Eleanor of Provence

Last updated

Eleanor of Provence
Eleonor Provence.jpg
Queen consort of England
Tenure14 January 1236 – 16 November 1272
Coronation 20 January 1236
Bornc. 1223
Aix-en-Provence, France
Died24/25 June 1291
Amesbury, Wiltshire, England
Burial
Spouse Henry III, King of England
Issue Edward I, King of England
Margaret, Queen of Scots
Beatrice of England
Edmund, Earl of Lancaster
Katherine of England
House Barcelona
Father Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence
Mother Beatrice of Savoy
Religion Roman Catholicism

Eleanor of Provence (c. 1223 – 24/25 June 1291 [1] ) was a French noblewoman who became Queen consort of England as the wife of King Henry III from 1236 until his death in 1272. She served as regent of England during the absence of her spouse in 1253. [2]

Contents

Although she was completely devoted to her husband, and staunchly defended him against the rebel Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, she was very much hated by the Londoners. This was because she had brought many relatives with her to England in her retinue; these were known as "the Savoyards", and they were given influential positions in the government and realm. On one occasion, Eleanor's barge was attacked by angry Londoners who pelted her with stones, mud, pieces of paving, rotten eggs and vegetables.

Eleanor had nine children, including the future King Edward I of England. She also was renowned for her cleverness, skill at writing poetry, and as a leader of fashion.

Early life

Born in the city of Aix-en-Provence in southern France, she was the second daughter of Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence (1198–1245) and Beatrice of Savoy (1198–1267), the daughter of Thomas I of Savoy and his wife Margaret of Geneva. She was well educated as a child, and developed a strong love of reading. Her three sisters also married kings. [3] After her elder sister Margaret married Louis IX of France, their uncle William corresponded with Henry III of England to persuade him to marry Eleanor. Henry sought a dowry of up to twenty thousand silver marks to help offset the dowry he had just paid for his sister Isabella, but Eleanor's father was able to negotiate this down to no dowry, just a promise to leave her ten thousand when he died.

Like her mother, grandmother, and sisters, Eleanor was renowned for her beauty. She was a dark-haired brunette with fine eyes. [4] Piers Langtoft speaks of her as "The erle's daughter, the fairest may of life". [5] On 22 June 1235, Eleanor was betrothed to King Henry III (1207–1272). [1] Eleanor was probably born latest in 1223; Matthew Paris describes her as being "jamque duodennem" (already twelve) when she arrived in the Kingdom of England for her marriage.

Queen

Eleanor (left) and Henry III, depicted by Matthew Paris in the 1250s Henry III and Eleanor returning by sea from Gascony, with Nicholas de Molis is in a small boat alongside.jpg
Eleanor (left) and Henry III, depicted by Matthew Paris in the 1250s

Eleanor was married to King Henry III of England on 14 January 1236. [6] She had never seen him prior to the wedding at Canterbury Cathedral and had never set foot in his kingdom. [7] Edmund Rich, Archbishop of Canterbury, officiated. She was dressed in a shimmering golden dress that fitted tightly at the waist and flared out to wide pleats at her feet. The sleeves were long and lined with ermine. [8] After riding to London the same day where a procession of citizens greeted the bridal pair, Eleanor was crowned queen consort of England in a ceremony at Westminster Abbey which was followed by a magnificent banquet with the entire nobility in full attendance. [9] Her love for her husband grew significantly from 1236 onward.

Unpopularity

Eleanor was a loyal and faithful consort to Henry, but she brought in her retinue a large number of uncles and cousins, "the Savoyards", and her influence with the King and her unpopularity with the English barons created friction during Henry's reign. [10] Her uncle William of Savoy became a close advisor of her husband, displacing and displeasing English barons. [11]

Though Eleanor and Henry supported different factions at times, she was made regent of England when her husband left for Gascony in 1253. Eleanor was devoted to her husband's cause, stoutly contested Simon de Montfort, raising troops in France for Henry's cause.

On 13 July 1263, she was sailing down the Thames when her barge was attacked by citizens of London. [12] Eleanor stoutly hated the Londoners, who returned her hatred; in revenge for their dislike Eleanor had demanded from the city all the back payments due on the monetary tribute known as queen-gold, by which she received a tenth of all fines which came to the Crown. In addition to the queen-gold other such fines were levied on the citizens by the Queen on the thinnest of pretexts. [13] In fear for her life as she was pelted with stones, loose pieces of paving, dried mud, rotten eggs and vegetables, Eleanor was rescued by Thomas Fitzthomas, the Mayor of London, and took refuge at the bishop of London's home.

Queen dowager

In 1272 Henry died, and her son Edward, who was 33 years old, became king of England. She remained in England as queen dowager, and raised several of her grandchildren—Edward's son Henry and daughter Eleanor, and Beatrice's son John. When her grandson Henry died in her care in 1274, Eleanor went into mourning and gave orders for his heart to be buried at the priory at Guildford which she founded in his memory. In January 1275 she expelled the Jews from all of her lands. [14] Eleanor's two remaining daughters died in 1275, Margaret on 26 February and Beatrice on 24 March.

