Eli Wallach

Last updated

Eli Wallach
Eli Wallach - publicity.jpg
Wallach in 1966
Eli Herschel Wallach

(1915-12-07)December 7, 1915
Brooklyn, New York City, U.S.
DiedJune 24, 2014(2014-06-24) (aged 98)
Manhattan, New York City, U.S.
Alma mater University of Texas (B.A.)
City College of New York (M.Ed.)
Neighborhood Playhouse School of the Theatre
Occupation Actor
Years active1945–2010
(m. 1948)
Relatives Joan Wallach Scott (niece)
A. O. Scott (grandnephew)
AwardsBAFTA Awards, Tony Awards, Emmy Awards, Honorary Academy Award

Eli Herschel Wallach ( /ˈlˈwɔːlək/ ; December 7, 1915 – June 24, 2014) was an American film, television and stage actor whose career spanned more than seven decades, beginning in the late 1940s. Trained in stage acting, which he enjoyed doing most, he became "one of the greatest 'character actors' ever to appear on stage and screen", [1] with over 90 film credits. He and his wife Anne Jackson often appeared together on stage, and were one of the best-known acting couples in American theater. As a stage and screen character actor, Wallach had one of the longest-ever careers in show business, spanning 62 years from his Broadway debut to his last two major Hollywood studio movies (which were released in the same year).


Wallach initially studied method acting under Sanford Meisner, and later became a founding member of the Actors Studio, where he studied under Lee Strasberg. He played a wide variety of roles throughout his career, primarily as a supporting actor.

For his debut screen performance in Baby Doll (1956), he won a BAFTA Award for Best Newcomer and a Golden Globe Award nomination. Among his other most famous roles are Calvera in The Magnificent Seven (1960), Guido in The Misfits (1961), and Tuco ("The Ugly") in The Good, the Bad and the Ugly (1966). Other notable portrayals include outlaw Charlie Gant in How the West Was Won (1962), Hitman Leon B. Little in Tough Guys (1986), Don Altobello in The Godfather Part III , Cotton Weinberger in The Two Jakes (both 1990), Donald Fallon in The Associate (1996), and Arthur Abbott in The Holiday (2006). One of America's most prolific screen actors, Wallach remained active well into his nineties, with roles as recently as 2010 in Wall Street: Money Never Sleeps and The Ghost Writer .

In 1988, Wallach was inducted into the American Theater Hall of Fame. [2] He received BAFTA Awards, Tony Awards and Emmy Awards, and an Academy Honorary Award at the second annual Governors Awards on November 13, 2010.

In March 2017, the Harry Ransom Center announced the acquisition of Wallach's papers, along with those of his wife, which will be made public when cataloging is complete. [3]

Early life

Wallach was born at 156 Union Street in Red Hook, Brooklyn, a son of Polish-Jewish immigrants Abraham and Bertha (Schorr) Wallach. He had a brother and two sisters. [4] He and his family were the only Jews in an otherwise Italian American neighborhood. [5] [6] His parents owned Bertha's Candy Store. [4] Wallach graduated in 1936 from the University of Texas with a degree in history. [7] While there, he performed in a play with fellow students Ann Sheridan and Walter Cronkite. In a later interview, Wallach said that he learned to ride horses while in Texas, explaining that he liked Texas because "It opened my eyes to the word friendship... You could rely on people. If they gave you their word, that was it ... It was an education." [8]

Two years later he received a master of arts degree in education from the City College of New York. [9] [10] He gained his first method acting experience at the Neighborhood Playhouse School of the Theatre in New York City, where he studied under Sanford Meisner. [11] There, according to Wallach, actors were forced to "unlearn" all their physical and vocal mannerisms, while traditional stage etiquette and "singsong" deliveries were "utterly excised" from his classroom. [12]

Wallach's education was cut short when he was drafted into the United States Army in January 1942. [4] He served as staff sergeant in a military hospital in Hawaii and later sent to Officer Candidate School (OCS) in Abilene, Texas, to train as a medical administrative officer. Commissioned a second lieutenant, he was ordered to Casablanca. Later, when he was serving in France, a senior officer noticed his acting career and asked him to create a show for the patients. He and his unit wrote a play called Is This the Army?, which was inspired by Irving Berlin's This Is the Army . In the comedy, Wallach and the other actors mocked Axis dictators, with Wallach portraying Adolf Hitler. [13]


