El Paso–Juárez

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El Paso–Juárez Metropolitan Area
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Nickname(s): 
Paso del Norte
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El Paso–Juárez Metropolitan Area
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El Paso–Juárez Metropolitan Area
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El Paso–Juárez Metropolitan Area
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El Paso–Juárez Metropolitan Area
Coordinates: 31°44′22″N106°29′13″W / 31.73944°N 106.48694°W / 31.73944; -106.48694 Coordinates: 31°44′22″N106°29′13″W / 31.73944°N 106.48694°W / 31.73944; -106.48694
Countries United States, Mexico
States Texas, Chihuahua, New Mexico
Population
  Total2.7 million [1]
Time zone UTC-7 (Mountain Standard Time)
  Summer (DST) UTC-6 (Mountain Daylight Time)
El Paso and Ciudad Juarez from ISS, 2014 El Paso and Ciudad Juarez from ISS.jpg
El Paso and Ciudad Juárez from ISS, 2014

El Paso–Juárez, also known as Juárez–El Paso, the Borderplex or Paso del Norte, is a binational metropolitan area, or conurbation, on the border between Mexico and the United States. [2] The region is centered on two large cities: Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico and El Paso, Texas, U.S. Additionally, nearby Las Cruces, New Mexico, U.S. is sometimes included as part of the region, referred to as El Paso–Juárez–Las Cruces or El Paso–Juárez–Southern New Mexico. [3] With over 2.7 million people, [4] [5] this binational region is the 2nd largest metropolitan area (San Diego–Tijuana being the largest) on the United States–Mexico border. [6] The El Paso–Juárez region is the largest bilingual, binational work force in the Western Hemisphere. [7]

Metropolitan area region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated but economically-linked surroundings

A metropolitan area, sometimes referred to as a metro area or commuter belt, is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing. A metro area usually comprises multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, townships, boroughs, cities, towns, exurbs, suburbs, counties, districts, states, and even nations like the eurodistricts. As social, economic and political institutions have changed, metropolitan areas have become key economic and political regions. Metropolitan areas include one or more urban areas, as well as satellite cities, towns and intervening rural areas that are socioeconomically tied to the urban core, typically measured by commuting patterns. In the United States, the concept of the metropolitan statistical area has gained prominence.

Conurbation group of towns linked by continuous urban area (for single town center use Q159313)

A conurbation is a region comprising a number of cities, large towns, and other urban areas that, through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban or industrially developed area. In most cases, a conurbation is a polycentric urbanised area, in which transportation has developed to link areas to create a single urban labour market or travel to work area.

Mexico Country in the southern portion of North America

Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost 2,000,000 square kilometres (770,000 sq mi), the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the tenth most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity that is also the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana and León.

Contents

This region is commonly subdivided into the Juárez Metropolitan Area (Zona Metropolitana de Juárez) and greater El Paso, as well as greater Las Cruces. These sub-regions are typically divided by state borders: Chihuahua, Texas, and New Mexico.

Communities

Juárez is by far the largest city in the region (population 1,500,891 as of 2010). El Paso is the next largest (681,124 as of 2015), and Las Cruces is the third largest (101,643 as of 2015). [8] [9]

Some of the major suburbs are Fabens, Texas; Puerto de Anapra, Chihuahua; San Elizario, Texas; Socorro, Texas; Sunland Park, New Mexico. [10] Additionally there are many smaller communities in the area including Anthony, New Mexico; Anthony, Texas; Canutillo, Texas; Chaparral, New Mexico; Horizon City, Texas; Mesilla, New Mexico; Santa Teresa, New Mexico; University Park, New Mexico; Vado, New Mexico; and Westway, Texas. [11]

Fabens, Texas Census-designated place in Texas, United States

Fabens is a census-designated place (CDP) in El Paso County, Texas, United States. The population was 8,257 at the 2010 census. It is part of the El Paso Metropolitan Statistical Area. The ZIP Codes encompassing the CDP area are 79836 and 79838.

