Eleanor R. Adair

Last updated
Eleanor Reed Adair
Born
Eleanor Campbell Reed

(1926-11-11)November 11, 1926
Arlington, Massachusetts
DiedApril 20, 2013(2013-04-20) (aged 86)
Hamden, Connecticut
NationalityAmerican
Alma mater Mount Holyoke College (B.A.)
University of Wisconsin-Madison (Ph.D.)
Known forProponent of microwave radiation safety.
Spouse(s) Robert K. Adair
ChildrenTwo
Scientific career
FieldsPhysiology
InstitutionsJohn B. Pierce Laboratory
Air Force Research Laboratory

Eleanor Reed Adair (November 11, 1926 – April 20, 2013) [1] was an American physiologist who studied the effects of electromagnetic radiation on humans. She is best known for performing the first human studies demonstrating the safety of microwave radiation.

Contents

Personal life

Adair was born on November 28, 1926, in Arlington, Massachusetts. Adair received her undergraduate degree from Mount Holyoke College in 1948. Adair married Robert K. Adair, a physicist, in 1952. In 1955, she obtained her doctorate from the University of WisconsinMadison. She received her Ph.D. in a combination of two fields: sensory psychology and physics. [2]

Scientific work

Starting in the 1970s, Adair conducted physiology studies as a fellow at the John B. Pierce Laboratory in New Haven to learn how humans and animals react to heat. This work led her to focus on the controversial area of microwaves and their effect on human health. [1] Experimenting first on squirrel monkeys and then on human volunteers, she concluded that microwave radiation from microwave ovens, cells phones, and power lines is harmless to humans and animals. [2]

In 1996, she joined the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory at Brooks Air Force Base, Texas, as a senior scientist studying electromagnetic radiation effects. [3]

Awards and honors

Adair was a fellow of several scientific societies, including the Bioelectromagnetics Society and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). She served as the secretary-treasure of the former. Adair chaired several IEEE committees, including the Committee on Man and Radiation and the Standards Coordinating Committee. She was a member of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement Committee. [3]

In 2007 she was awarded the D'Arsonval Award for Bioelectromagnetics by the Bioelectromagnetics Society. [4]

Death

Adair passed away in 2013 due to complications from a stroke. [1]

Related Research Articles

At sufficiently high flux levels, various bands of electromagnetic radiation have been found to cause deleterious health effects in people. Electromagnetic radiation can be classified into two types: ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation, based on the capability of a single photon with more than 10 eV energy to ionize oxygen or break chemical bonds. Extreme ultraviolet and higher frequencies, such as X-rays or gamma rays are ionizing, and these pose their own special hazards: see radiation and radiation poisoning. The last quarter of the twentieth century saw a dramatic increase in the number of devices emitting non-ionizing radiation in all segments of society, which resulted in an elevation of health concerns by researchers and clinicians, and an associated interest in government regulation for safety purposes. By far the most common health hazard of radiation is sunburn, which causes between approximately 100,000 and 1 million new skin cancers annually in the United States.

Tin foil hat Hat and stereotype for conspiracy theorists

A tin foil hat is a hat made from one or more sheets of aluminium foil, or a piece of conventional headgear lined with foil, often worn in the belief or hope that it shields the brain from threats such as electromagnetic fields, mind control, and mind reading. The notion of wearing homemade headgear for such protection has become a popular stereotype and byword for paranoia, persecutory delusions, and belief in pseudoscience and conspiracy theories.

The microwave auditory effect, also known as the microwave hearing effect or the Frey effect, consists of the human perception of audible clicks, or even speech, induced by pulsed or modulated radio frequencies. The communications are generated directly inside the human head without the need of any receiving electronic device. The effect was first reported by persons working in the vicinity of radar transponders during World War II. In 1961, the American neuroscientist Allan H. Frey studied this phenomenon and was the first to publish information on the nature of the microwave auditory effect. The cause is thought to be thermoelastic expansion of portions of the auditory apparatus, although competing theories explain the results of holographic interferometry tests differently.

Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) is a measure of the rate at which energy is absorbed per unit mass by a human body when exposed to a radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic field. It can also refer to absorption of other forms of energy by tissue, including ultrasound. It is defined as the power absorbed per mass of tissue and has units of watts per kilogram (W/kg).

Wireless device radiation and health

The antennas contained in mobile phones, including smartphones, emit radiofrequency (RF) radiation ; the parts of the head or body nearest to the antenna can absorb this energy and convert it to heat. Since at least the 1990s, scientists have researched whether the now-ubiquitous radiation associated with mobile phone antennas or cell phone towers is affecting human health. Mobile phone networks use various bands of RF frequency, some of which overlap with the microwave range. Other digital wireless systems, such as data communication networks, produce similar radiation.

Zorica Pantić, also known as Zorica Pantić-Tanner, born 1951 in Yugoslavia, is a professor of electrical engineering and past president of Wentworth Institute of Technology in Boston.