Stage actor

Wallach took classes in acting at the Dramatic Workshop of the New School in New York with the influential German director Erwin Piscator. He later became a founding member of the Actors Studio, taught by Lee Strasberg. There, he studied more method acting technique with founding member Robert Lewis, and with other students including Marlon Brando, Montgomery Clift, Herbert Berghof, Sidney Lumet, and his soon-to-be wife, Anne Jackson. [14] Wallach became Marilyn Monroe's first new friend when she became a student at the Actors Studio, once insisting on watching him perform in The Teahouse of the August Moon from the backstage wings, simply to see up close how experienced actors perform a two-hour play. [15] She also became friends with his wife, Anne Jackson, also studying at the Studio, and would visit the couple at their home and sometimes babysit their new child. [16]

In 1945 Wallach made his Broadway debut and he won a Tony Award in 1951 for his performance alongside Maureen Stapleton in the Tennessee Williams play The Rose Tattoo . [17] His other theater credits include Mister Roberts , The Teahouse of the August Moon , Camino Real , Major Barbara (in which director Charles Laughton discouraged Wallach's established method acting style), [17] Luv , and Staircase , co-starring Milo O'Shea, which was a serious depiction of an aging homosexual couple. He also played a role in a tour of Antony and Cleopatra, produced by the actress Katharine Cornell in 1946. [18] He exposed Americans to the work of playwright Eugène Ionesco in plays like The Chairs and The Lesson in 1958, and in 1961 Rhinoceros opposite Zero Mostel. [17] He last starred on stage as the title character in Visiting Mr. Green . [19]

With Maureen Stapleton in The Rose Tattoo (1951) Eli Wallach and Maureen Stapleton - 1951.jpg
With Maureen Stapleton in The Rose Tattoo (1951)

The stage was where Wallach focused his early career. From 1945 to 1950 he and his wife, Anne Jackson, worked together acting in various plays by Tennessee Williams. The five years following, he continued only working on stage, not becoming involved in film work until 1956. During those years, however, they were generally having a hard time making ends meet. He recalls they were getting along on unemployment insurance and living in a one-room, $35 a month apartment on lower Fifth Avenue in the Village. [4] When he did get offered early movie parts, he turned them down with no regrets, and very early in his career he explained his reasoning:

What do I need a movie for? The stage is on a higher level in every way, and a more satisfying medium. Movies, by comparison, are like calendar art next to great paintings. You can't really do very much in movies or in television, but the stage is such an anarchistic medium. [4]

He said that the stage was what attracted him most and what he "needed" to do. [20] "Acting is the most alive thing I can do, and the most joyous," he stated. [4]

Wallach and Jackson became one of the best-known acting couples in the American theater, as iconic as Alfred Lunt and Lynn Fontanne, and Jessica Tandy and Hume Cronyn, [17] and they looked for opportunities to work together. During an interview, he said of Jackson, "I have tremendous respect and admiration for her as an actress. . . we have a terrific working compatibility when we're in the same play, especially when the play means something important to us." [4] :159–160 When he did gravitate toward accepting parts in films, he did so to "help pay the bills," he said, adding, "for actors, movies are a means to an end." [21]

Despite the fact that he eventually acted in over 90 films and almost as many television dramas, [22] he continued to accept stage parts throughout his career, often with Jackson. They played in comedies like The Typists and The Tiger in 1963, and acted together in Waltz of the Toreadors in 1973. In 1978 they played in a revival of The Diary of Anne Frank, along with their daughters, and in 1984 they acted in Nest of the Wood Grouse, directed by Joseph Papp. Four years later, in 1988, they acted in a revival of Cafe Crown, a portrait of the Yiddish theatre scene during its prime. [21] They continued acting together as late as 2000, while he also took on roles alone throughout all those years. [21]

Film and television roles

Wallach and Carroll Baker in the swing scene from Baby Doll Baby Doll -1.jpg
Wallach and Carroll Baker in the swing scene from Baby Doll