San Elizario, Texas City in Texas, United States

San Elizario is a city in El Paso County, Texas, United States. The population was 13,603 at the 2010 census. It is part of the El Paso Metropolitan Statistical Area. It lies on the Rio Grande, which forms the border between the United States and Mexico. The city of Socorro adjoins it on the west and the town of Clint lies to the north.

Socorro, Texas City in Texas, United States

Socorro is a city in El Paso County, Texas, United States. It is located on the north bank of the Rio Grande southeast of El Paso, and on the border of Mexico. El Paso adjoins it on the west and the smaller city of San Elizario on the southeast; small unincorporated areas of El Paso County separate it from the nearby municipalities of Horizon City to the north and Clint to the east. As of the 2000 census, the city population was 27,152. By the 2010 census, the number had grown to 32,013. It is part of the El Paso Metropolitan Statistical Area. The city is El Paso County's second-largest municipality, after El Paso. It has a council-manager type of government with five city council members. Socorro is the 93rd largest community in the state of Texas.

History

The Franklin Mountains region has had human settlement for thousands of years, as evidenced by Folsom points from hunter-gatherers found at Hueco Tanks. [12] The earliest known cultures in the region were maize farmers. At the time of the arrival of the Spanish the Manso, Suma, and Jumano tribes populated the area and today form the basis of the Mestizo culture in the area. The Mescalero Apache roamed the region as well.

Folsom point

Folsom points are a distinct form of knapped stone projectile points associated with the Folsom tradition of North America. The style of tool-making was named after the Folsom Site located in Folsom, New Mexico, where the first sample was found by George McJunkin within the bone structure of a bison in 1908. The Folsom point was identified as a unique style of projectile point in 1926.

Hunter-gatherer human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals)

A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging. Hunter-gatherer societies stand in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.

Hueco Tanks

Hueco Tanks is an area of low mountains and historic site in El Paso County, Texas, in the United States. It is located in a high-altitude desert basin between the Franklin Mountains to the west and the Hueco Mountains to the east. Hueco is a Spanish word meaning hollows and refers to the many water-holding depressions in the boulders and rock faces throughout the region. Due to the unique concentration of historic artifacts, plants and wildlife, the site is under protection of Texas law; it is a crime to remove, alter, or destroy them.

Spanish explorer Don Juan de Oñate was the first European explorer to arrive at the Rio Grande near modern Juárez and El Paso in 1598, celebrating Thanksgiving Mass there on April 30, 1598 (several decades before the Pilgrims' Thanksgiving). [13] El Paso del Norte (the present-day Ciudad Juárez), was founded on the south bank of the Río Bravo del Norte (Rio Grande) in 1659 by Spanish conquistadors. The Mission Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe became its first major settlement. Being a grassland then, agriculture flourished and vineyards and fruits constituted the bulk of the regional production. The Spanish Crown and the local authorities of El Paso del Norte had made several land concessions to bring agricultural production to the northern bank of the river in present-day El Paso. However, the Apaches dissuaded settlement and development across the river. The water provided a natural defense against them.

Rio Grande River forming part of the US-Mexico border

The Rio Grande is one of the principal rivers in the southwest United States and northern Mexico. The Rio Grande begins in south-central Colorado in the United States and flows to the Gulf of Mexico. Along the way, it forms part of the Mexico–United States border. According to the International Boundary and Water Commission, its total length was 1,896 miles (3,051 km) in the late 1980s, though course shifts occasionally result in length changes. Depending on how it is measured, the Rio Grande is either the fourth- or fifth-longest river system in North America.

Mass (liturgy) type of worship service within many Christian denomination

Mass is the main eucharistic liturgical service in many forms of Western Christianity. The term Mass is commonly used in the Catholic Church and Anglican churches, as well as some Lutheran churches, Methodist, Western Rite Orthodox and Old Catholic churches.

Ciudad Juárez City in Chihuahua, Mexico

Ciudad Juárez is the most populous city in the Mexican state of Chihuahua. The city is commonly referred to by locals as simply Juárez, and was known as Paso del Norte until 1888. Juárez is the seat of the municipality of Juárez with an estimated population of 1.5 million people. It lies on the Rio Grande river, south of El Paso, Texas, United States. Together with the surrounding areas, the cities form El Paso–Juárez, the second largest binational metropolitan area on the Mexico–U.S. border, with a combined population of over 2.7 million people.

