Eight-thousander

Last updated

Locations of the world's 14 eight-thousanders Eight Thousanders Map.png
Locations of the world's 14 eight-thousanders

The International Mountaineering and Climbing Federation or UIAA recognises eight-thousanders as the 14 mountains that are more than 8,000 metres (26,247 ft) in height above sea level, and are considered to be sufficiently independent from neighbouring peaks. However, there is no precise definition of the criteria used to assess independence, and, since 2012, the UIAA has been involved in a process to consider whether the list should be expanded to 20 mountains. All eight-thousanders are located in the Himalayan and Karakoram mountain ranges in Asia, and their summits are in the death zone.

Contents

The first person to summit all 14 eight-thousanders was Italian Reinhold Messner in 1986, who completed the feat without the aid of supplementary oxygen. In 2010, Spanish Edurne Pasaban, became the first woman to summit all 14 eight-thousanders, but with the aid of supplementary oxygen; in 2011, Austrian Gerlinde Kaltenbrunner became the first woman to summit all 14 eight-thousanders without the aid of supplementary oxygen.

From 1950 to 1964, all 14 of the eight-thousanders were summited, however, it was not until January 2021, with the Nepalese winter ascent of K2, that all eight-thousanders had been summited during the winter season.

On 29 October 2019, Nepalese climber Nirmal Purja, set a speed record by climbing all eight-thousanders in 6 months and 6 days. [1] [2]

Climbing history

Flight over Khumbu-region; six eight-thousanders and some seven-thousanders are visible Flight over himalaya annotated.jpg
Flight over Khumbu-region; six eight-thousanders and some seven-thousanders are visible

The first recorded attempt on an eight-thousander was when Albert F. Mummery, Geoffrey Hastings and J. Norman Collie tried to climb Pakistan's Nanga Parbat in 1895. The attempt failed when Mummery and two Gurkhas, Ragobir Thapa and Goman Singh, were killed by an avalanche. [3]

The first recorded successful ascent of an eight-thousander was by the French Maurice Herzog and Louis Lachenal, who reached the summit of Annapurna on 3 June 1950 during the 1950 French Annapurna expedition . [4] The first winter ascent of an eight-thousander was done by a Polish team led by Andrzej Zawada on Mount Everest. Two climbers Leszek Cichy and Krzysztof Wielicki reached the summit on 17 February 1980. [5]

The first person to climb all 14 eight-thousanders was Italian Reinhold Messner, on 16 October 1986. In 1987, Polish climber Jerzy Kukuczka became the second person to accomplish this feat. Kukuczka is also the man who established the most new routes (9) on the main eight-thousanders. Messner summited each of the 14 peaks without the aid of bottled oxygen. This feat was not repeated until nine years later by the Swiss Erhard Loretan in 1995. Phurba Tashi of Nepal has completed the most climbs of the eight-thousanders, with 30 ascents between 1998 and 2011. [6] Juanito Oiarzabal has completed the second most, with a total of 25 ascents between 1985 and 2011. [7]

The Italian Simone Moro made the most first winter ascents of eight-thousanders (4); Jerzy Kukuczka made four winter ascents as well, but one was a repetition. The final eight-thousander to be climbed in the winter season was K2, which was summitted by a 10-person Nepalese team on 16 January 2021. [8]

30-highest peaks above 500 m (1,640 ft) in prominence. 30 highest peaks with more than 500m prominence.png
30–highest peaks above 500 m (1,640 ft) in prominence.

In 2010, Spanish climber Edurne Pasaban, became the first woman to summit all 14 eight-thousanders with no disputed climbing. [10] In August 2011, Austrian climber Gerlinde Kaltenbrunner became the first woman to climb the 14 eight-thousanders without the use of supplementary oxygen. [11] [12]

The first couple and team who summited all 14 eight-thousanders together were the Italians Nives Meroi (second woman without supplementary oxygen), and her husband Romano Benet in 2017. The couple climbed alpine style, without the use of supplementary oxygen and other aids. [13]

As of November 2018, the country with the most climbers to have climbed all 14 eight-thousanders is Italy with seven climbers, followed by Spain with six climbers, and South Korea with five climbers. Kazakhstan and Poland each have three climbers who have completed the "Crown of the Himalaya" (all 14 eight-thousanders).

On 29 October 2019, former Nepalese Gurka, and Special Boat Service (SBS) elite soldier Nirmal Purja, set a new speed record by climbing the 14 eight-thousanders in 6 months and 6 days, beating the previous record of just under 8 years. [1] [2]

List of 14

Selected data for the 14 eight-thousanders [14] [15]
Mountain [14] First ascent [14] First winter ascent [14] From 1950 to March 2012 [15] Climber Death
Rate [16] [17] [lower-alpha 1]
Peak Height [18] Prom. [18] Isol. [18] LocationDateSummiter(s)DateSummiter(s)Total Ascents [lower-alpha 2] Total Deaths [lower-alpha 3] Deaths / Ascents [lower-alpha 4]
Everest 8,848 metres (29,029 ft)8,848 metres (29,029 ft)undefined or infinite Flag of Nepal.svg Nepal
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China
29 May 1953 Flag of New Zealand.svg Edmund Hillary

Flag of Nepal.svg Tenzing Norgay
on British expedition

17 February 1980
Flag of Poland.svg Krzysztof Wielicki
Flag of Poland.svg Leszek Cichy
56562233.9%1.52%
K2 8,611 metres (28,251 ft)4,020 metres (13,190 ft)1,315.6 kilometres (817.5 mi) Flag of Pakistan.svg Pakistan
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China [20]
31 July 1954 Flag of Italy.svg Achille Compagnoni
Flag of Italy.svg Lino Lacedelli

on Italian expedition

16 January

2021 [8]