Wallach's film debut was in Elia Kazan's controversial 1956 Baby Doll , for which he won the British Academy Film Awards (BAFTA) as "Most Promising Newcomer." [23] Baby Doll was controversial because of its underlying sexual theme. Director Elia Kazan however, set explicit limits on Wallach's scenes, telling him not to actually seduce Carroll Baker, but instead to create an unfulfilled erotic tension. [24] Kazan later explained his reasoning:

What is erotic about sex to me is the seduction, not the act ... The scene on the swing with Eli Wallach and Carroll Baker in Baby Doll is my exact idea of what eroticism in films should be. [25]

Wallach went on to a prolific career as "one of the greatest 'character actors' ever to appear on stage and screen," notes Turner Classic Movies, [1] acting in over 90 films. [22] Having grown up on the "mean streets" of an Italian American neighborhood, [26] and his versatility as a method actor, Wallach developed the ability to play a wide variety of different roles, although he tried to not get pinned down to any single type of character. "Right now I'm playing an old man," he said at age 84. But "I've been through all the ethnic groups, from Mexican bandits to Italian Mafia heads to Okinawans to half-breeds, and now I'm playing old Jews. Who knows?" [8]

Noting this versatility as a character actor, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences called him "the quintessential chameleon," with the ability to play different characters "effortlessly," [27] and L.A. Times theater critic Charles McNulty saw Wallach's "power to illuminate" his various screen or stage personas as being "radioactive." [26] The Guardian newspaper has written that "Wallach was made for character acting," and includes movie clips from some of his most memorable roles in a tribute to him. [28]

In 1961, Wallach co-starred with Marilyn Monroe, Montgomery Clift and Clark Gable in The Misfits , Monroe's and Gable's last film before their deaths. [29] [30] Wallach never learned why he was cast in the film, although he suspected that Monroe had something to do with it. [16] Its screenwriter, Arthur Miller, who was married to Monroe at the time, said that "Eli Wallach is the happiest good actor I've ever known. He really enjoys the work." [1]

Some of his other films included The Lineup (1958), Lord Jim (1965) with Peter O'Toole, a comic role in How to Steal a Million (1966), again with O'Toole, and Audrey Hepburn, and as Tuco (the 'Ugly') in Sergio Leone's The Good, the Bad and the Ugly (1966) with Clint Eastwood, followed by other Spaghetti Westerns, such as Ace High . At one point, Henry Fonda had asked Wallach whether he himself should accept a part offered to him to act in a similar Western, Once Upon a Time in the West (1968), which would also be directed by Leone. Wallach said "Yes, you'll enjoy the challenge," and Fonda later thanked Wallach for that advice. [31]

Wallach and Eastwood became friends during the filming of The Good, the Bad and the Ugly and he recalled their off-work time together: "Clint was the tall, silent type. He's the kind where you open up and do all the talking. He smiles and nods and stores it all away in that wonderful calculator of a brain." [32] In 2003 Wallach acted in Mystic River, produced and directed by Eastwood, who once said "working with Eli Wallach has been one of the great pleasures of my life." [1]

A pivotal moment in Wallach's career came in 1953, when he, along with Frank Sinatra and Harvey Lembeck, tried out for the role of Maggio in the film From Here to Eternity . Sinatra biographer Kitty Kelly notes that while Sinatra's test was good, it had none of the "consummate acting ability" of Wallach. Producer Harry Cohn and director Fred Zinnemann were "dazzled" by Wallach's screen test and wanted him to play the part. However, Wallach had previously been offered an important role in another Tennessee Williams play, Camino Real , to be directed by Elia Kazan, and turned down the movie role. Wallach said that when he learned that the play had finally received financing, he "grabbed" the opportunity: "It was a remarkable piece of writing by the leading playwright in America and it was going to be directed by the country's best. There really wasn't much of a choice for me." [33] The film, however, went on to win eight Academy Awards, including one for Sinatra, which revived his career. Wallach recalled afterwards, "Whenever Sinatra saw me, he’d say, 'Hello, you crazy actor!'" [5] Wallach, however, claimed to have no regrets.