The Mission Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe Juarez Cathedrale et mission 24-02-2007.jpg
The Mission Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe

El Paso became the southernmost locality of the Provincia de Nuevo Mexico (modern New Mexico). It remained largest city in New Mexico until its north side was ceded to the US in 1850. It communicated with Santa Fe and Mexico City by the Royal Road. American spies, traders and fur trappers visited the area since 1804 and some intermarried with the area's Hispanic elite. [14] Although there was no combat in the region during the Mexican War of Independence, El Paso del Norte experienced the negative effects it had on its wine trade.

The Texas Revolution (1836) was not felt in the region as the area was never considered part of Texas until 1848. Given the blurry reclamations of the Texas Republic that wanted a chunk of the Santa Fe trade, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo effectively made the settlements on the north bank of the river a formal American settlement, separate from Old El Paso del Norte on the Mexican side. [14] The present Texas-New Mexico boundary placing El Paso on the Texas side was drawn in the Compromise of 1850. [15]

The communities on both sides of the border continued to function, in large part, as a single community. The United States Senate fixed a boundary between Texas and New Mexico at the thirty-second parallel, thus largely ignoring history and topography. A military post called "The Post opposite El Paso" (meaning opposite El Paso del Norte, across the Rio Grande) was established in 1854. Further west, a settlement on Coons' Rancho called Franklin became the nucleus of the future El Paso, Texas. A year later pioneer Anson Mills completed his plan of the town, calling it El Paso and the town was incorporated in 1873. [16] During the French intervention in Mexico (1862–1867), El Paso del Norte served as a temporary stop for republican forces of rebel leader Benito Juárez until he established his government-in-exile in Chihuahua. In 1888, El Paso del Norte was renamed in honor of Juárez.

Map of El Paso in 1886. Old map-El Paso-1886.jpg
Map of El Paso in 1886.

In the later 19th century the population in the region began to grow rapidly. With the arrival of the Southern Pacific, Texas and Pacific and the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe railroads in 1881, trade with the rest of the U.S. increased substantially. The area attracted newcomers ranging from businessmen and priests, to gunfighters and prostitutes. In the U.S. El Paso became known as the "Six Shooter Capital" because of its lawlessness. [16] Prostitution and gambling flourished. During World War I, the U.S. Department of the Army pressured El Paso authorities to crack down on vice, creating a tourist boom in Juárez whose vice businesses continued to thrive.

Mining and other industries gradually developed in the area. The 1920s and 1930s saw the emergence of major business development in the city partially enabled by Prohibition era bootlegging with the area becoming a significant port of entry for liquor. [16] The Depression era hit the region hard and population declined through the end of World War II. Following the war, military expansion in the area as well as oil discoveries in the Texas Permian Basin helped spur redevelopment in the mid 1900s. Disparities in wages and cost of living between the U.S. and Mexico helped encourage many businesses to establish manufacturing operations in Mexico during the mid 20th century, thus making El Paso–Juárez an attractive location for manufacturing. The signing of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) helped spur this trend even further.

Geography

Typical elevation in the El Paso–Juárez region is approximately 4,000 feet (1,200 m) though the Franklin Mountains which run through the region have peaks rising much higher. North Franklin Peak, for example, rises to 7,192 feet (2,192 m). [17]

The most well-known feature of the area is the Rio Grande which divides the U.S. from Mexico. The river flows through the Rio Grande Rift, which passes around the southern end of the Franklin Mountains. West of Juárez and El Paso the river turns away from the border, connecting these cities with Las Cruces, New Mexico.

Mt. Cristo Rey, a volcanic peak (an example of a pluton) rises within the Rio Grande Rift just to the west of El Paso on the New Mexico side of the Rio Grande. Other volcanic features include Kilbourne Hole and Hunt's Hole, which are Maar volcanic craters 30 miles (48 km) west of the Franklin Mountains.

The area lies in the Chihuahuan Desert, which itself is the easternmost section of the Basin and Range Region.