Flag of Nepal.svg Nirmal Purja

Flag of Nepal.svg Gelje Sherpa

Flag of Nepal.svg Mingma David Sherpa

Flag of Nepal.svg Mingma G

Flag of Nepal.svg Sona Sherpa

Flag of Nepal.svg Mingma Tenzi Sherpa

Flag of Nepal.svg Pem Chhiri Sherpa

Flag of Nepal.svg Dawa Temba Sherpa

Flag of Nepal.svg Kili Pemba Sherpa

Flag of Nepal.svg Dawa Tenjing Sherpa

3068126.5% [lower-alpha 5]
Kangchenjunga 8,586 metres (28,169 ft)3,922 metres (12,867 ft)124.2 kilometres (77.2 mi) Flag of Nepal.svg Nepal
Flag of India.svg India [21]
25 May 1955 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg George Band
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Joe Brown
on British expedition
11 January 1986 Flag of Poland.svg Krzysztof Wielicki
Flag of Poland.svg Jerzy Kukuczka
2834014.1%3.00%
Lhotse 8,516 metres (27,940 ft)610 metres (2,000 ft)2.4 kilometres (1.5 mi) Flag of Nepal.svg Nepal
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China
18 May 1956 Flag of Switzerland.svg Fritz Luchsinger
Flag of Switzerland.svg Ernst Reiss
31 December 1988 Flag of Poland.svg Krzysztof Wielicki 461132.8%1.03%
Makalu 8,485 metres (27,838 ft)2,378 metres (7,802 ft)17.2 kilometres (10.7 mi) Flag of Nepal.svg Nepal
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China
15 May 1955 Flag of France.svg Jean Couzy
Flag of France.svg Lionel Terray
9 February 2009 Flag of Italy.svg Simone Moro
Flag of Kazakhstan.svg Denis Urubko
361318.6%1.63%
Cho Oyu 8,188 metres (26,864 ft)2,344 metres (7,690 ft)27.7 kilometres (17.2 mi) Flag of Nepal.svg Nepal
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China
19 October 1954 Flag of Austria.svg Joseph Joechler
Flag of Nepal.svg Pasang Dawa Lama
Flag of Austria.svg Herbert Tichy
12 February 1985 Flag of Poland.svg Maciej Berbeka
Flag of Poland.svg Maciej Pawlikowski
3138441.4%0.64%
Dhaulagiri I 8,167 metres (26,795 ft)3,357 metres (11,014 ft)317.4 kilometres (197.2 mi) Flag of Nepal.svg Nepal 13 May 1960 Flag of Austria.svg Kurt Diemberger
Flag of Germany.svg Peter Diener
Flag of Nepal.svg Nawang Dorje
Flag of Nepal.svg Nima Dorje
Flag of Switzerland.svg Ernst Forrer
Flag of Switzerland.svg Albin Schelbert
21 January 1985 Flag of Poland.svg Andrzej Czok
Flag of Poland.svg Jerzy Kukuczka
4486915.4%2.94%
Manaslu 8,163 metres (26,781 ft)3,092 metres (10,144 ft)105.5 kilometres (65.6 mi) Flag of Nepal.svg Nepal 9 May 1956 Flag of Japan.svg Toshio Imanishi
Flag of Nepal.svg Gyalzen Norbu
12 January 1984 Flag of Poland.svg Maciej Berbeka
Flag of Poland.svg Ryszard Gajewski
661659.8%2.77%
Nanga Parbat 8,125 metres (26,657 ft)4,608 metres (15,118 ft)187.9 kilometres (116.8 mi) Flag of Pakistan.svg Pakistan 3 July 1953 Flag of Austria.svg Hermann Buhl
on German–Austrian expedition
26 February 2016 Flag of Pakistan.svg Muhammad Ali Sadpara
Flag of Italy.svg Simone Moro
Flag of the Basque Country.svg Alex Txikon
3356820.3% [lower-alpha 5]
Annapurna I 8,091 metres (26,545 ft)2,984 metres (9,790 ft)33.7 kilometres (20.9 mi) Flag of Nepal.svg Nepal 3 June 1950 Flag of France.svg Maurice Herzog
Flag of France.svg Louis Lachenal

on French expedition

3 February 1987 Flag of Poland.svg Jerzy Kukuczka
Flag of Poland.svg Artur Hajzer
1916131.9%4.05%
Gasherbrum I
(Hidden Peak)
8,080 metres (26,510 ft)2,155 metres (7,070 ft)23.4 kilometres (14.5 mi) Flag of Pakistan.svg Pakistan
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China
5 July 1958 Flag of the United States.svg Andrew Kauffman
Flag of the United States.svg Pete Schoening
9 March 2012 Flag of Poland.svg Adam Bielecki
Flag of Poland.svg Janusz Gołąb
334298.7% [lower-alpha 5]
Broad Peak 8,051 metres (26,414 ft)1,701 metres (5,581 ft)8.6 kilometres (5.3 mi) Flag of Pakistan.svg Pakistan
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China
9 June 1957 Flag of Austria.svg Fritz Wintersteller
Flag of Austria.svg Marcus Schmuck
Flag of Austria.svg Kurt Diemberger
Flag of Austria.svg Hermann Buhl
5 March 2013 Flag of Poland.svg Maciej Berbeka
Flag of Poland.svg Adam Bielecki
Flag of Poland.svg Tomasz Kowalski
Flag of Poland.svg Artur Małek
404215.2% [lower-alpha 5]
Gasherbrum II 8,034 metres (26,358 ft)1,524 metres (5,000 ft)5.3 kilometres (3.3 mi) Flag of Pakistan.svg Pakistan
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China
7 July 1956 Flag of Austria.svg Fritz Moravec
Flag of Austria.svg Josef Larch
Flag of Austria.svg Hans Willenpart
2 February 2011 Flag of Italy.svg Simone Moro
Flag of Kazakhstan.svg Denis Urubko
Flag of the United States.svg Cory Richards
930212.3% [lower-alpha 5]
Shishapangma 8,027 metres (26,335 ft)2,897 metres (9,505 ft)90.8 kilometres (56.4 mi) Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China 2 May 1964 Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Xu Jing
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Chang Chun-yen
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Wang Fuzhou
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Chen San
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Cheng Tien-liang
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Wu Tsung-yue
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Sodnam Doji
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Migmar Trashi
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Doji
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Yonten
14 January 2005 Flag of Poland.svg Piotr Morawski
Flag of Italy.svg Simone Moro
302258.3%