She retired to a convent; however, she remained in contact with her son, King Edward, and her sister, Queen Margaret of France.

Eleanor died on 24/25 June 1291 in Amesbury, eight miles north of Salisbury, England. She was buried in Amesbury Abbey. The exact site of her grave at the abbey is unknown making her the only English queen without a marked grave. Her heart was taken to London where it was buried at the Franciscan priory of Greyfriars. [15]

Cultural legacy

Eleanor was renowned for her learning, cleverness, and skill at writing poetry, [7] as well as her beauty; she was also known as a leader of fashion, continually importing clothes from France. [5] She often wore parti-coloured cottes (a type of tunic), gold or silver girdles into which a dagger was casually thrust, she favoured red silk damask, and decorations of gilt quatrefoil, and to cover her dark hair she wore jaunty pillbox caps. Eleanor introduced a new type of wimple to England, which was high, "into which the head receded until the face seemed like a flower in an enveloping spathe". [5]

She had developed a love for the songs of the troubadors as a child, and continued this interest. She bought many romantic and historical books, covering stories from ancient times to contemporary romances written in the period (13th century).

Eleanor is the protagonist of The Queen From Provence, a historical romance by British novelist Jean Plaidy which was published in 1979. Eleanor is a main character in the novel Four Sisters, All Queens by author Sherry Jones, as well as the novels The Sister Queens by Sophie Perinot, and "My Fair Lady: A Story of Henry III's Lost Queen" by J. P. Reedman. She is also the subject of Norwegian Symphonic metal band Leave's Eyes in their song "Eleonore De Provence" from their album Symphonies of the Night.

Issue

Eleanor and Henry had nine children together, most of whom died in childhood. Eleanor seems to have been especially devoted to her eldest son, Edward; when he was deathly ill in 1246, she stayed with him at the abbey at Beaulieu in Hampshire for three weeks, long past the time allowed by monastic rules. [16] It was because of her influence that King Henry granted the duchy of Gascony to Edward in 1249.[ citation needed ] Her second youngest child, Katherine, seems to have had a degenerative disease that rendered her deaf. When the little girl died at the age of three, both her royal parents suffered overwhelming grief. [17] Eleanor possibly had four other sons who also died in childhood, but their existence is in doubt as there is no contemporary record of them.

  1. Edward I (1239–1307), married Eleanor of Castile (1241–1290) in 1254, by whom he had issue, including his heir Edward II. His second wife was Margaret of France, by whom he had issue.
  2. Margaret (1240–1275), married King Alexander III of Scotland, by whom she had issue.
  3. Beatrice (1242–1275), married John II, Duke of Brittany, by whom she had issue.
  4. Edmund Crouchback, 1st Earl of Lancaster (1245–1296), married Aveline de Forz in 1269, who died four years later without issue; married Blanche of Artois in 1276, by whom he had issue.
  5. Richard (1247–1256) [18]
  6. John (1250–1256)
  7. William (1251–1256)
  8. Katherine (25 November 1253 – 3 May 1257)
  9. Henry (1256–1257)

Related Research Articles

Isabella of Angoulême 12th and 13th-century French noblewoman and queen consort of England

Isabella of Angoulême was queen consort of England as the second wife of King John from 1200 until John's death in 1216. She was also suo jure Countess of Angoulême from 1202 until 1246.

Thomas, Count of Flanders Lord (later Count) of Piedmont

Thomas II was the Lord of Piedmont from 1233 to his death, Count of Flanders jure uxoris from 1237 to 1244, and regent of the County of Savoy from 1253 to his death, while his nephew Boniface was fighting abroad. He was the son of Thomas I of Savoy and Margaret of Geneva.

Peter II, Count of Savoy Savoian and British noble

Peter II, called the Little Charlemagne, held the Honour of Richmond, Yorkshire from April 1240 until his death and was Count of Savoy from 1263 until his death. He built the Savoy Palace in London.

Philip I, Count of Savoy Count of Savoy

Philip I was the Count of Savoy from 1268 to 1285. Before this, he was the Bishop of Valence (1241–1267), Dean of Vienne, Isère (1241–1267) and Archbishop of Lyon (1245–1267).

Amadeus V, Count of Savoy Count of Savoy (1285–1323)

Amadeus V, surnamed the Great for his wisdom and success as a ruler, was the Count of Savoy from 1285 to 1323. He established Chambéry as his seat. He was the son of Thomas II of Savoy and Beatrice Fieschi.

Richard of Cornwall 13th-century English King of the Romans and Earl of Cornwall

Richard, second son of John, King of England, was the nominal Count of Poitou (1225–1243), Earl of Cornwall and King of Germany. He was one of the wealthiest men in Europe and joined the Barons' Crusade, where he achieved success as a negotiator for the release of prisoners and assisted with the building of the citadel in Ascalon.