El paso city.jpg
A panoramic view of El Paso–Juárez from the north. The Hueco Mountains can be seen toward the east, and the Juárez mountains of Mexico can be seen to the south (far right of the image).

Climate

Ciudad Juárez
Climate chart (explanation)
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Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: [18] (2010-02-18),INEGI, 2006 report

The area has an arid climate because it is located in the Chihuahuan desert. Seasons are less well defined than many areas in the United States. The area experiences hot summers, cool winters and a mild spring and fall. In Juárez the average high is 31 °C (88 °F) with lows of 17 °C (63 °F). The winter high is 14 °C (57 °F) with lows of 1 °C (34 °F). [19] Because of the high altitude the region is cooler than many desert areas in Mexico and the American Southwest. Rainfall is very scarce but it is more prominent in the summer months. Snowfall is not a rare eventit normally snows once or twice every winter.

Economy

El Paso–Juárez is a major center for manufacturing and international trade. It is one of the largest ports of entry on the U.S./Mexico border. [20] The region is also the second most important trade point on the border and the 16th largest trading center in the U.S. [21] [22] In 2000 approximately US$33 billion in trade took place in the region. [21]

As of 2010 the region holds offices for more than 70 Fortune 500 companies. [23] It is also home to more than 320 manufacturing plants (those in Juárez are commonly referred to as maquiladoras ) and more than 1,100 manufacturing operations total. [21] [24] The largest sectors of manufacturing are automobiles and automobile components, and consumer electronic components. [21] Apparel and textile manufacturing, though, are important sectors as well, particularly north of the border. [23] The area employs approximately 262,000 people in manufacturing with 85% of those in Juárez. [24] Many of the workers in Juárez, however, live in the United States. [23]

An important pillar of the economy of El Paso has been Fort Bliss and Biggs Army Airfield. Since frontier days military spending, directly and indirectly, has provided a significant source of money to El Paso and to the region as a whole. As of 2010 the economic impact of Fort Bliss is estimated at more than US$1 billion. [23] Fort Bliss is currently planning a US$4.5 billion expansion that will substantially impact the area economy. [24]

Call centers are additionally major employers in El Paso and neighboring communities in the U.S. [23]

A recent development that is expected to create new economic opportunities in the area is the planned creation of a full medical school in El Paso as part of the Texas Tech Health Sciences Center. [24] [25]

Regional cooperation

Though the national boundaries are an important point of separation, efforts at regional planning and economic integration exist in the local governments and the business communities. Regional business advocacy groups such as El Paso Regional Economic Development Corporation and World Trade Center El Paso/Juárez serve to attract businesses to the area and market its benefits. [26] Efforts at community and environmental cooperation including the Paso del Norte Clean Cities Coalition exist as well. [27] As of 2009 proposals are being discussed at the regional level to create passenger rail systems connecting El Paso with Juárez. [28]

Education

The largest universities in the region are the University of Texas at El Paso and the Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez (Autonomous University of Ciudad Juárez). These universities have strong ties to each other (as well as to the Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua) with formal programs of exchange for scholars and students. [29] Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center El Paso plays a major part in the region because it is one of the few stand alone Medical Schools, where they work closely with Doctors Without Borders. New Mexico State University in Las Cruces is an additional major university in the area.

Other area colleges include Universidad Tecnológica de Ciudad Juárez (Technological University of Ciudad Juárez), Western Technical College-El Paso, and Vista College (El Paso and Las Cruces). El Paso Community College and Doña Ana Community College provide supplemental higher-education opportunities for students in the region.