Proposed expansion

In 2012, to relieve capacity pressure, [22] overcrowding on the world’s highest mountain was tackled by placing greater restrictions on expeditions to the summit of Mount Everest. The move is a response to growing problems with litter, pollution and recent clashes between Sherpas and Western climbers. But, in an attempt to appease those hoping to conquer the 29,029 ft (8,848 m) tall peak, the Nepalese government is to open access to five other summits that sit over 26,247 ft (8,000 m) and develop climbing tourism. Nepal lobbied the International Climbing and Mountaineering Federation (or UIAA) to reclassify five summits (two on Lhotse and three on Kanchenjunga), as standalone eight-thousanders, while Pakistan lobbied for a sixth summit (on Broad Peak). [23] The UIAA initiated in 2012 what it calls the ARUGA project with an aim to see if new 8,000 m (26,247 ft)-plus could feasibly achieve international recognition. Under that project, Nepal had tabled five new peaks and Pakistan had tabled one. In 2012, the UIAA set up a project group to consider the proposals called the AGURA Project. [23] The six proposed summits for reclassification are subsidiary-summits of existing eight-thousanders, but which are also themselves above 8,000 m (26,247 ft) and have a prominence above 60 m (197 ft).

  Proposed to the UIAA in 2012 for reclassification as standalone eight-thousanders. [23]
List of the subsidiary peaks of the 14 eight-thousanders. [24]
Proposed new eight-thousanderHeight
(m)
Prominence
(m)
Dominance
(Prom / Height) [25]
Dominance
classification [25]
Broad Peak Central80111812,26B2
Kangchenjunga W-Peak (Yalung Kang)85051351,59C1
Kangchenjunga S-Peak84761161,37C2
Kangchenjunga C-Peak8473630,74C2
Lhotse C-Peak I8410650,77C2
Lhotse Shar8382720,86C2
K 2 SW-Peak8580300,35D1
Lhotse C-Peak II8372370,44D1
Everest W-Peak8296300,36D1
Yalung Kang Shoulder8200400,49D1
Kangchenjunga SE-Peak8150300,37D1
K 2 P. 8134 (SW-Ridge)8134350,43D1
Annapurna C-Peak8013490,61D1
Nanga Parbat S-Peak8042300,37D1
Annapurna E-Peak7986650,81C2
Shisha Pangma C-Peak8008300,37D1
Everest NE-Shoulder8423190,23D2
Everest NE-Pinnacle III8383130,16D2
Lhotse N-Pinnacle III8327100,12D2
Lhotse N-Pinnacle II8307120,14D2
Lhotse N-Pinnacle I8290100,12D2
Everest NE-Pinnacle II8282250,30D2

The proposed six new eight-thousander peaks would not meet the wider UIAA criteria of 600 m (1,969 ft) of elevation from nearest larger mountain's saddle, called topographic prominence, as used by the UIAA elsewhere for major mountains (the lowest prominence of the existing 14 eight-thousanders is Lhotse, at 610 metres (2,001 ft)). [26] [27] For example, only Broad Peak Central, with a topographic prominence of 181 metres (594 ft), would even meet the 150 metres (492 ft) prominence threshold to be a British Isles Marilyn. [26] However, the appeal noted the UIAA's 1994 reclassification of Alpine four-thousander peaks, where a prominence threshold of 30 m (98 ft) was used, [lower-alpha 6] amongst other criteria; the logic being that if 30 m (98 ft) worked for 4,000 m (13,123 ft) summits, then 60 m (197 ft) is proportional for 8,000 m (26,247 ft) summits. [28]

As of November 2018, there has been no conclusion by the UIAA and the proposals appear to have been set aside.

Climbers of all 14

There is no single undisputed source for verified Himalayan ascents; however, Elizabeth Hawley's The Himalayan Database , [29] is considered as an important source for the Nepalese Himalayas. [30] [31] Online ascent databases pay close regard to The Himalayan Database, including the website AdventureStats.com, [32] and the Eberhard Jurgalski List. [33] Various mountaineering journals, including the Alpine Journal and the American Alpine Journal , maintain extensive records and archives but do not always opine on ascents.

Verified ascents

Reinhold Messner, first to climb all 14 eight-thousanders, and first to do so without supplementary oxygen. GianAngelo Pistoia - Reinhold Messner - Foto 1.TIF
Reinhold Messner, first to climb all 14 eight-thousanders, and first to do so without supplementary oxygen.
Edurne Pasaban, first woman to climb all 14 eight-thousanders after Oh Eun-sun's claim was disputed. Edurne Pasaban recibe el Premio Vasco Universal 2010 4 (crop).jpg
Edurne Pasaban, first woman to climb all 14 eight-thousanders after Oh Eun-sun’s claim was disputed.
Gerlinde Kaltenbrunner, first woman to climb all 14 eight-thousanders without supplementary oxygen. Gerlinde Kaltenbrunner 2015-07-02 001.jpg
Gerlinde Kaltenbrunner, first woman to climb all 14 eight-thousanders without supplementary oxygen.
  First male to have summited all 14 eight-thousanders, and first to do so without supplementary oxygen
  First female to have summited all 14 eight-thousanders; with supplementary oxygen
  First female to have summited all 14 eight-thousanders; no supplementary oxygen
  Fastest ascent of all 14 eight-thousanders
  Youngest person to climb all 14 eight-thousanders

The "No O2" column lists people who have climbed all 14 eight-thousanders without supplementary oxygen.

