Eleanor Reed Adair
Eleanor Campbell Reed
November 11, 1926
|Died||April 20, 2013 86) (aged|
|Alma mater|| Mount Holyoke College (B.A.)|
University of Wisconsin-Madison (Ph.D.)
|Known for||Proponent of microwave radiation safety.|
|Spouse(s)||Robert K. Adair|
|Institutions||John B. Pierce Laboratory|
Air Force Research Laboratory
Eleanor Reed Adair (November 11, 1926 – April 20, 2013)was an American physiologist who studied the effects of electromagnetic radiation on humans. She is best known for performing the first human studies demonstrating the safety of microwave radiation.
Physiology is the scientific study of the functions and mechanisms which work within a living system.
At sufficiently high flux levels, various bands of electromagnetic radiation have been found to cause deleterious health effects in people. Electromagnetic radiation can be classified into two types: ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation, based on the capability of a single photon with more than 10 eV energy to ionize oxygen or break chemical bonds. Extreme ultraviolet and higher frequencies, such as X-rays or gamma rays are ionizing, and these pose their own special hazards: see radiation and radiation poisoning. The last quarter of the twentieth century saw a dramatic increase in the number of devices emitting non-ionizing radiation in all segments of society, which resulted in an elevation of health concerns by researchers and clinicians, and an associated interest in government regulation for safety purposes. In the United States, this has resulted in legislation such as the Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act of 1968 and the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. By far the most common health hazard of radiation is sunburn, which causes over one million new skin cancers annually in United States.
Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from about one meter to one millimeter; with frequencies between 300 MHz (1 m) and 300 GHz (1 mm). Different sources define different frequency ranges as microwaves; the above broad definition includes both UHF and EHF bands. A more common definition in radio engineering is the range between 1 and 100 GHz. In all cases, microwaves include the entire SHF band at minimum. Frequencies in the microwave range are often referred to by their IEEE radar band designations: S, C, X, Ku, K, or Ka band, or by similar NATO or EU designations.
Adair was born on November 28, 1926, in Arlington, Massachusetts. Adair received her undergraduate degree from Mount Holyoke College in 1948. Adair married Robert K. Adair, a physicist, in 1952. In 1955, she obtained her doctorate from the University of Wisconsin–Madison. She received her Ph.D. in a combination of two fields: sensory psychology and physics.
Arlington is a town in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States, six miles (10 km) northwest of Boston. The population was 42,844 at the 2010 census.
Mount Holyoke College is a private women's liberal arts college in South Hadley, Massachusetts. It is the oldest institution within the Seven Sisters schools, an alliance of elite East Coast liberal arts colleges that arose as a female equivalent to the then male dominated Ivy League. Mount Holyoke also served as a model for other women's colleges and is part of the region's Five College Consortium, along with Amherst College, Smith College, Hampshire College, and the University of Massachusetts Amherst.
Robert Kemp Adair is an American physicist. He is Sterling Professor Emeritus of physics at Yale University.
Starting in the 1970s, Adair conducted physiology studies as a fellow at the John B. Pierce Laboratory in New Haven to learn how humans and animals react to heat. This work led her to focus on the controversial area of microwave s and their effect on human health.Experimenting first on squirrel monkeys and then on human volunteers, she concluded that microwave radiation from microwave ovens, cells phones, and power lines is harmless to humans and animals.
John Bartlett Pierce was an American industrialist who founded the Pierce Steam Heating Company, a forerunner of the American Radiator Company.
Squirrel monkeys are New World monkeys of the genus Saimiri. Saimiri is the only genus in the subfamily Saimirinae. The name of the genus is of Tupi origin and was also used as an English name by early researchers.
In 1996, she joined the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory at Brooks Air Force Base, Texas, as a senior scientist studying electromagnetic radiation effects.
The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) is a scientific research organization operated by the United States Air Force Materiel Command dedicated to leading the discovery, development, and integration of affordable aerospace warfighting technologies, planning and executing the Air Force science and technology program, and providing warfighting capabilities to United States air, space, and cyberspace forces. It controls the entire Air Force science and technology research budget which was $2.4 billion in 2006.
Adair was a fellow of several scientific societies, including the Bioelectromagnetics Society and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). She served as the secretary-treasure of the former. Adair chaired several IEEE committees, including the Committee on Man and Radiation and the Standards Coordinating Committee. She was a member of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement Committee.
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association with its corporate office in New York City and its operations center in Piscataway, New Jersey. It was formed in 1963 from the amalgamation of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers and the Institute of Radio Engineers.
In 2007 she was awarded the D'Arsonval Award for Bioelectromagnetics by the Bioelectromagnetics Society.
Adair passed away in 2013 due to complications from a stroke.
A tin foil hat is a hat made from one or more sheets of aluminium foil, or a piece of conventional headgear lined with foil, worn in the belief or hope that it shields the brain from threats such as electromagnetic fields, mind control, and mind reading. The notion of wearing homemade headgear for such protection has become a popular stereotype and byword for paranoia, persecutory delusions, and belief in pseudoscience and conspiracy theories.
