This article needs additional citations for verification . (June 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|Te Kaitiaki Take Kōwhiri|
|Formed||1 October 2010|
The Electoral Commission (Māori : Te Kaitiaki Take Kōwhiri) is an independent Crown entity set up by the New Zealand Parliament. It is responsible for the administration of parliamentary elections and referenda, promoting compliance with electoral laws, servicing the work of the Representation Commission, and the provision of advice, reports and public education on electoral matters. The Commission also assists electoral agencies of other countries on a reciprocal basis with their electoral events.
The Electoral Act defines the objective of the Electoral Commission as
“to administer the electoral system impartially, efficiently, effectively, and in a way that –
- Facilitates participation in parliamentary democracy; and
- Promotes understanding of the electoral system; and
- Maintains confidence in the administration of the electoral system.”
The functions of the Electoral Commission are defined by law and in summary comprise-
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
The Electoral Commission is an independent Crown entity. The responsible Minister may not direct the Commission to give effect to, or have regard to, government policy.
The Electoral Commission Board has three members, appointed by the Governor-General, including one member as the Chairperson, one member as the Deputy Chairperson and the Chief Electoral Officer, who is the Chief Executive of the Electoral Commission.
|Position||Name||Portrait||Date of appointment|
|Chair||Marie Shroff||August 2019|
|Deputy Chair||Jane Meares||August 2019|
|Chief Electoral Officer||Alicia Wright||January 2017|
|Mana by-election||Saturday, 20 November 2010|
|Botany by-election||Saturday, 5 March 2011|
|Te Tai Tokerau by-election||Saturday, 25 June 2011|
|2011 general election||Saturday, 26 November 2011|
|Referendum on the voting system||Saturday, 26 November 2011|
|MMP Review||February – October 2012|
|Ikaroa-Rawhiti by-election||Saturday, 29 June 2013|
|2013 New Zealand local elections||12 October 2016|
|Christchurch East by-election||Saturday, 30 November 2013|
|Asset sales referendum||22 November – 13 December 2013|
|2014 general election||Saturday, 20 September 2014|
|Northland by-election||Saturday, 28 March 2015|
|First New Zealand flag referendum||20 November – 11 December 2015|
|Second New Zealand flag referendum||3–24 March 2016|
|2016 New Zealand local elections||8 October 2016|
|Mount Roskill by-election||Saturday, 3 December 2016|
|Mount Albert by-election||Saturday, 25 February 2017|
|2017 general election||Saturday, 23 September 2017|
|Northcote by-election||Saturday, 9 June 2018|
The Electoral (Administration) Amendment Bill, passed unanimously by Parliament 19 May 2010, established a new independent Electoral Commission which was given overarching responsibility to administer elections.
The Electoral Commission, which took over the responsibilities of the Chief Electoral Office and the previous Electoral Commission, was formed on Friday 1 October 2010.
On 1 July 2012 the statutory responsibilities of the Electoral Enrolment Centre of New Zealand Post were transferred to the Commission in accordance with the Electoral (Administration) Amendment Act 2011.
The previous Electoral Commission of New Zealand (1993–2010) was a governmental body responsible for administering certain aspects of the country's electoral system.
It was an independent Crown entity, not part of any larger department or Ministry, and was established under the Electoral Act 1993. It worked alongside two other bodies, the Chief Electoral Office and the Electoral Enrolment Centre.
The four primary functions of the previous Electoral Commission were:
For most business, the previous Electoral Commission consisted of four members — a President, a Chief Executive, the head of the Ministry of Justice, and the Chief Judge of the Maori Land Court.
Two additional members, one appointed by the Government and one by the Opposition, participate in the commission e.g. on the allocation of broadcasting funds. This participation is generally condemned by smaller parties, which claim that Labour and National unfairly monopolised funding. These additional members were removed by Labour in 2007 by the Electoral Finance Act; but the Act was repealed by National in 2009, with clauses of the EFA dealing with donation disclosure inserted into the 1993 Electoral Act.
The politics of New Zealand function within a framework of a unitary parliamentary representative democracy. New Zealand is a constitutional monarchy in which a hereditary monarch—since 6 February 1952, Queen Elizabeth II—is the sovereign and head of state.
Mixed-member proportional (MMP) representation is a mixed electoral system in which voters get two votes: one to decide the representative for their single-seat constituency, and one for a political party. Seats in the legislature are filled firstly by the successful constituency candidates, and secondly, by party candidates based on the percentage of nationwide or region-wide votes that each party received. The constituency representatives are elected using first-past-the-post voting (FPTP) or another plurality/majoritarian system. The nationwide or region-wide party representatives are, in most jurisdictions, drawn from published party lists, similar to party-list proportional representation. To gain a nationwide representative, parties may be required to achieve a minimum number of constituency candidates, a minimum percentage of the nationwide party vote, or both.
Electoral reform in New Zealand has, in recent years, become a political issue as major changes have been made to both parliamentary and local government electoral systems.
The Office of the Chief Electoral Officer, commonly known as Elections Canada, is the non-partisan agency responsible for administering Canadian federal elections and referendums. Elections Canada is an office of the Parliament of Canada, and reports directly to Parliament rather than to the Government of Canada.