List of climbers who have summited all 14 eight-thousanders. [34]
OrderOrder
(No O2)
NamePeriodBornAgeNationality
11 Reinhold Messner 1972–1986194442 Flag of Italy.svg Italian
2 Jerzy Kukuczka 1979–1987194839 Flag of Poland.svg Polish
32 Erhard Loretan 1982–1995195936 Flag of Switzerland.svg Swiss
4 [35] Carlos Carsolio 1985–1996196233 Flag of Mexico.svg Mexican
5 Krzysztof Wielicki 1980–1996195046 Flag of Poland.svg Polish
63 Juanito Oiarzabal 1985–1999195643 Flag of the Basque Country.svg Basque
7 Sergio Martini 1983–2000194951 Flag of Italy.svg Italian
8 Park Young-seok 1993–2001196338 Flag of South Korea.svg Korean
9 Um Hong-gil 1988–20011960 [36] 40 Flag of South Korea.svg Korean
104 Alberto Iñurrategi 1991–2002 [37] 196833 Flag of the Basque Country.svg Basque
11 Han Wang-yong 1994–2003196637 Flag of South Korea.svg Korean
125 [38] Ed Viesturs 1989–2005195946 Flag of the United States.svg American
136 [39] [40] [41] Silvio Mondinelli 1993–2007195849 Flag of Italy.svg Italian
147 [42] Ivan Vallejo 1997–2008195949 Flag of Ecuador.svg Ecuadorian
158 [43] Denis Urubko 2000–2009197335 Flag of Poland.svg Polish
16 Ralf Dujmovits 1990–20091961 [44] 47 Flag of Germany.svg German
179 Veikka Gustafsson 1993–2009196841 Flag of Finland.svg Finnish
18 [45] Andrew Lock 1993–20091961 [46] 48 Flag of Australia (converted).svg Australian
1910 João Garcia 1993–2010196743 Flag of Portugal.svg Portuguese
20 [47] Piotr Pustelnik 1990–2010195158 Flag of Poland.svg Polish
21 [48] Edurne Pasaban 2001–2010197336 Flag of the Basque Country.svg Basque
22 [49] Abele Blanc 1992–2011 [50] [51] 195456 Flag of Italy.svg Italian
23 Mingma Sherpa 2000–2011 [50] 197833 Flag of Nepal.svg Nepali
2411 Gerlinde Kaltenbrunner 1998–2011 [50] 197040 Flag of Austria.svg Austrian
25 Vassily Pivtsov 2001–2011 [50] 197536 Flag of Kazakhstan.svg Kazakhstani
2612 Maxut Zhumayev 2001–2011 [50] 197734 Flag of Kazakhstan.svg Kazakhstani
27 Kim Jae-soo 2000–2011 [50] 196150 Flag of South Korea.svg Korean
28 [52] 13Mario Panzeri1988–2012196448 Flag of Italy.svg Italian
29 [53] Hirotaka Takeuchi 1995–2012 [53] 197141 Flag of Japan.svg Japanese
30 Chhang Dawa Sherpa 2001–2013 [50] 198230 Flag of Nepal.svg Nepali
3114 Kim Chang-ho 2005–2013 [50] 197043 Flag of South Korea.svg Korean
32 Jorge Egocheaga 2002–2014 [54] 196845 Flag of Spain.svg Spanish
3315 Radek Jaroš 1998–2014 [50] 196450 Flag of the Czech Republic.svg Czech
34/35 [55] 16/17 [55] Nives Meroi 1998–2017 [56] [57] 196155 Flag of Italy.svg Italian
34/35 [55] 16/17 [55] Romano Benet 1998–2017 [56] [57] [58] 196255 Flag of Italy.svg Italian
Flag of Slovenia.svg Slovenian
36 Peter Hámor 1998–2017 [59] 196452 Flag of Slovakia.svg Slovak
3718 Azim Gheychisaz 2008–2017 [60] 198137 Flag of Iran.svg Iranian
38 Ferran Latorre 1999–2017 [61] 197046 Flag of Spain.svg Spanish
3919 Òscar Cadiach 1984–2017 [62] 195264 Flag of Spain.svg Spanish
40Kim Mi-gon2000–2018 [63] [64] 197345 Flag of Korea (1899).svg Korean
41 Sanu Sherpa 2006–2019 [65] 197544 Flag of Nepal.svg Nepali
42 Nirmal Purja 2014–2019 [2] [66] [lower-alpha 7] 198336 Flag of Nepal.svg Nepali
43 Mingma Gyabu Sherpa 2010–2019 [67] [68] 198930 Flag of Nepal.svg Nepali

Disputed ascents

Claims have been made for all 14 peaks in which not enough evidence was provided to verify the ascent. The disputed ascent in each claim is shown in parentheses. In most cases, the Himalayan chronicler Elizabeth Hawley is considered the definitive source regarding the facts of the dispute. Her The Himalayan Database is the source for other online Himalayan ascent databases (e.g. AdventureStats.com). [30] [31]

Cho Oyu is a recurrent problem peak as it is a small hump about 30 mins into the summit plateau, and the main proxy of a view of Everest, which is possible from the true summit, requires clear weather. [69] [70] Shishapangma is another problem peak because of its dual summits, which despite being close in height, are up to two hours climbing time apart. [71] Hawley judged that Ed Viesturs had not reached the true summit, and he re-climbed the mountain to definitively establish his ascent. [72]

NamePeriodBornAgeNationality
Fausto De Stefani (Lhotse 1997) [73]
(His partner Sergio Martini reclimbed Lhotse in 2000 to verify his 14, see above)
1983–1998195246 Flag of Italy.svg Italian
Alan Hinkes (Cho Oyu 1990) [74] [75]
(Hinkes rejects Hawley's decision to "unrecognise" his Cho Oyu ascent, see "Cho Oyu dispute")
1987–2005195453 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg British
Vladislav Terzyul (Shishapangma (West) Summit 2000, Broad Peak 1995 [76] [77] ) [78] [79]
(As he did not claim the main summit of Shishapangma, this status is unlikely to change)
1993–2004 (deceased)195349 Flag of Ukraine.svg Ukrainian
Oh Eun-sun (Kangchenjunga 2009) [80] [81] [82]
(As the potential first female climber of all 14, this dispute was followed internationally) [81]
1997–2010196644 Flag of South Korea.svg Korean
Carlos Pauner (Shishapangma 2012) [83]
(Pauner acknowledged his uncertainty as it was dark, but says he might reclimb to remove the doubt) [84]
2001–2013196350 Flag of Spain.svg Spanish
Zhang Liang (Shishapangma 2018) [85] [86] [87]
(According Chinese state media and The Himalayan Times, Zhang completed all 14 with other three climbers in the 2018 Chinese Shishapangma expedition, which is suspected that they only reached the central summit)
2000–2018196454 Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Chinese
Comparison of highest mountains.svg
Comparison of the heights of the Eight-thousanders (red triangles) with the Seven Summits and Seven Second Summits.