Wallach as Mr. Freeze Wallach Freeze.jpg
Wallach as Mr. Freeze

Film historian James Welsh states that during Wallach's career, he appeared in most of the "prestige" television dramas during the "Golden Age" of the 1950s, including Studio One, The Philco Television Playhouse, The Armstrong Circle Theatre, Playhouse 90, and The Hallmark Hall of Fame, among others. He won the 1966–1967 Emmy Award for his role in the telefilm The Poppy is Also a Flower. [6] [34] In 2006 Wallach appeared on NBC's Studio 60 on the Sunset Strip , playing a former writer who was blacklisted in the 1950s. His character was a writer on The Philco Comedy Hour, a show that aired on a fictional NBS network. This is a reference to The Philco Television Playhouse , in several episodes of which Wallach actually appeared in 1955. Wallach earned a 2007 Emmy nomination for his work on the show. [35]

Wallach at the 2010 TCM Classic Film Festival Eli Wallach 2010 TCM Classic Film Festival (cropped).jpg
Wallach at the 2010 TCM Classic Film Festival

During the filming of The Good, the Bad and the Ugly, Wallach nearly died three times. Once, he accidentally drank a bottle of acid which was placed next to his pop bottle; another time was in a scene where he was about to be hanged, someone fired a pistol which caused the horse underneath him to bolt and run a mile while Wallach's hands were still tied behind his back; in a different scene with him lying on a railroad track, he was close to being decapitated by steps jutting out from the train. [36]

Wallach appeared as DC Comics' supervillain Mr. Freeze in the 1960s Batman television series. He said that he received more fan mail about his role as Mr. Freeze than about all of his other roles combined. [37] He played Gus Farber in the television miniseries Seventh Avenue in 1977, and 10 years later, at the age of 71, he starred alongside Michael Landon in Highway to Heaven episode "A Father's Faith". Three years later, he played aging mob boss Don Altobello in the Francis Ford Coppola's The Godfather Part III.

On November 13, 2010, at the age of 94, Wallach received an Academy Honorary Award for his contribution to the film industry from the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. [38] A few years prior to that event, Kate Winslet told another audience that Wallach, with whom she acted in The Holiday in 2006, [39] was one of the "most charismatic men" she'd met, and her "very own sexiest man alive." [27]

Wallach's final performance was in the short film The Train (2015). Wallach plays a Holocaust survivor who, in a meeting, teaches a self-consumed and preoccupied young man that life can change in a moment. The short was shot in early 2014 and premiered on August 6, 2015 at the Rhode Island International Film Festival.[ citation needed ]

Between 1984 and 1997, he also performed voiceovers in a series of television commercials for the Toyota Pickup.

Personal life

Eli Wallach was married to stage actress Anne Jackson (1926–2016) for 66 years from March 5, 1948, until his death. They had three children: Peter (born 1951), Roberta (born 1955), and Katherine (born 1958). Roberta played an epileptic teenager in Paul Zindel's The Effect of Gamma Rays on Man-in-the-Moon Marigolds and appeared in several other movies.

Wallach was a strict teetotaler and once asked the director John Huston for advice on how to play a "drunk" scene during the filming of The Misfits .

A few years before 2005, Wallach lost sight in his left eye as the result of a stroke. [27]

His niece is the historian Joan Wallach Scott (the daughter of his brother, Sam Wallach). A. O. Scott, a film critic for The New York Times , is his great-nephew. [22]


Wallach died on June 24, 2014, of natural causes at the age of 98. He was survived by his wife of 66 years, three children, three grandchildren and a great-grandchild. His body was cremated. [21] [40]

Katherine Wallach told The New York Times that Anne Jackson died on April 12, 2016, aged 90, at her home in Manhattan. [41] [42] [43]


Selected filmography:

Awards and nominations

YearAwardCategoryNominated workResultRef.
1951 Tony Award Best Featured Actor in a Play The Rose Tattoo Won
1956 British Academy Film Awards Most Promising Newcomer Baby Doll Won [44]
1956 Golden Globe Awards Best Supporting Actor Nominated
1967 Primetime Emmy Awards Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Drama Series The Poppy Is Also a Flower Won
1968 Outstanding Single Performance in a DramaCBS PlayhouseNominated
1987 Outstanding Supporting Actor - Limited Series/Movie Something in CommonNominated
2001 Grammy Award Best Spoken Word Album The Complete Shakespeare SonnetsNominated
2006 National Board of Review Career Achievement AwardN/AWon
2007 Primetime Emmy Awards Outstanding Guest Actor in a Drama Series Studio 60 on the Sunset Strip Nominated
2011 Outstanding Guest Actor in a Comedy Series Nurse Jackie Nominated
2011 Academy Award Honorary Academy Award N/AWon