The microwave auditory effect, also known as the microwave hearing effect or the Frey effect, consists of the human perception of audible clicks, or even speech, induced by pulsed or modulated radio frequencies. The communications are generated directly inside the human head without the need of any receiving electronic device. The effect was first reported by persons working in the vicinity of radar transponders during World War II. In 1961, the American neuroscientist Allan H. Frey studied this phenomenon and was the first to publish information on the nature of the microwave auditory effect. The cause is thought to be thermoelastic expansion of portions of the auditory apparatus, although competing theories explain the results of holographic interferometry tests differently.
Diathermy is electrically induced heat or the use of high-frequency electromagnetic currents as a form of physical therapy and in surgical procedures. The earliest observations on the reactions of high-frequency electromagnetic currents upon the human organism were made by Jacques Arsene d'Arsonval. The field was pioneered in 1907 by German physician Karl Franz Nagelschmidt, who coined the term diathermy from the Greek words dia and θέρμη therma, literally meaning "heating through".
Specific absorption rate (SAR) is a measure of the rate at which energy is absorbed by the human body when exposed to a radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic field. It can also refer to absorption of other forms of energy by tissue, including ultrasound. It is defined as the power absorbed per mass of tissue and has units of watts per kilogram (W/kg).
The effect of mobile phone radiation on human health is a subject of interest and study worldwide, as a result of the enormous increase in mobile phone usage throughout the world. As of 2015, there were 7.4 billion subscriptions worldwide, though the actual number of users is lower as many users own more than one mobile phone. Mobile phones use electromagnetic radiation in the microwave range. Other digital wireless systems, Such as data communication networks, produce similar radiation.
Zorica Pantić, also known as Zorica Pantić-Tanner, is a university administrator who is currently president of Wentworth Institute of Technology in Boston and a professor of electrical engineering. She was born in 1951 in Yugoslavia.
Bioelectromagnetics, also known as bioelectromagnetism, is the study of the interaction between electromagnetic fields and biological entities. Areas of study include electrical or electromagnetic fields produced by living cells, tissues or organisms, including bioluminescent bacteria; for example, the cell membrane potential and the electric currents that flow in nerves and muscles, as a result of action potentials. Others include animal navigation utilizing the geomagnetic field; the effects of man-made sources of electromagnetic fields like mobile phones; and developing new therapies to treat various conditions. The term can also refer to the ability of living cells, tissues, and organisms to produce electrical fields and the response of cells to electromagnetic fields.
John Roy Whinnery was an American electrical engineer and educator who worked in the fields of microwave theory and laser experimentation.
Herman P. Schwan was a biomedical engineer and biophysicist, recognised as the "founding father of biomedical engineering". He was born in Aachen, Germany, and died in his home Radnor, Pennsylvania.
Radiobiology is a field of clinical and basic medical sciences that involves the study of the action of ionizing radiation on living things, especially health effects of radiation. Ionizing radiation is generally harmful and potentially lethal to living things but can have health benefits in radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer and thyrotoxicosis. Its most common impact is the induction of cancer with a latent period of years or decades after exposure. High doses can cause visually dramatic radiation burns, and/or rapid fatality through acute radiation syndrome. Controlled doses are used for medical imaging and radiotherapy.
Electromagnetic therapy or Electromagnetic field therapy refers to therapy involving the use of magnets or electromagnets.
The BioInitiative Report is a report on the relationship between the electromagnetic fields (EMF) associated with powerlines and wireless devices and health. It was self-published online, without peer review, on 31 August 2007, by a group "of 14 scientists, researchers, and public health policy professionals". The BioInitiative Report states that it is an examination of the controversial health risks of electromagnetic fields and radiofrequency radiation. Some updated BioInitiative material was published in a journal in an issue guest-edited by one of the members of the group, and a 2012 version of the report was released on 7 January 2013. It has been heavily criticized by independent and governmental research groups for its lack of balance.
Nathan Marcuvitz, was an American electrical engineer, physicist, and educator who worked in the fields of microwave and electromagnetic theory. He was head of the experimental group of the Radiation Laboratory (MIT). He was a member of the National Academy of Engineering. He had a PhD in electrical engineering from Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn.
Levent Gürel is a Turkish scientist and electrical engineer. He was the Director of Computational Electromagnetics Research Center (BiLCEM) and a Professor in the Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering at the Bilkent University, Turkey until November 2014. Currently, he is serving as an Adjunct Professor at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. He is also serving as the founder and CEO of ABAKUS Computing Technologies.
Claire Van Ummersen, Ph.D. is a distinguished American scholar, administrator, president emerita of Cleveland State University, and national leader in career flexibility in higher education, and women's advancement and leadership.
Henry Lai is a scientist, researcher and bioengineering Professor Emeritus at the University of Washington and Editor-in-chief of Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine. Lai published research in 1995 that concluded that low-level microwave radiation caused DNA damage in rat brains.
Kamal Sarabandi is an Iranian-American scientist and Rufus S. Teesdale endowed Professor of Engineering at the University of Michigan, where he teaches and conducts research on the science and technology of microwave and millimeter wave radar remote sensing, wireless technology, electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, metamaterials, antenna miniaturization, and nano antennas.
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