See also

Notes

  1. Per The Himalayan Database (HDB) tables, the Climber (or Member) Death Rate is the ratio of deaths above base camp, of all climbers who were hoping to summit and who went above base camp, for 1950 to 2009, and is closer to a true probability of death; the data is only for Nepalese Himalaya. Summary tables from the HDB report for all mountains above 8,000 metres, imply that the death rate for the period 1990 to 2009 (e.g. modern expeditions), is roughly half that of the combined 1950 to 2009 period. [16]
  2. As recorded by Eberhard Jurgalski
  3. As recorded by Eberhard Jurgalski and being any death (climber or other) above Base Camp. [19]
  4. This should not be mistaken as being a death rate; it does not imply a probabiltiy of death for a climber attempting to climb an eight-thousander as it includes all deaths from all activities undertaken above base camp (e.g. training or reconissance trips, camp stocking activities by porters who will not be summiting the mountain, rescue attempts etc.). It therefore compares deaths from the larger group of people who were, and were not, making a summit attempt, with the smaller group who were making a summit attempt. While it is not a probability, the statistic does reflect the ratio of people who died above base camp for each climber who summited.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 Data is not available for the Pakistani Himalayas
  6. The UIAA main list also includes summits that have a prominence far lower than 30 metres.
  7. Nirmal Purja climbed all fourteen 8,000m peaks between April 2019 and October 2019, but climbed his first, Dhaulagiri, in 2014.

Related Research Articles

Lhotse Eight-thousander and 4th-highest mountain on Earth, located in Nepal and China

Lhotse is the fourth highest mountain in the world at 8,516 metres (27,940 ft), after Mount Everest, K2, and Kangchenjunga. Part of the Everest massif, Lhotse is connected to the latter peak via the South Col. Lhotse means "South Peak" in Tibetan. In addition to the main summit at 8,516 metres (27,940 ft) above sea level, the mountain comprises the smaller peaks Lhotse Middle (East) at 8,414 m (27,605 ft), and Lhotse Shar at 8,383 m (27,503 ft). The summit is on the border between Tibet and the Khumbu region of Nepal.

Cho Oyu Mountain in Nepal/China

Cho Oyu is the sixth-highest mountain in the world at 8,188 metres (26,864 ft) above sea level. Cho Oyu means "Turquoise Goddess" in Tibetan. The mountain is the westernmost major peak of the Khumbu sub-section of the Mahalangur Himalaya 20 km west of Mount Everest. The mountain stands on the China–Nepal border.

Shishapangma

Shishapangma, also called Gosainthān, is the 14th highest mountain in the world at 8,027 metres (26,335 ft) above sea level. It was the last 8,000 metre peak to be climbed, due to its location entirely within Tibet and the restrictions on visits by foreign travelers to the region imposed by authorities of the Government of China and of the Tibet Autonomous Region.

Alan Hinkes British Himalayan mountaineer

Alan Hinkes OBE is an English Himalayan high-altitude mountaineer from Northallerton in North Yorkshire. He is the first and remains the only British mountaineer to claim all 14 Himalayan eight-thousanders, which he did on 30 May 2005.

Juanito Oiarzabal

Juan Eusebio Oiarzabal Urteaga, commonly known as Juanito Oiarzabal, is a noted Spanish Basque mountaineer and has written four books on the subject. He was the sixth man to reach all 14 eight-thousander summits, and the third one in reaching them without supplementary oxygen. He was the first person to conquer the top 3 summits twice, and was the oldest climber to summit Kangchenjunga, at almost 53, until Carlos Soria Fontan made his successful attempt in 2014, when he was 75 years old. In 2004, he lost all his toes to frostbite after summiting K2.

Benoît Chamoux was a French Alpinist, who claimed to have summited 13 of the Eight-thousanders in the Himalayas.

Andrew James Lock OAM is an Australian high-altitude mountaineer. He became the first, and still remains the only, Australian to climb all 14 "eight-thousanders" on 2 October 2009, and is the 18th person to ever complete this feat. He climbed 13 of the 14 without using bottled oxygen, only using it on Mount Everest, which he has summited three times. He retired from eight-thousander climbing in 2012.

Iván Vallejo Ricaurte is a high-altitude mountaineer from Ecuador. On 1 May 2008, he became the 14th person to reach the summit of all 14 mountains above 8,000 meters, and the 7th without use of supplemental oxygen. He is the first, and still the only, Southern Hemisphere climber to complete all 14 eight-thousanders, without supplemental oxygen.

Oh Eun-sun

Oh Eun-sun is a South Korean mountaineer. She was the first Korean woman to climb the Seven Summits. On April 27, 2010, she reached the summit of Annapurna; upon doing so, she claimed to have climbed all fourteen eight-thousanders, which would have made her the first woman to achieve this feat. However, her claim to have ascended Kangchenjunga was disputed by multiple experts. Oh later admitted that she had stopped a few meters before the summit of Kangchenjunga, and so the Korean Alpine Federation ruled that she had not summited. The mountaineering site ExplorersWeb considered that Edurne Pasaban is the first woman to have successfully climbed all fourteen peaks.

Phurba Tashi

Phurba Tashi Sherpa Mendewa is a Nepalese Sherpa mountaineer known for his numerous ascents of major Himalayan peaks. He holds the record for the most total ascents of eight-thousanders, with 30. These include twenty-one ascents of Mount Everest, five on Cho Oyu, two on Manaslu, and one each on Shishapangma and Lhotse.

Lopsang Jangbu Sherpa was a Nepalese Sherpa mountaineering guide, climber and porter, best known for his work as the climbing Sirdar for Scott Fischer's Mountain Madness expedition to Everest in Spring 1996, when a freak storm led to the deaths of eight climbers from several expeditions, considered one of the worst disasters in the history of Everest mountaineering. Notwithstanding controversy over his actions during that expedition, Lopsang was well-regarded in the mountaineering community, having summited Everest four times. Lopsang was killed in an avalanche in September 1996, while again on an expedition to climb Everest for what would have been a fifth ascent.

Alberto Iñurrategi

Alberto Iñurrategi Iriarte is a Basque Spanish mountaineer born in Aretxabaleta, Gipuzkoa, Basque Country (Spain), 3 November 1968. In the year 2002, he became the second Spaniard and Basque and 10th person to climb the 14 eight-thousanders.