Related Research Articles

Lee Van Cleef American actor

Clarence LeRoy "Lee" Van Cleef Jr. was an American actor best known for his roles in Spaghetti Westerns such as For A Few Dollars More and The Good, the Bad and the Ugly. He declined to have his nose altered to play a sympathetic character in his film debut, High Noon, and was relegated to a non-speaking outlaw as a result. For a decade he was typecast as a minor villain, his "sinister" features overshadowing his acting skills. After suffering serious injuries in a car crash, Van Cleef had begun to lose interest in his declining career by the time Sergio Leone gave him a major role in For a Few Dollars More. The film made him a box-office draw, especially in Europe.

Marlon Brando American actor, film director and activist

Marlon Brando Jr. was an American actor and film director with a career spanning 60 years, during which he won the Oscar for Best Actor twice. He is well-regarded for his cultural influence on 20th-century film. Brando was also an activist for many causes, notably the civil rights movement and various Native American movements. Having studied with Stella Adler in the 1940s, he is credited with being one of the first actors to bring the Stanislavski system of acting and method acting, derived from the Stanislavski system, to mainstream audiences.

Elia Kazan Greek-American film and theatre director, producer, screenwriter, novelist

Elia Kazan was a Greek-American director, producer, writer and actor, described by The New York Times as "one of the most honored and influential directors in Broadway and Hollywood history".

Paul Muni Austrian-born American stage and film actor

Paul Muni was an Austro-Hungarian-born American stage and film actor who grew up in Chicago. Muni was a five-time Academy Award nominee, with one win. He started his acting career in the Yiddish theater. During the 1930s, he was considered one of the most prestigious actors at the Warner Bros. studio, and was given the rare privilege of choosing which parts he wanted.

<i>Baby Doll</i> 1956 American black comedy drama film by Elia Kazan

Baby Doll is a 1956 American dramatic black comedy film directed by Elia Kazan, and starring Carroll Baker, Karl Malden and Eli Wallach. It was produced by Kazan and Tennessee Williams, and adapted by Williams from his own one-act play 27 Wagons Full of Cotton (1955). The plot focuses on a feud between two rival cotton gin owners in rural Mississippi; after one of the men commits arson against the other's gin, the owner retaliates by attempting to seduce the arsonist's nineteen-year-old virgin bride with the hopes of receiving an admission by her of her husband's guilt.

David Anders American actor

David Anders Holt, known professionally as David Anders, is an American television and stage actor. He is best known for his roles as Julian Sark on Alias, as Adam Monroe on Heroes, as John Gilbert in the TV series The Vampire Diaries, as Victor Frankenstein / Dr. Whale on ABC's Once Upon a Time, and as Blaine "DeBeers" McDonough on iZombie. Although Anders is American, a few of his roles have required him to use a British Home counties accent.

Uta Hagen German-born American actress and drama teacher

Uta Thyra Hagen was a German-American actress and theatre practitioner. She originated the role of Martha in the 1962 Broadway premiere of Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? by Edward Albee, who called her "a profoundly truthful actress". Because Hagen was on the Hollywood blacklist, in part because of her association with Paul Robeson, her film opportunities dwindled and she focused her career on New York theatre.

Lee Strasberg American actor, drama teacher, acting coach, theorist

Lee Strasberg was a Polish-born American actor, director, and theatre practitioner. He co-founded, with directors Harold Clurman and Cheryl Crawford, the Group Theatre in 1931, which was hailed as "America's first true theatrical collective". In 1951 he became director of the nonprofit Actors Studio in New York City, considered "the nation's most prestigious acting school," and in 1966 he was involved in the creation of Actors Studio West in Los Angeles.

Martin Balsam American actor

Martin Henry Balsam was an American actor who had a prolific career in character roles in film, in theatre, and on television.

