Elia Dalla Costa

Last updated

Elia Dalla Costa

Cardinal
Archbishop of Florence
Malmantile, eremo di Lecceto - Busto del cardinale Elia Dalla Costa.jpg
Bust dedicated to Dalla Costa.
Church Roman Catholic Church
Archdiocese Florence
See Florence
Appointed19 December 1931
Installed21 February 1932
Term ended22 December 1961
Predecessor Michele Carlo Visdomini Cortigiani
Successor Ermenegildo Florit
Other posts Cardinal-Priest of San Marco (1933-1961)
Orders
Ordination25 July 1895
by Antonio Feruglio
Consecration12 August 1923
by Ferdinando Rodolfi
Created cardinal13 March 1933
by Pope Pius XI
RankCardinal-Priest
Personal details
Birth nameElia Dalla Costa
Born(1872-05-14)14 May 1872
Villaverla, Veneto, Kingdom of Italy
Died22 December 1961(1961-12-22) (aged 89)
Florence, Tuscany, Italy
Buried Duomo di Firenze
NationalityItalian
DenominationRoman Catholic
Previous post
MottoVirtus ex Alto ("Power from on high")
Coat of arms Coat of arms of Elia Dalla Costa.svg
Sainthood
Venerated inRoman Catholic Church
Title as SaintVenerable
Styles of
Elia Dalla Costa
Coat of arms of Elia Dalla Costa.svg
Reference style His Eminence
Spoken styleYour Eminence
Informal style Cardinal
Ordination history of
Elia Dalla Costa
History
Priestly ordination
Ordained byAntonio Feruglio
Date25 July 1895
Episcopal consecration
Principal consecratorFerdinando Rodolfi
Co-consecrators
Date12 August 1923
Cardinalate
Elevated by Pope Pius XI
Date13 March 1923
Episcopal succession
Bishops consecrated by Elia Dalla Costa as principal consecrator
Francesco Niccoli26 June 1932
Faustino Baldini21 September 1933
Antonio Bagnoli7 October 1943
Irzio Luigi Magliacani, O.F.M. Cap.28 May 1950
Dino Luigi Romoli, O.P.25 April 1951

Elia Dalla Costa (14 May 1872 22 December 1961) was an Italian Roman Catholic prelate and cardinal who served as the Archbishop of Florence from 1931 until his death. [1] [2] Dalla Costa served as the Bishop of Padua from 1923 until 1931 when he was transferred to Florence; he was elevated to the cardinalate on 13 March 1933. Dalla Costa was a staunch anti-fascist and anti-communist and was known best for providing refuge for Jewish people during World War II and providing others with fake documentation to flee from persecution. [1] [3]

Prelate high-ranking member of the clergy

A prelate is a high-ranking member of the clergy who is an ordinary or who ranks in precedence with ordinaries. The word derives from the Latin prælatus, the past participle of præferre, which means "carry before", "be set above or over" or "prefer"; hence, a prelate is one set over others.

Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Florence archdiocese

The Archdiocese of Florence is a metropolitan see of the Catholic Church in Italy. Traditionally founded in the 1st century, it was elevated to the dignity of an archdiocese on May 10, 1419, by Pope Martin V. Its mother church is the Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore, which has as its pastor the Archbishop of Florence. Since September 2008 Giuseppe Betori is the Archbishop; the former Archbishop, Cardinal Ennio Antonelli, was named President of the Pontifical Council for the Family.

World War II 1939–1945 global war

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

Contents

Dalla Costa was noted for his deep faith and holiness and became a revered figure in Florence. He was considered "papabile" in the conclave in 1939 since he was considered a pastoral and non-political prelate with a strong sense of faith. [2] In 2012 the organization Yad Vashem named him as a "Righteous Among the Nations" due to saving the lives of Jews during the Holocaust at great risk to himself. [4] [3]

Papabile adjective

Papabile is an unofficial Italian term first coined by Vaticanologists and now used internationally in many languages to describe a Roman Catholic man, in practice always a cardinal, who is thought a likely or possible candidate to be elected pope. A literal English translation would be "pop(e)able" or "to be able to be pope". In Italy the term has become very common and people use it for other analogous situations, too.