Silvio Mondinelli

Silvio Mondinelli, is an Italian mountaineer. In the year 2007, he became the 13th person to climb the 14 eight-thousanders. He is the 6th person to accomplish that feat without the use of supplementary oxygen. He was 49 years old when he summited the last of the 14 summits, a task he started in 1993 and finished in 2007.

Ralf Dujmovits is a German mountaineer. In May 2009 he became the 16th person, and the first German, to climb the 14 eight-thousanders.

Chhang Dawa Sherpa Nepalese mountaineer (born 1982)

Chhang Dawa Sherpa is a Nepalese mountaineer and the youngest mountaineer till 2019 to summit the 14 highest peaks. Dawa and his brother Mingma Sherpa together hold the world record as "first brothers to summit the 14 highest peaks", a single record shared by the two.

<i>The Himalayan Database</i> Elizabeth Hawleys climbing statistics

The Himalayan Database: The Expedition Archives of Elizabeth Hawley is a large digital and published record of mountaineering in the Nepalese Himalayas since 1903, maintained by Richard Salisbury who digitised the records.

Nirmal Purja Nepalese mountaineer

Nirmal "Nims" Purja is a Nepalese mountaineer of Magar descent and a holder of multiple mountaineering world records. Prior to taking on a career in mountaineering, he served with the British Armed Forces as a Nepalese Gurkha, and was a soldier in the Special Boat Service (SBS), an elite special forces unit of the Royal Navy. Purja is notable for having climbed all 14 of Earth's eight-thousanders in a record time of 6 months and 6 days with the aid of bottled oxygen, beating the previous record of just under 8 years. He was also the first to reach the summits of Mount Everest, Lhotse and Makalu in a time period of 48 hours. In 2021, Purja, along with a team of nine other Nepalese mountaineers, successfully completed the first-ever winter ascent of Pakistan's K2.

Seven Summit Treks Nepalese adventure operating company

Seven Summit Treks, is a commercial adventure operator, based in Kathmandu, Nepal. They are specialized in Eight-thousander of Nepal, China, and Pakistan. Established by four Sherpa brothers including Mingma Sherpa, Chhang Dawa Sherpa and Tashi Lakpa Sherpa. Mingma and his brother Chhang Dawa are the first sibling to climbed all 8000ers, Mingma is first and Dawa is second South Asian to do so.