New Zealand is a representative democracy. Members of the unicameral New Zealand Parliament gain their seats through nationwide general elections, or in by-elections. General elections are usually held every three years; they may be held at an earlier date at the discretion of the prime minister, although it usually only happens in the event of a vote of no confidence or other exceptional circumstances. A by-election is held to fill a vacancy arising during a parliamentary term. The most recent general election took place on 23 September 2017.
The 1996 New Zealand general election was held on 12 October 1996 to determine the composition of the 45th New Zealand Parliament. It was notable for being the first election to be held under the new mixed-member proportional (MMP) electoral system, and produced a parliament considerably more diverse than previous elections. It saw the National Party, led by Jim Bolger, retain its position in government, but only after protracted negotiations with the smaller New Zealand First party to form a coalition. New Zealand First's position as "kingmaker", able to place either of the two major parties into government, was a significant election outcome.
The Treasurer of Australia is the minister in the Government of Australia responsible for government expenditure and for collecting revenue. The Treasurer plays a key role in the economic policy of the government. The current Australian Treasurer is Josh Frydenberg whose term began on 24 August 2018.
The Electoral Commission is the election commission of the United Kingdom. It is an independent body, created in 2001 as a result of the Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act 2000. It regulates party and election finance and sets standards for how elections should be run.
The Australian Electoral Commission (AEC) is the independent federal agency in charge of organising, conducting and supervising federal elections, by-elections and referendums.
Elections in Australia take place periodically to elect the legislature of the Commonwealth of Australia, as well as for each Australian state and territory. Elections in all jurisdictions follow similar principles, though there are minor variations between them. The elections for the Australian Parliament are held under the federal electoral system, which is uniform throughout the country, and the elections for state and territory Parliaments are held under the electoral system of each state and territory.
The electoral roll is a list of persons who are eligible to vote in a particular electoral district and who are registered to vote, if required in a particular jurisdiction. An electoral roll has a number of functions, especially to streamline voting on election day. Voter registration is also used to combat electoral fraud by enabling authorities to verify an applicant's identity and entitlement to a vote, and to ensure a person doesn't vote multiple times. In jurisdictions where voting is compulsory, the electoral roll is used to indicate who has failed to vote. Most jurisdictions maintain permanent electoral rolls while some jurisdictions compile new electoral rolls before each election. In some jurisdictions, people to be selected for jury or other civil duties are chosen from an electoral roll.
An electorate is a geographical constituency used for electing members to the New Zealand Parliament. In informal discussion, electorates are often called seats. The most formal description, electoral district, is used in legislation. The size of electorates is determined on a population basis such that all electorates have approximately the same population.
The New Zealand electoral system has been mixed-member proportional (MMP) since 1996. MMP was introduced after a referendum in 1993. MMP replaced the first-past-the-post (FPP) system New Zealand had previously used for most of its history.
The State Services Commission (SSC) is the central public service department of New Zealand charged with overseeing, managing, and improving the performance of the State sector of New Zealand and its organisations.
The New South Wales Electoral Commission is the statutory agency with responsibility for the administration, organisation, and supervision of elections in New South Wales for state government, local government, industrial and Aboriginal organisations, and registered clubs and statutory bodies.
Te Tai Tokerau is a New Zealand parliamentary Māori electorate that was created out of the Northern Maori electorate ahead of the first Mixed Member Proportional (MMP) election in 1996. It was first held by Tau Henare representing New Zealand First for one term, and then Dover Samuels of the Labour Party for two terms. From 2005 to 2014, it was held by MP Hone Harawira. Initially a member of the Māori Party, Harawira resigned from both the party and then Parliament, causing the 2011 by-election. He was returned under the Mana Party banner in July 2011 and confirmed at the November 2011 general election. In the 2014 election, he was beaten by Labour's Kelvin Davis, ending the representation of the Mana Party in Parliament.
The Government of the Australian Capital Territory, also referred to as the Australian Capital Territory Government or ACT Government, is the executive authority of the Australian Capital Territory, one of the territories of Australia. The leader of the party or coalition with the confidence of the Australian Capital Territory Legislative Assembly forms Government. Unlike the Australian States and the Northern Territory, the Australian Capital Territory Legislative Assembly directly elects one of their number to be the Chief Minister of the Australian Capital Territory as the head of the Government, rather than being appointed by a Governor or Administrator.
The New Zealand voting system referendum, 2011, was a referendum on whether to keep the existing mixed member proportional (MMP) voting system, or to change to another voting system, for electing Members of Parliament to New Zealand's House of Representatives. It was held on Saturday 26 November 2011, in conjunction with the 2011 general election,
The 2014 New Zealand general election took place on Saturday 20 September 2014 to determine the membership of the 51st New Zealand Parliament.
The Electoral Act 1993 "establishes the electoral agencies, electoral system, election processes, how MPs are replaced between elections, registration processes for political parties and logos, enrolment and electoral roll requirements, and provides for the Māori Electoral option, and the Representation Commission." One such agency is the Electoral Commission which is responsible, among other things, for the administration of parliamentary elections and referenda.