Margaret of Provence Queen of France, 1234–1270

Margaret of Provence was Queen of France by marriage to King Louis IX.

Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence Count of Provence

Ramon Berenguer IV was a member of the House of Barcelona who ruled as count of Provence and Forcalquier. He was the first count of Provence to live in the county in more than one hundred years.

Beatrice of England 13th century English princess and duchess of Brittany

Beatrice of England was a member of the House of Plantagenet, the daughter of Henry III of England and Eleanor of Provence.

Margaret of England 13th-century English princess and Queen of Scotland

Margaret of England was Queen of Scots by marriage to King Alexander III.

Sanchia of Provence Queen of the Romans

Sanchia of Provence was the third daughter of Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence and Beatrice of Savoy. Sanchia was described as "of incomparable beauty".

Beatrice of Savoy Countess of Provence

Beatrice of Savoy was the daughter of Thomas I of Savoy and Margaret of Geneva. She was Countess consort of Provence by her marriage to Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence.

Margaret of England, Duchess of Brabant 14th-century English princess and French noblewoman

Margaret of England was the tenth child and seventh daughter of King Edward I of England and his first wife, Eleanor of Castile. Her husband was John II, Duke of Brabant, whom she married in 1290, the year of her mother's death. Margaret and John had one child, John III, Duke of Brabant.

Beatrice of Provence Countess of Provence and Forcalquier

Beatrice of Provence, was ruling Countess of Provence and Forcalquier from 1245 until her death, as well as Countess of Anjou and Maine, Queen of Sicily and Naples by marriage to Charles I of Naples.

Joan of Dammartin was queen of Castile and León by marriage to Ferdinand III of Castile. She also ruled as Countess of Ponthieu (1251–1279) and Aumale (1237–1279). Her daughter, the English queen Eleanor of Castile, was her successor in Ponthieu. Ferdinand II, Count of Aumale, her son and co-ruler in Aumale, predeceased her, thus she was succeeded by her grandson John I, Count of Aumale.

Margaret of Geneva Countess consort of Savoy

Margaret of Geneva (1180?–1252), countess of Savoy, was the daughter of William I, Count of Geneva, and Beatrice de Faucigny (1160–1196).

Joan de Geneville, 2nd Baroness Geneville, Countess of March, Baroness Mortimer, also known as Jeanne de Joinville, was the daughter of Sir Piers de Geneville and Joan of Lusignan. She inherited the estates of her grandparents, Geoffrey de Geneville, 1st Baron Geneville, and Maud de Lacy, Baroness Geneville. She was one of the wealthiest heiresses in the Welsh Marches and County Meath, Ireland. She was the wife of Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, the de facto ruler of England from 1327 to 1330. She succeeded as suo jure 2nd Baroness Geneville on 21 October 1314 upon the death of her grandfather, Geoffrey de Geneville.

Alice de Lusignan was the first wife of Marcher baron Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Gloucester, and half-niece of King Henry III of England.

Alice de Lusignan, Countess of Surrey was a uterine half-sister of King Henry III of England and the wife of John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey. Shortly after her arrival in England from France in 1247, her half-brother arranged her marriage to the Earl, which incurred some resentment from the English nobility.

Katherine of England 13th-century English princess

Katherine of England was the fifth child of Henry III and his wife, Eleanor of Provence. She was born either a deaf-mute or just deaf and mentally challenged and was very sickly. She possibly had a degenerative disease, did not survive her fourth year and died at Windsor.

References

Notes
  1. 1 2 Charles Cawley, Medieval Lands, Provence
  2. Strickland, Agnes. Lives of the Queens of England: From the Norman Conquest
  3. Cox 1974, p. 463.
  4. Costain 1959, pp. 125–126.
  5. 1 2 3 Costain 1959, p. 140.
  6. Sadler 2008, p. 32.
  7. 1 2 Costain 1959, p. 127.
  8. Costain 1959, p. 129.
  9. Costain 1959, pp. 129–130.
  10. Costain 1959, pp. 130–140.
  11. Cox 1974, p. 50.
  12. Costain 1959, pp. 253–254.
  13. Costain 1959, pp. 206–207.
  14. Alison Taylor, "Cambridge, the hidden history", (Tempus: 1999) ISBN   0752414364, p82
  15. Howell 2004.
  16. Costain 1959, p. 142.
  17. Costain 1959, p. 167.
  18. https://archive.org/stream/feudalmanualsen00mayegoog#page/n176/mode/2up
Bibliography
Eleanor of Provence
Cadet branch of the Bellonids
Born: c. 1223 Died: 24/25 June 1291
English royalty
Vacant
Title last held by
Isabella of Angoulême
Queen consort of England
14 January 1236 – 16 November 1272
Vacant
Title next held by
Eleanor of Castile