Eugene V. "Gene" Frankel was an American actor, theater director, and acting teacher especially notable in the founding of the off-Broadway scene. Frankel served in the Army during World War II in entertainment and as a member of an aerial crew.

Jocelyn Brando American film actress

Jocelyn Brando was an American film, stage, and television actress.

Robert Lewis (director) American actor (1909-1997)

Robert Lewis was an American actor, director, teacher, author and founder of the influential Actors Studio in New York in 1947.

Luigi Pistilli Italian actor (1929-1996)

Luigi Pistilli was an Italian actor of stage, screen, and television.

Anne Jackson American actress

Anna Jane Jackson was an American actress of stage, screen, and television. She was the wife of actor Eli Wallach, with whom she often co-starred. In 1956, she was nominated for the Tony Award for Best Featured Actress in a Play for her performance in Paddy Chayefsky's Middle of the Night. In 1963, she won an Obie Award for Best Actress for her performance in two Off-Broadway plays, The Typists and The Tiger.

Barbara Loden American actress and director

Barbara Ann Loden was an American actress and director of film and theater. Richard Brody of The New Yorker described Loden as the "female counterpart to John Cassavetes".

Stelio Savante South African actor

Stelio Savante is a South African-born New York actor. In 2007 he became the first male South African-born Screen Actors Guild award nominee for his recurring role on Ugly Betty and also won best actor at the American Movie Awards in 2015 for his lead role in Once We Were Slaves.

Luv is a play by Murray Schisgal.

Bern Cohen is an American actor and educator. He spent many years in the New York City education system before returning to acting in 2005.

Herbert Berghof Austrian-American actor

Herbert Berghof was an American actor, director and acting teacher.

Eli Wallach credits

The following is the filmography and credits for American actor Eli Wallach. He started acting in 1945 and is known for his film roles as Calvera in The Magnificent Seven (1960), Tuco in The Good, the Bad and the Ugly (1966), Napoleon in The Adventures of Gerard (1970), Cotton Weinberger in The Two Jakes (1990), Don Altobello in The Godfather Part III (1990), Donald Fallon in The Associate (1996), Arthur Abbott in The Holiday (2006), Noah Dietrich in The Hoax (2007), and Julie Steinhardt in Wall Street: Money Never Sleeps (2010), which was the last film he appeared in before retiring in 2010.