References

  1. 1 2 Sports Editor (29 October 2019). "Nirmal Purja: Ex-soldier climbs 14 highest mountains in six months". BBC News . Retrieved 24 December 2019. A Nepali mountaineer and former British Marine has climbed the world's tallest 14 peaks in six months - beating an earlier record of almost eight years.
  2. 1 2 3 Freddie Wilkinson. "Nepal climber makes history speed climbing world's tallest peaks". National Geographic . Retrieved 24 December 2019. On October 29th, Nirmal Purja Magar announced via Instagram that he had summited China's Shishapangma. This marked the fourteenth 8,000-meter peak he had climbed in seven months and the completion of an extraordinary project to speed climb the world's tallest mountains in rapid succession.
  3. "Fast Facts About Nanga Parbat". climbing.about.com. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
  4. Herzog, Maurice (1951). Annapurna: First Conquest of an 8000-meter Peak. Translated from the French by Nea Morin and Janet Adam Smith. New York: E.P Dutton & Co. p. 257.
  5. Zawada, Andrzej (1984). Translated by Doubrawa-Cochlin, Ingeborga; Cochlin, Peter. "Mount Everest: The First Winter Ascent" (PDF). The Alpine Journal: 50–59.
  6. "Preliminary stats: Himalaya and Everest 2011 spring review" . ExplorersWeb. 8 June 2013. Retrieved 4 January 2014.
  7. "Lhotse Summits". 8000ers.com. Retrieved 4 January 2014.
  8. 1 2 Farmer, Ben (16 January 2021). "Former Gurkha Nirmal Purja among Nepalese climbers to complete first winter ascent of deadly K2". The Daily Telegraph . Retrieved 16 January 2021.
  9. PEAKBAGGER: World 7200-meter Peaks (Ranked Peaks have 500 meters of Clean Prominence)
  10. "Oh Eun-Sun report, final: Edurne Pasaban takes the throne" . ExplorersWeb. 10 December 2010. Retrieved 4 January 2014.
  11. "Austrian woman claims Himalayas climbing record". BBC News. 23 August 2011. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
  12. "Austrian is first woman to scale 14 peaks without oxygen". AsiaOne. 30 August 2011. Retrieved 4 January 2014.
  13. "Alpinismo, il record di Meroi-Benet: è italiana la prima coppia su tutti gli Ottomila". 11 May 2017.
  14. 1 2 3 4 Eberhard Jurgalski. "General Info". 8000ers.com. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
  15. 1 2 "DAILY CHART: Stairway to heaven, how deadly are the world's highest mountains?". The Economist. 29 March 2013. For every three thrill-seekers that make it safely up and down Annapurna I, one dies trying, according to data from Eberhard Jurgalski of website 8000ers.com, collected in his forthcoming book "On Top of the World: The New Millennium", co-authored by Richard Sale.
  16. Elizabeth Hawley; Richard Sailsbury (2011). "The Himalaya by the Numbers: A Statistical Analysis of Mountaineering in the Nepal Himalaya" (PDF). p. 129. Table D-3: Deaths for peaks with more than 750 members above base camp from 1950–2009
  17. "Himalayan Death Tolls". The Washington Post . 24 April 2014.
  18. 1 2 3 PeakBagger: World 8000–metre Peaks
  19. Eberhard Jurgalski. "Fatalities tables". 8000ers.com. Retrieved 23 November 2018. Included are only fatalities from, at or above BC or caused from there. Fatalities on approach or return marches are not listed.
  20. "K2 lies in Pakistan, near the northern border with China". BBC News.
  21. Harding, Luke (13 July 2000). "Climbers banned from sacred peak". the Guardian. Retrieved 29 March 2018.
  22. Richard Gray (23 August 2013). "The new peaks opened as alternatives to Mount Everest". The Daily Telegraph. Nepal
  23. 1 2 3 Navin Singh Khadka (18 October 2013). "Nepal mountain peak expansion bid stalls". BBC News.
  24. Eberhard Jurgalski. "Subsidiary Peaks". 8000ers.com. Retrieved 23 November 2018. There are several different subsidiary peaks! Here are the geographical facts, from the one "relative independent Main-Peak" (EU category B) over the important subsidiary peaks (C) to the major notable points (D1) Especially the last category is just guessed by contours or from photographs.
  25. 1 2 Eberhard Jurgalski. "Dominance". 8000ers.com. Retrieved 23 November 2018. Accordingly, the author introduced altitude classes (AC) and a proportional prominence, which he named orometrical dominance (D). D is calculated easily but fittingly: (P/Alt) x 100. Thus, it indicates the percentage of independence for every elevation, no matter what the altitude, prominence or mountain type it is. From a scientific point of view, altitude could be seen as the thesis, prominence as the antithesis, whereas dominance would be the synthesis.
  26. 1 2 "Do we really need more 8000m peaks". Mark Horrell. 23 October 2013. The most prominent one, Broad Peak Central is just 196m high and the least prominent, Lhotse Middle, is a meagre 60m. To put this in context, the highest mountain in Malta is 253m, while the Eiffel Tower stands a whopping 300m.
  27. "A funny name for a mountain". Mark Horrell. 4 June 2014.
  28. "UIAA Mountain Classification: 4,000ERS OF THE ALPS". UIAA. March 1994. Topographic criterium: for each summit, the level difference between it and the highest adjacent pass or notch should be at least 30 m (98 ft) (calculated as average of the summits at the limit of acceptability). An additional criterium can be the horizontal distance between a summit and the base of another adjacent 4000er.
  29. Elizabeth Hawley; Richard Salisbury (2018). "The Himalayan Database, The Expedition Archives of Elizabeth Hawley". The Himalayan Database.
  30. 1 2 If a mountaineer wants worldwide recognition that they have reached the summit of some of the most formidable mountains in the world, they will need to get the approval of Elizabeth Hawley. "Elizabeth Hawley, unrivalled Himalayan record keeper". BBC News. 29 August 2010.
  31. 1 2 "Elizabeth Hawley, Who Chronicled Everest Treks, Dies at 94". New York Times. 26 January 2018.
  32. "High Altitude Mountaineering statistics". AdventureStats.com. 2018.
  33. "Climbers who have ascended to the summits of all of the world's 14 mountains over 8000 metres". 8000ers.com (Eberhard Jurgalski). 2018.
  34. Eberhard Jurgalski (26 May 2012). "Climbers – First 14". 8000ers.com. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
  35. Carlos Carsolio required emergency oxygen on his descent from Makalu in 1988.
  36. EverestNews2004.com, News (age calculated: in 2004 Hong-Gil Um was 44). "Mr. Um Hong Gil has bagged his 15th 8000 meter peak". Archived from the original on 21 June 2009. Retrieved 30 November 2008.
  37. Kukuxumusu, Spanish News. "Alberto Iñurrategi achieves his fourteenth "eight thousand meters"". Archived from the original on 21 June 2009. Retrieved 30 November 2008.
  38. "Best of ExplorersWeb 2005 Awards: Ed Viesturs and Christian Kuntner". Mounteverest.net. Archived from the original on 22 December 2008. Retrieved 30 November 2008. ...the American climber became one of only five men in the world to accomplish the quest entirely without supplementary oxygen.
  39. Mounteverest.net. "The wolf is back: Gnaro bags Baruntse". Archived from the original on 28 October 2008. Retrieved 30 November 2008. Last year, Silvio 'Gnaro' Mondinelli broke the haunted 13 when he summited the last peak on his list of 14, 8000ers – becoming only the 6th mountaineer in the world to have bagged them all without supplementary oxygen.
  40. "The day after: Silvio Mondinelli, Broad Peak and all 14 8000m summits". PlanetMountain.com. Retrieved 30 November 2008. 13/07 interview with Silvio Mondinelli after the summit of his 14th 8000m peak without supplementary oxygen.
  41. "The 14th knight: Ecuadorian Ivan Vallejo is ready to continue". Mounteverest.net. Archived from the original on 11 May 2008. Retrieved 30 November 2008. Implied in text: ...Following Italian Silvio "Gnaro" Mondinelli last year and American Ed Viesturs in 2005, Ivan also became only the seventh mountaineer in the world to have done them all without supplementary oxygen.
