Ltd". Haaretz Daily Newspaper. Archived from the original on 11 March 2014. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
  16. "Kadima nominates Peres for president". Kuwait Times.[ dead link ]
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  18. Yossi Verter (3 March 2007). "Poll: Barak, Ayalon lead Peretz in the Labor leadership primaries". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 8 September 2012. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
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  21. Mualem, Mazal (29 December 2010). "Barak: Anti-Arab letters by rabbis and rabbis' wives leading Israel into dark place". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 1 January 2011. Retrieved 1 January 2011.
  22. Harel, Amos. "Remember the Second Lebanon War". haaretz.com. Haaretz Daily Newspaper Ltd.
  23. "Report of the United Nations Fact Finding Mission on the Gaza Conflict" (PDF). United Nations Human Rights Council. 15 September 2009. p. 106. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
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  25. Ryan Jones (26 November 2012). "Ehud Barak drops out of Israeli politics". Israel Today . Archived from the original on 22 October 2013.
  26. "Barak criticized over Iran comments". The Irish Times .
  27. 1 2 Ehud Barak warns that Israel under Netanyahu is on the road to disaster Archived 23 September 2016 at the Wayback Machine (8 January 2015), Haaretz

Bibliography

Political offices
Preceded by
Benjamin Netanyahu
Prime Minister of Israel
1999–2001
Succeeded by
Ariel Sharon
Party political offices
Preceded by
Shimon Peres
Leader of the Israeli Labor Party
1997–2001
Succeeded by
Benjamin Ben-Eliezer
Preceded by
Amir Peretz
Leader of the Israeli Labor Party
2007–2011
Succeeded by
Shelly Yachimovich
Preceded by
none
Leader of the Independence party
2011–2012
Succeeded by
none