  1. 1 2 3 4 "Eli Wallach Tribute at the TCM Classic Film Festival 2010" on YouTube, video, 4 min.
  2. "Theater Hall of Fame Adds Nine New Names". The New York Times . November 22, 1988. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
  3. "Papers of Actors Eli Wallach and Anne Jackson Acquired". hrc.utexas.edu. Archived from the original on March 7, 2017. Retrieved March 6, 2017.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Ross, Lillian; Ross, Helen (1962). The Player: A Profile of an Art. Simon and Schuster. Retrieved January 2, 2011 via archive.org.
  5. 1 2 Leon, Masha (August 6, 2004). "Eli Wallach Knows His Lines". Forward.com. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
  6. 1 2 "Eli Wallach Biography (1915–)". Filmreference.com. Retrieved January 2, 2011.
  7. "Alumni in the News: Eli Wallach to receive lifetime achievement award". Department of History, University of Texas, Austin. Archived from the original on February 11, 2011.
  8. 1 2 "Texas". The Alcalde. March 2000.
  9. "Marian Seldes, Eli Wallach to Receive CCNY Alumni Finley Award". City College of New York. October 19, 2010. Archived from the original on January 9, 2012.
  10. "Biography: Eli Wallach". The New York Times.
  11. "Eli Wallach, veteran actor, dead at 98". CBS News. June 25, 2014.
  12. Gordon, Mel (2010). Stanislavsky in America: An Actor's Workbook. Routledge. p. 178.
  13. "Eli Wallach Biography". Starpulse.com. Retrieved June 26, 2014.
  14. Lewis, Robert (1996). "Actors Studio, 1947". Slings and Arrows: Theater in My Life. New York: Applause Books. p. 183. ISBN   1-55783-244-7.
  15. Gottfried, Martin. Arthur Miller: His Life and Work, Da Capo Press (2003), p. 245.
  16. 1 2 Harding, Les (2012). They Knew Marilyn Monroe: Famous Persons in the Life of the Hollywood Icon. McFarland. p. 154.
  17. 1 2 3 4 Simonson, Robert (June 25, 2014). "Eli Wallach, Seasoned Star of Stage and Film, Dies at 98". Playbill . Archived from the original on August 17, 2014. Retrieved June 26, 2014.
  18. Mosel, "Leading Lady: The World and Theatre of Katharine Cornell.
  19. David Ng. "Eli Wallach, an Actors Studio veteran and theater stalwart". Los Angeles Times . Retrieved June 25, 2014.
  20. Wallach, Eli (May 6, 2010). "TCM interview". The Evening Class (Interview). Interviewed by Robert Osborne via blogspot.com.
  21. 1 2 3 4 Berkvist, Robert (June 25, 2014). "Eli Wallach, Multifaceted Actor, Dies at 98". The New York Times .
  22. 1 2 3 Scott, A. O. (November 4, 2010). "Eli Wallach, From Brooklyn to Honorary Oscar". The New York Times.
  23. Heintzelman, Greta (2005). Critical Companion to Tennessee Williams. Infobase Publishing. p. 33.
  24. Wallach, Eli (2005). The Good, the Bad, and Me: In My Anecdotage . Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p.  172.
  25. Young, Jeff (1999). Kazan: The Master Director Discusses His Films – Interviews with Elia Kazan . Newmarket Press. p.  224.
  26. 1 2 McNulty, Charles (June 25, 2014). "Eli Wallach had the power to illuminate a character on stage and screen". Los Angeles Times .
  27. 1 2 3 "Eli Wallach dead: Star of The Good, the Bad and the Ugly dies aged 98". Mirror. UK. June 25, 2014.
  28. "Eli Wallach: a career in clips". The Guardian. June 25, 2014.
  29. Churchwell, Sarah (December 27, 2005) [2004]. The Many Lives of Marilyn Monroe. Granta Books. p. 266. ISBN   978-0-312-42565-4.
  30. Miller, Arthur (1987). Timebends. New York: Grove Press. p. 485. ISBN   0-8021-0015-5.
  31. Schochet, Stephen (2010). Hollywood Stories: Short, Entertaining Anecdotes about the Stars and Legend. Hollywood Stories Publishing. p. 118.
  32. McGilligan, Patrick (1999). Clint: The Life and Legend. Macmillan. p. 154.
  33. Kelly, Kitty. His Way: An Unauthorized Biography Of Frank Sinatra, Random House (2010).
  34. Welsch, James M. and Phillips, Gene D. The Francis Ford Coppola Encyclopedia, Scarecrow Press (2010), p. 273.
  35. "List of Emmy Nominations 2007". TVWeek . July 19, 2007. Archived from the original on September 24, 2012. Retrieved June 26, 2014.
  36. Armour, Philip (2011). The 100 Greatest Western Movies of All Time. Morris Book Publishing. p. 70.
  37. "Eli Wallach, prolific U.S. character actor, dies at 98". Reuters.com. June 25, 2014.
  38. Eli Wallach's acceptance speech, Honorary Academy Award, Governors' Award ceremony on YouTube, November 13, 2010.
  39. The Holiday - Arthur's award ceremony. August 17, 2011. Retrieved February 13, 2016 via YouTube.
  40. Reuters Editorial (June 25, 2014). "Eli Wallach, prolific U.S. character actor, dies at 98". Reuters. Retrieved February 13, 2016.
  41. McFadden, Robert D. (April 13, 2016). "Anne Jackson, Stage Star With Her Husband, Eli Wallach, Dies at 90". The New York Times . The New York Times Company . Retrieved May 30, 2018.
  42. Staff (April 13, 2016). "Actress Anne Jackson, Widow of Eli Wallach, Dies at 90". Variety . Penske Business Media, LLC. Retrieved May 30, 2018.
  43. Barnes, Mike (April 13, 2016). "Anne Jackson, Acclaimed Actress and Widow of Eli Wallach, Dies at 90". The Hollywood Reporter . Retrieved May 30, 2018.
  44. "Eli Wallach - Awards". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
Preceded by
Otto Preminger
Mr. Freeze Actor
Succeeded by
Arnold Schwarzenegger