  42. "The 14th knight: Ecuadorian Ivan Vallejo is ready to continue". Mounteverest.net. Archived from the original on 11 May 2008. Retrieved 30 November 2008. ...Ivan also became only the seventh mountaineer in the world to have done them all without supplementary oxygen.
  43. "Denis Urubko, Cho Oyu and all 14 8000m peaks". PlanetMountain.com. Retrieved 18 May 2009.
  44. "Ralf Dujmovits". Ralf-dujmovits.de. Archived from the original on 15 July 2010. Retrieved 14 April 2010.
  45. "Summit 8000 – Andrew Lock's quest to climb all fourteen of the highest mountains in the world". Andrew-lock.com. Retrieved 14 April 2010.
  46. "Australia's Most Accomplished Mountaineer". Andrew Lock. 2 October 2009. Archived from the original on 21 July 2013. Retrieved 14 April 2010.
  47. "Piotr Pustelnik summits Annapurna – bags the 14x8000ers!". Explorersweb.com. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
  48. "Shisha Pangma: Edurne Pasaban summits – completes the 14x800ers". Explorersweb.com. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
  49. "Abele Blanc summits Annapurna and all 8000ers". Planetmountain.com. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
  50. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 "Climbers - First 14, updated table on 8000ers.com". 8000ers.com. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
  51. "Everest – Mount Everest by climbers, news". Mounteverest.net. 18 May 2005. Archived from the original on 8 July 2012. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
  52. "Mario Panzeri: sono in cima! E finalmente sono 14 ottomila". Montagna.tv. Archived from the original on 2 November 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
  53. 1 2 "日本人初の快挙、8000m峰14座登頂 竹内洋岳". Nikkei.com. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
  54. "Climbers – First 14". 8000ers.com. 13 August 2014. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
  55. 1 2 3 4 Nives Meroi and Romano Benet climbed all the Eight-thousanders together, it wasn't revealed if one of them climbed the last peak a few moments before the other, thus they share the same position
  56. 1 2 "Nives Meroi and Romano Benet summit Annapurna, their 14th 8000er". PlanetMountain.com. Retrieved 11 May 2017.
  57. 1 2 "Nives Meroi in Roman Benet preplezala 14 osemtisočakov". Sta.si (in Slovenian). Retrieved 11 May 2017.
  58. "Slovenec s 15. osemtisočaka". Delo.si (in Slovenian). Retrieved 11 May 2017.
  59. "Pokoril všetky osemtisícovky". skrsi.rtvs.sk. 16 May 2017. Retrieved 17 May 2017.
  60. "قیچی‌ساز حماسه ساز شد/کوهنورد تبریزی به هشت هزاری‌ها پیوست". yjc. 19 May 2017. Retrieved 19 May 2017.
  61. "Ferran Latorre completa los catorce ochomiles en el Everest" (in Spanish). desnivel.com. 27 May 2017. Retrieved 27 May 2017.
  62. "Cadiach, camino del campo 3 tras coronar el Broad Peak" (in Spanish). La Vanguardia. 27 July 2017. Retrieved 27 July 2017.
  63. "김미곤 히말라야 14봉 등정 보고회 열려" (in Korean). Mountain Journal. 27 July 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2019.
  64. "South Korean Climbs Nanga Parbat, Completes 8,000ers". Gripped. 12 July 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2019.
  65. "Sanu Sherpa becomes third Nepali to complete 14 peaks as Sergi Mingote scales 7 mountains in 444 days". The Himalayan Times. 3 October 2019. Retrieved 11 November 2019.
  66. Dream Wanderlust (24 May 2019). "Nirmal Purja summits 5th eight-thousander in 12 days, ends 1st phase of 'Project Possible'". Dreamwanderlust.com.com. Retrieved 26 May 2019.
  67. "Reflections While Waiting for News from Shishapangma". Explorersweb.com. 29 October 2019. Retrieved 26 November 2019.
  68. https://www.npr.org/2019/10/29/774350376/nepalese-climber-summits-worlds-14-highest-peaks-in-6-months-smashing-record
  69. I have summitted Cho Oyu 4 times and will be heading for my fifth this coming season. Each time I have watched the Koreans and Japanese go only to where they can see Everest, not the summit, because they know this is what will be asked. "Cho Oyu summit: Where is it exactly". Explorersweb.com. September 2017.
  70. Many people who climb Cho Oyu in Tibet stop at a set of prayer flags with views of Everest and believe they’ve reached the top, unaware they still have to walk for 15 minutes across the summit plateau until they can see the Gokyo Lakes in Nepal. "When is a summit not a summit?". Mark Horrell. 12 November 2014.
  71. "Asia, Tibet, Cho Oyu and Shisha Pangma Central (West) Summit". American Alpine Journal. 1991.
  72. Keeper of the Mountains: The Elizabeth Hawley Story. Rocky Mountain Books. 5 October 2012. pp. 185–195. ISBN   978-1927330159.
  73. Elizabeth Hawley (2014). "Seasonal Stories for the Nepalese Himalaya 1985–2014" (PDF). The Himalayan Database. p. 274. But a South Korean climber, who followed in their footprints on the crusted snow three days later [in 1997] in clearer weather, did not consider that they actually gained the top. While [Sergio] Martini and [Fausto] De Stefani indicated they were perhaps only a few meters below it, Park Young-Seok claimed that their footprints stopped well before the top, perhaps 30 meters below a small fore-summit and 150 vertical meters below the highest summit. Now in 2000 [Sergio] Martini was back again, and this time he definitely summited Lhotse.
  74. AdventureStats.net, Official records. "Climbers that have summited 10 to 13 of the 14 Main-8000ers" . Retrieved 30 November 2008.
  75. Elizabeth Hawley (2014). "Seasonal Stories for the Nepalese Himalaya 1985–2014" (PDF). The Himalayan Database. p. 347. But his claim to have now climbed all 8000ers is open to question. In April 1990 he and others reached the summit plateau of Cho Oyu. It was misty so they could not see well; nine years later Hinkes said he had “wandered around for a while” in the summit area but could see very little and eventually descended to join the others, one of whom said they had not reached the top.
  76. "Vladislav Terz". www.russianclimb.com. Retrieved 28 April 2016.
  77. "AdventureStats – by Explorersweb". www.adventurestats.com. Retrieved 28 April 2016.
  78. Russianclimb.com, Mountaineering World of Russia & CIS. "Vladislav Terzyul, List of ascents" . Retrieved 6 October 2009.
  79. "Sad results on Makalu and Unanswered Questions: 1 missing climber and 1 passed away on Makalu". Everestnews2004.com. Archived from the original on 12 May 2012. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
  80. "Everest K2 News ExplorersWeb – More dark clouds mounting on Anna summit push; Miss Oh's Kanchen summit "disputed" after renewed accusations". Explorersweb.com. 26 April 2010. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
  81. 1 2 "New doubts over Korean Oh Eun-Sun's climbing record, Hawley to investigate". BBC News. 27 August 2010.
  82. What would appear to be the most serious blow to Miss Oh, on 26 August this year the Korean Alpine Federation, the nation's largest climbing association, concluded that Miss Oh had not reached the top of Kangchenjunga. "Seasonal Stories for the Nepalese Himalaya 1985–2014" (PDF). Elizabeth Hawley. 2014. p. 394.
  83. "Desnivel; Carlos Pauner consigue la cima del Everest". Desnivel.com. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
  84. "Carlos Pauner is not sure if they hit the top of the Shisha Pangma (8,027)". lainformacion.com. 18 February 2016.
  85. "CCTV; 罗静等23名中国登山者登顶希夏邦马峰". CCTV. 29 September 2018. Retrieved 5 June 2019.
  86. "The Himalayan Times; Four Chinese climbers complete all 14 peaks above 8,000m this autumn". The Himalayan Times. 29 September 2018. Retrieved 5 June 2019.
  87. "Luo Jing no alcanzó la cima principal del Shisha Pangma" [Luo Jing did not reach the main peak of the Shishapangma] (in Spanish). Desnivel.com. 4 October 2018. Retrieved 25 September 2020.