Bioelectromagnetics, also known as bioelectromagnetism, is the study of the interaction between electromagnetic fields and biological entities. Areas of study include electrical or electromagnetic fields produced by living cells, tissues or organisms, including bioluminescent bacteria; for example, the cell membrane potential and the electric currents that flow in nerves and muscles, as a result of action potentials. Others include animal navigation utilizing the geomagnetic field; the effects of man-made sources of electromagnetic fields like mobile phones; and developing new therapies to treat various conditions. The term can also refer to the ability of living cells, tissues, and organisms to produce electrical fields and the response of cells to electromagnetic fields.

Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is a claimed sensitivity to electromagnetic fields, to which negative symptoms are attributed. EHS has no scientific basis and is not a recognised medical diagnosis. Claims are characterized by a "variety of non-specific symptoms, which afflicted individuals attribute to exposure to electromagnetic fields".

John Roy Whinnery American electrical engineer

John Roy Whinnery was an American electrical engineer and educator who worked in the fields of microwave theory and laser experimentation.

Herman P. Schwan was a biomedical engineer and biophysicist, recognized as the "founding father of biomedical engineering." He was born in Aachen, Germany, and died in his home Radnor, Pennsylvania.

Radiobiology is a field of clinical and basic medical sciences that involves the study of the action of ionizing radiation on living things, especially health effects of radiation. Ionizing radiation is generally harmful and potentially lethal to living things but can have health benefits in radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer and thyrotoxicosis. Its most common impact is the induction of cancer with a latent period of years or decades after exposure. High doses can cause visually dramatic radiation burns, and/or rapid fatality through acute radiation syndrome. Controlled doses are used for medical imaging and radiotherapy.

Sir Christopher Maxwell Snowden, is a British electronic engineer and academic. He is a former Vice-Chancellor of Surrey University and of the University of Southampton. He was president of Universities UK for a two-year term until 31 July 2015 and is currently chairman of the ERA Foundation.

Electromagnetic therapy or Electromagnetic field therapy refers to therapy involving the use of magnets or electromagnets.

The BioInitiative Report is a report on the relationship between the electromagnetic fields (EMF) associated with powerlines and wireless devices and health. It was self-published online, without peer review, on 31 August 2007, by a group "of 14 scientists, researchers, and public health policy professionals". The BioInitiative Report states that it is an examination of the controversial health risks of electromagnetic fields and radiofrequency radiation. Some updated BioInitiative material was published in a journal in an issue guest-edited by one of the members of the group, and a 2012 version of the report was released on 7 January 2013. It has been heavily criticized by independent and governmental research groups for its lack of balance.

Nathan Marcuvitz American academic

Nathan Marcuvitz, was an American electrical engineer, physicist, and educator who worked in the fields of microwave and electromagnetic theory. He was head of the experimental group of the Radiation Laboratory (MIT). He was a member of the National Academy of Engineering. He had a PhD in electrical engineering from Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn.

Claire Van Ummersen, Ph.D. is a distinguished American scholar, administrator, president emerita of Cleveland State University, and national leader in career flexibility in higher education, and women's advancement and leadership.

Farhad Rachidi is an Iranian-Swiss scientist.

Ulrich Jakobus is Senior Vice President - Electromagnetic Solutions of Altair, Germany and was awarded Fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) in 2013 for leadership in hybrid computational tool development and commercialization. His research laid the foundations for the commercial electromagnetics code FEKO which is used in antenna design, antenna placement, electromagnetic compatibility, microwave components, bioelectromagnetics, radar cross section and related fields.

Medical applications of radio frequency (RF) energy, in the form of electromagnetic waves or electrical currents, have existed for over 125 years, and now include diathermy, hyperthermy treatment of cancer, electrosurgery scalpels used to cut and cauterize in operations, and radiofrequency ablation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses radio frequency waves to generate images of the human body.

Mahta Moghaddam is an Iranian-American electrical and computer engineer and William M. Hogue Professor of Electrical Engineering in the Ming Hsieh Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Southern California Viterbi School of Engineering. Moghaddam is also the president of the IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society and is known for developing sensor systems and algorithms for high-resolution characterization of the environment to quantify the effects of climate change. She also has developed innovative tools using microwave technology to visualize biological structures and target them in real-time with high-power focused microwave ablation.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Yardley, William (5 May 2013). "Eleanor R. Adair, Microwave Proponent, Dies at 86". New York Times . Retrieved 30 December 2013.
  2. 1 2 Kolata, Gina (16 January 2001). "A Conversation With: Eleanor R. Adair; Tuning in to the microwave frequency". New York Times . Retrieved 30 December 2013.
  3. 1 2 Adair, Eleanor (2001). "Electromagnetic Fields: Think Benefits, Not Hazards" (PDF).
  4. Greenbaum, Ben. Eleanor R. Adair: 2007 D'Arsonval Award recipient. BioElectroMagnetics, Volume 29, Issue 8, page 585, December 2008