Culture

Community contact

Until the 1920s and 1930s the communities of Juárez and El Paso enjoyed largely unfettered access to one another, maintaining a sense of unity. Prohibition and World War II brought about more strict enforcement of the border in this region, making access between the communities more difficult. Nevertheless, the communities have continued to share ethnic and cultural bonds particularly as economic integration in the later 20th century has re-opened much of the access between the communities. Even today the cities still see themselves as a single, closely tied community. [30]

The violence in Juárez that erupted in 20082009 has forced the U.S. to tighten its policies regarding allowing Juárez residents access to El Paso. Tourists, workers, and students who were once allowed regular access across the border have been restricted to much tighter schedules for travel. [31]

Parks and recreation

The area is home to numerous parks and venues for outdoor recreation. The 24,000-acre (9,700 ha) Franklin Mountains State Park in El Paso is the largest urban park in the United States. [32] Other urban parks in the area include Ascarate Park (El Paso), Parque Central (Juárez), Parque Chamizal (Juárez), Preciado Park (Las Cruces), and Rio Bosque Park (Socorro, TX).

Outside the metropolitan area there are major state and national parks in the vicinity. The most well-known of these is Big Bend National Park, which is adjacent to Big Bend Ranch State Park. Closer to the cities are Guadalupe Mountains National Park, Lincoln National Forest, and Gila National Forest.

Crime and safety

Chart showing decline in the murder rate. Source: InSightCrime.org Cd Juarez murder rate chart 1.png
Chart showing decline in the murder rate. Source: InSightCrime.org

While violent crime has been an increasingly serious issue in Cd. Juárez since the 1990s, El Paso has remained one of the safest large cities in the United States. In January 2014, El Paso was ranked as the safest large city in the United States for the fourth straight year according to the annual City Crime Rankings by CQ Press. [33] El Paso has been in the study's top three large cities with the lowest crime rates since 1997. [34] Though violent crime on the U.S. side of the border has remained very low, murders in Juárez related to the drug cartels began to grow rapidly after 2007. In 2008, officials reported more than 5,400 drug-related murders in Mexico, many in and near Juárez. [35] [36] On 20 February 2009, the U.S. State Department announced in an updated travel alert that "Mexican authorities report that more than 1,800 people have been killed in the city since January 2008." [37] CNN listed the city among the ten most dangerous in the world in 2010. [38] The deteriorating situation caused drastic changes in daily life for citizens in Juárez after 2008.

After the homicide rates escalated to the point of making Cd. Juárez the most violent city in the world, the city has seen a significant and steady decline in violent crime since then. [39] In 2012, homicides were at their lowest rate since 2007 when drug violence flared between the Sinaloa cartel and the Juarez Cartel. [40] That trend has continued in 2013 when 497 homicides were reported, the lowest amount since 2007, [41] dropping Ciudad Juárez to the 37th spot of most dangerous cities. [42]

Infrastructure

Healthcare

El Paso Children's Hospital at the Medical Center of the Americas El Paso Children's Hospital.jpg
El Paso Children's Hospital at the Medical Center of the Americas

El Paso is the medical hub of West Texas and Southern New Mexico, hosting numerous state-of-the-art medical centers. Some of the city's top hospitals include William Beaumont Army Medical Center, Sierra Medical Center, Las Palmas Medical Center, Del Sol Medical Center, Sierra Providence East Medical Center, El Paso Children's Hospital, and Providence Memorial Hospital. University Medical Center is the only level I trauma center in the region. William Beaumont Army Medical Center will be replaced by a new state of the art $650 million Fort Bliss Replacement Hospital expected to open in 2017. [43]

El Paso is also home to the Medical Center of the Americas, an integrated complex of medical facilities anchored by Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center at El Paso, Paul L. Foster School of Medicine, its primary teaching hospital University Medical Center, the El Paso Psychiatric Center and by the new El Paso Children’s Hospital. It is also site to the Cardwell Collaborative biomedical research park and the Gayle Greve Hunt School of Nursing.

Transportation

Hotel Bristol and the Union Depot at El Paso, Texas (postcard, circa 1912) Hotel Bristol and the Union Depot at El Paso, Texas.jpg
Hotel Bristol and the Union Depot at El Paso, Texas (postcard, circa 1912)

