Eléonore Denuelle de La Plaigne

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Eleonore Denuelle de La Plaigne by Francois Gerard, c. 1807 Denuelle.png
Eléonore Denuelle de La Plaigne by François Gérard, c. 1807
Charles, Count Leon Charles, comte Leon.jpg
Charles, Count Léon

Eléonore Denuelle (13 September 1787 30 January 1868) was a mistress of Emperor Napoleon I of France and the mother of his son Charles, Count Léon. Her son was proof that Napoleon was capable of producing an heir and that his wife, Joséphine de Beauharnais, was infertile; as a result, he divorced Joséphine and married Marie Louise of Austria.

Mistress (lover) Female who is in an extra-marital sexual relationship

A mistress is a relatively long-term female lover and companion who is not married to her partner, especially when her partner is married to someone else.

First French Empire Empire of Napoleon I of France between 1804–1815

The First French Empire, officially the French Empire, was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century. Although France had already established an overseas colonial empire beginning in the 17th century, the French state had remained a kingdom under the Bourbons and a republic after the Revolution. Historians refer to Napoleon's regime as the First Empire to distinguish it from the restorationist Second Empire (1852–1870) ruled by his nephew as Napoleon III.

Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma Empress of France

Marie Louise was an Austrian archduchess who reigned as Duchess of Parma from 1814 until her death. She was Napoleon's second wife and, as such, Empress of the French from 1810 to 1814.

She was born Louise Catherine Eléonore Denuelle de la Plaigne into a middle-class family, by reports of the day was pretty and witty, and was married at the age of 18 to a former army captain, Jean-François Revel-Honoré. Her husband was arrested for fraud three months into the marriage, and sentenced to two years in prison. On 29 April 1806, the couple were granted a divorce.

Shortly afterward she became a mistress to the Emperor Napoleon, an arrangement set up by his sister Caroline Bonaparte, and in less than a year their illegitimate son, Count Léon, was born. He was Napoleon's first illegitimate child, and proof that Napoleon was capable of fathering a child, establishing that his wife, Joséphine de Beauharnais, was infertile.

Caroline Bonaparte Queen of Naples and Sicily

Maria Annunziata Carolina Murat, better known as Caroline Bonaparte, was the seventh surviving child and third surviving daughter of Carlo Buonaparte and Letizia Ramolino, and a younger sister of Napoleon I of France. She was queen of Naples during the reign of her spouse there, and regent of Naples during his absence four times: in 1812-13, 1813, 1814 and 1815.

In 1808, the Emperor Napoleon arranged a marriage for her to a young lieutenant, Pierre-Philippe Augier of Sauzay, in order to end the royal affair. She was paid a hefty dowry by the emperor, and the newly married couple departed for Spain. Augier was listed as missing in action on 28 November 1812 during Napoleon's Russian Campaign. Newly widowed, she married Count Charles-Emile-Auguste-Louis de Luxbourg in 1814. She remained with her third husband until his death 35 years later.

A dowry is a transfer of parental property, gifts or money at the marriage of a daughter. Dowry contrasts with the related concepts of bride price and dower. While bride price or bride service is a payment by the groom or his family to the bride's parents, dowry is the wealth transferred from the bride's family to the groom or his family, ostensibly for the bride. Similarly, dower is the property settled on the bride herself, by the groom at the time of marriage, and which remains under her ownership and control. Dowry is an ancient custom, and its existence may well predate records of it. Dowries continue to be expected and demanded as a condition to accept a marriage proposal in some parts of the world, mainly in parts of Asia, Northern Africa and the Balkans. In some parts of the world, disputes related to dowry sometimes result in acts of violence against women, including killings and acid attacks. The custom of dowry is most common in cultures that are strongly patrilineal and that expect women to reside with or near their husband's family (patrilocality). Dowries have long histories in Europe, South Asia, Africa and other parts of the world.

Missing in action military casualty classification used for military persons missing during active service due to apparently involuntary reasons

Missing in action (MIA) is a casualty classification assigned to combatants, military chaplains, combat medics, and prisoners of war who are reported missing during wartime or ceasefire. They may have been killed, wounded, captured, or deserted. If deceased, neither their remains nor grave has been positively identified. Becoming MIA has been an occupational risk for as long as there has been warfare.

Sources

Translations

  1. "ELEONORE DENUELLE DE LA PLAIGNE - NapoléonPrisonnier.com". Napoleonprisonnier.com. Retrieved 22 August 2017.
  2. English translation of www.napoleonprisonnier.com/acteurs/eleonore.html (from French)
  3. "DENUELLE de la PLAIGNE Eléonore Louise Catherine (1787-1858)". Appl-lachaise.net. Retrieved 22 August 2017.
  4. English translation of www.appl-lachaise.net/appl/article.php3?id_article=323 (from French)

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