Eleventh Dynasty of Egypt

Last updated
Egypt
ca. 2130 BC–ca. 1991 BC
Capital Thebes
Common languages Egyptian language
Religion
ancient Egyptian religion
Government Absolute monarchy
Historical era Bronze Age
 Established
ca. 2130 BC
 Disestablished
ca. 1991 BC
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Blank.png Tenth Dynasty of Egypt
Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt Blank.png

The Eleventh Dynasty of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty XI) is a well-attested group of rulers. Its earlier members before Pharaoh Mentuhotep II are grouped with the four preceding dynasties to form the First Intermediate Period, whereas the later members are considered part of the Middle Kingdom. They all ruled from Thebes in Upper Egypt.

Contents

The relative chronology of the 11th Dynasty is well established by contemporary attestations and, except for count Intef and Mentuhotep IV, by the Turin canon. [1]

Pharaohs of Dynasty XI
Pharaoh Horus name ReignBurialConsort(s)Comments
Intef the Elder Iry-pat , "the Count", probably the same person as "Intef, son of Iku". [1] Theban nomarch serving an unnamed king.
Mentuhotep I Tepya2134 BC ? Neferu I Tepy-a, "the ancestor"
Intef I Sehertawy?–2118 BCEl-Tarif, ThebesSon of Mentuhotep I
Intef II Wahankh2118–2069 BCEl-Tarif, Thebes Neferukayet?Brother of Intef I
Intef III Nakhtnebtepnefer2069–2061 BCEl-Tarif, Thebes Iah Son of Intef II
Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II Seankhibtawy;
Netjerihedjet;
Smatawy
2061–2010 BCDeir el-Bahari Tem
Neferu II
Ashayet
Henhenet
Kawit
Kemsit
Sadeh
Son of Intef III and Iah. Reunifies Egypt starting the Middle Kingdom.
Sankhkare Mentuhotep III Sankhtawyef2010–1998 BCDeir el-Bahari [2] Son of Mentuhotep II and Tem
Nebtawyre Mentuhotep IV Nebtawy1998–1991 BCSon of Queen Imi

Manetho's statement that Dynasty XI consisted of 16 kings, who reigned for 43 years is contradicted by contemporary inscriptions and the evidence of the Turin King List, whose combined testimony establishes that this kingdom consisted of seven kings who ruled for a total of 143 years. [3] However, his testimony that this dynasty was based at Thebes is verified by the contemporary evidence. It was during this dynasty that all of ancient Egypt was united under the Middle Kingdom.

This dynasty traces its origins to a nomarch of Thebes, "Intef the Great, son of Iku", who is mentioned in a number of contemporary inscriptions. However, his immediate successor Mentuhotep I is considered the first king of this dynasty.

Abydos King List, Royal cartouches 57 through 61 Abydos Koenigsliste 57-61.jpg
Abydos King List, Royal cartouches 57 through 61

An inscription carved during the reign of Wahankh Intef II shows that he was the first of this dynasty to claim to rule over the whole of Egypt, a claim which brought the Thebans into conflict with the rulers of Herakleopolis Magna, Dynasty X. Intef undertook several campaigns northwards, and captured the important nome of Abydos.

Warfare continued intermittently between the Thebean and Heracleapolitan dynasts until the 14th regnal year of Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II, when the Herakleopolitans were defeated, and this dynasty could begin to consolidate their rule. The rulers of Dynasty XI reasserted Egypt's influence over her neighbors in Africa and the Near East. Mentuhotep II sent renewed expeditions to Phoenicia to obtain cedar. Sankhkara Mentuhotep III sent an expedition from Coptos south to the land of Punt.

The reign of its last king, and thus the end of this dynasty, is something of a mystery. Contemporary records refer to "seven empty years" following the death of Mentuhotep III, which correspond to the reign of Nebtawyra Mentuhotep IV. Modern scholars identify his vizier Amenemhat with Amenemhat I, the first king of Dynasty XII, as part of a theory that Amenemhat became king as part of a palace coup. The only certain details of Mentuhotep's reign was that two remarkable omens were witnessed at the quarry of Wadi Hammamat by the vizier Amenemhat.

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 Schneider, Thomas (2006-12-30). Hornung, Erik; Krauss, Rolf; Warburton, David A. (eds.). Ancient Egyptian Chronology. p. 160–161. ISBN   9789047404002. (mirror)
  2. Wilkinson, Richard H. (2000). The Complete Temples of Ancient Egypt. p. 37, 172, 173, 181. ISBN   9780500051009.
  3. Beckerath, J. V. (1962). "The Date of the End of the Old Kingdom of Egypt". Journal of Near Eastern Studies. 21 (2): 140–147. doi:10.1086/371680.
Preceded by
Tenth Dynasty
Dynasty of Egypt
2134 − 1991 BC
Succeeded by
Twelfth Dynasty

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Wahankh Intef II was the third ruler of the Eleventh Dynasty of Egypt during the First Intermediate Period. He reigned for almost fifty years from 2112 BC to 2063 BC. His capital was located at Thebes. In his time, Egypt was split between several local dynasties. He was buried in a saff tomb at El-Tarif.

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