El Paso is served by El Paso International Airport, Amtrak via the historic Union Depot, Interstate 10, US Highway 54 (known locally as "54", the "North-South Freeway" or officially as the Patriot Freeway), Spur 601 (Liberty Expressway), US Highway 180 and US Highway 62 (Montana Avenue), US Highway 85 (Paisano Drive), Loop 375, Loop 478 (Copia Street-Pershing Drive-Dyer Street), numerous Texas Farm-to-Market roads (a class of state highway commonly abbreviated to FM) and the city's original thoroughfare, State Highway 20, the eastern portion of which is known locally as Alameda Avenue (formerly US Highway 80). Texas 20 also includes portions of Texas Avenue in central El Paso, Mesa Street from Downtown to the West Side, and Doniphan Drive on the West Side. Northeast El Paso is connected to West El Paso by Transmountain Road(Loop 375). The city also shares four international bridges and one railbridge with Ciudad Juárez, Mexico. In 2009, El Paso was home to number 52, number 98, and number 100 of the 100 most congested roads in Texas, which are, respectively: North Zaragoza Road between Sun Fire Boulevard and Interstate 10; Lee Trevino Drive between Montana Avenue and Interstate 10; and Interstate 10 between Patriot Freeway and Loop 375. [44]

BRT system

The ViveBus BRT system opened to the public in November 2013 with the first route of 5 planned. The project was made a reality with the collaboration of the local municipal government, the private enterprise of Integradora de Transporte de Juarez (INTRA) as well as other city government agencies. Studies have shown that the current bus system averages 8 mph while the new system is projected to average 16 mph. The BRT system studies conducted by the Instituto Municipal de Investigacion Y Planeacion project a daily ridership of 40,000.

The first of the 5 routes opened to users in late 2013 and is officially named Presidencia-Tierra Nueva and has 34 stations distributed along the north to south corridor. The route starts at Avenida Francisco Villa, follows north to Eje Vial Norte-Sur then veers left at Zaragoza Blvd. and ends at Avenida Independencia and the elevated Carretera Federal 2.

El Paso Trolley

The El Paso Trolley is a $90 Million streetcar project slated to run 5.2 miles from Downtown El Paso to UTEP. On June 5, 2012 city council unveiled a new route creating a narrow loop for the future El Paso streetcar route which will use both Oregon and Stanton streets to connect Downtown and the UTEP area. The streetcars will travel north on Oregon Street, turn east at Glory Road/Baltimore, then south on Stanton Street. A downtown loop will travel east on Franklin Avenue, south on Kansas Street, west on Father Rahm, and north on Santa Fe Street. [45]

Airports

Airport Security Concourse at the El Paso International Airport ELP Front APT.JPG
Airport Security Concourse at the El Paso International Airport

El Paso International Airport, a public airport four miles northeast of downtown El Paso, has 15 gates on two concourses and is served by eight airlines and 10 direct destinations. In 2010, there were 3,065,393 commercial passengers.

Abraham Gonzalez International Airport is located in the southern end of Cd. Juarez. It accommodates national and international air traffic of the city of Ciudad Juárez. In 2011, Abraham González International Airport handled 673,364 passengers, and in 2012 it handled 699,394 passengers.

In 2013, Volaris initiated over 25 weekly flights departing Ciudad Juarez. [46]

Tunnel below the Paso Del Norte Bridge Tunel-heroicocolmil.JPG
Tunnel below the Paso Del Norte Bridge

International border crossings

The first bridge to cross the Rio Grande at El Paso del Norte was built in the time of Nueva España, over 250 years ago, from wood hauled in from Santa Fe. [47] Today, this bridge is honored by the modern Santa Fe Street Bridge, and Santa Fe Street in downtown El Paso.

Several bridges serve the El Paso–Ciudad Juárez area in addition to the Paso Del Norte Bridge also known as the Santa Fe Street Bridge, including the Bridge of the Americas, Stanton Street Bridge, and the Ysleta Bridge also known as the Zaragoza Bridge.

There is also a land crossing at nearby Santa Teresa, New Mexico, and the Fabens-Caseta International Bridge in nearby Fabens, Texas.

Pictures of El Paso, Texas

Pictures of Cd. Juárez, Chihuahua

See also

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The Bridge of the Americas (BOTA) is a group of international bridges which cross the Rio Grande and Texas State Highway Loop 375, connecting the Mexico–United States border cities of Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua and El Paso, Texas, via the MX 45 from the south and the I-110 from the north, crossing the El Paso BOTA Port of Entry. The bridge is colloquially known as "Puente Libre" in Ciudad Juárez, officially as "Puente Internacional Córdova-Las Américas" or "Puente Internacional Córdova de las Américas", and also known as "Puente Río Bravo", "Cordova Bridge" and "Free Bridge".

Stanton Street Bridge international bridge between El Paso, Texas, United States and Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico

The Good Neighbor International Bridge, commonly known as the Stanton Street Bridge, is an international bridge connecting the United States-Mexico border cities of El Paso, Texas, and Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua across the Rio Grande. The bridge is also known as "Friendship Bridge", "Puente Río Bravo" and "Puente Ciudad Juárez-Stanton El Paso". The Good Neighbor International Bridge is a five lane bridge with 3 lanes for south bound traffic and one for Secure Electronic Network for Travelers Rapid Inspection northbound traffic. The bridge was completed in 1967 and is 880 feet (270 m) long. The U.S. side of the bridge is owned and operated by the City of El Paso.

Paso del Norte International Bridge

The Paso del Norte International Bridge is an international bridge which crosses the Rio Grande connecting the United States-Mexico border cities of El Paso, Texas, and Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua. The bridge is also known as "Paso del Norte Bridge", "Santa Fe Street Bridge", "Puente Benito Juárez", "Puente Paso del Norte" and "Puente Juárez-Santa Fe". The Paso del Norte International Bridge is a four-lane bridge for northbound non-commercial traffic only. The bridge was constructed in 1967. The American side of the bridge is owned and operated by the City of El Paso.

Founded as El Paso del Norte by Spanish Franciscan friars at an important mountain pass, the area became a small agricultural producer though most settlement was south of the river where modern Mexico lies. The city was considered part of New Mexico under Spanish Conquerors and was tied economically to Santa Fe, New Mexico and the Chihuahuan mining districts of San Felipe El Real and San José del Parral.

The Manso Indians are an indigenous people who lived along the Rio Grande, near Las Cruces, New Mexico, from the 16th to the 17th century, and were the one of the groups settled at the Guadalupe Mission in what is now Cd. Juarez, Mexico. Some of their descendants remain in the area to this day.

Samalayuca Dune Fields mountain in Mexico

The Samalayuca Dune Fields, more traditionally known as Los Medanos, or more recently referenced as Medanos de Samalayuca are a series of large but separated fields of sand dunes located in the northern part of the Mexican state of Chihuahua. The dune fields are scattered over a wide expanse of desert to the south, southwest and southeast of Ciudad Juárez. The dune fields are located in a 2000 km2 area known as the Samalayuca Desert.

International Diversion Dam

The International Diversion Dam is a diversion dam on the Rio Grande in Ciudad Juárez. The dam is operated by the International Boundary and Water Commission, and diverts water into the Acequia Madre for use in irrigation in Mexico. Water is diverted under the terms of the 1906 treaty on usage of Rio Grande water between the United States and Mexico.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico.

Paso del Norte may refer to:

Ciudad Juárez Cathedral Church in Ciudad Juárez, Mexico

The Our Lady of Guadalupe Cathedral Also Ciudad Juárez Cathedral Is the name of a Catholic cathedral church dedicated to the Virgin of Guadalupe, that is located in Ciudad Juárez in the border state of Chihuahua, in Mexico, in the area called Historical Center. It was built in the middle of the second half of the twentieth century and is attached to the old and still preserved Franciscan mission, founded in the 17th century, in the then Paso del Norte.

Chihuahuita, Texas Place in Texas, United States

Chihuahuita is a neighborhood in El Paso, Texas. It has also been known as the "First Ward." It is considered the oldest neighborhood in the city. It has also suffered through extreme poverty in its history. It is currently on the Most Endangered Historic Places list as compiled by the National Trust for Historic Preservation. It is located on the border of the Rio Grande at the United States-Mexico border. For most of the twentieth century, the name Chihuahuita was used to refer to all of southern El Paso, often including El Segundo Barrio. In 1991, Chihuahuita was designated as a historic district by the city of El Paso.

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