Yad Vashem Israels official memorial to the Jewish victims of the Holocaust

Yad Vashem is Israel's official memorial to the victims of the Holocaust. It is dedicated to preserving the memory of the dead; honoring Jews who fought against their Nazi oppressors and Gentiles who selflessly aided Jews in need; and researching the phenomenon of the Holocaust in particular and genocide in general, with the aim of avoiding such events in the future.

Righteous Among the Nations honorific used by the State of Israel to describe non-Jews who risked their lives during the Holocaust to save Jews from extermination by the Nazis

Righteous Among the Nations is an honorific used by the State of Israel to describe non-Jews who risked their lives during the Holocaust to save Jews from extermination by the Nazis. The term originates with the concept of "righteous gentiles", a term used in rabbinic Judaism to refer to non-Jews, called ger toshav, who abide by the Seven Laws of Noah.

The cause for his beatification opened two decades after his death in 1981 and he was titled as a Servant of God; he was named as Venerable after Pope Francis confirmed his heroic virtue. [3] [2]

"Servant of God" is a term used for individuals by various religions for people believed to be pious in the faith's tradition. In the Catholic Church, it designates an individual who is being investigated by the Church for possible canonization as a saint. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, this term is used to refer to any Eastern Orthodox Christian. The Arabic name Abdullah, the Hebrew name Obadiah (עובדיה), the German name Gottschalk, and the Sanskrit name Devadasa are all variations of "servant of God".

Pope Francis 266th and current Pope

Pope Francis is the head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State. Francis is the first Jesuit pope, the first from the Americas, the first from the Southern Hemisphere, the first to visit and hold papal mass in the Arabian Peninsula, and the first pope from outside Europe since the Syrian Gregory III, who reigned in the 8th century.

Heroic virtue is a phrase coined by Augustine of Hippo to describe the virtue of early Christian martyrs and used by the Catholic Church. The Greek pagan term hero described a person with possibly superhuman abilities and great goodness, and "it connotes a degree of bravery, fame, and distinction which places a man high above his fellows". The term was later applied to other highly virtuous persons who do extraordinary good works.

Life

Education and priesthood

Elia Dalla Costa was born in 1872 in Villaverla as the last of five children to Luigi Dalla Costa and Teresa Dal Balcon; the first three children the couple had all died as infants. Dalla Costa received his baptism as "Elia Angelo" on 23 June from Father Angelo Rossi and his godparents were Francesco Muraro di Bressanvido and Eugenia Dalla Costa. [1] His mother died in 1877 when Dalla Costa was just five which left him in the care of his father. [2]

Villaverla Comune in Veneto, Italy

Villaverla is a town in the province of Vicenza, Veneto, Italy. It is west of SP349 and south of A31.

Baptism Christian rite of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water

Baptism is a Christian rite of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into Christianity. The synoptic gospels recount that John the Baptist baptised Jesus. Baptism is considered a sacrament in most churches, and as an ordinance in others. Baptism is also called christening, although some reserve the word "christening" for the baptism of infants. It has also given its name to the Baptist churches and denominations.

Dalla Costa completed his high school education in 1886 and set out to commence his ecclesial studies after this. [2] He attended the seminaries in Vicenza and Padua (graduating in literature from the college in Padua) before being ordained to the priesthood in 1895. He underwent further studies in 1895 and finished that later in 1897 before doing pastoral work in Vicenza where he also taught. He served a brief stint as the parish priest at Villaverla as he substituted for an old and ailing pastor. [1] [2] He later served as the curate for Pievebelvicino and from 1902 until 1910 was the parish priest for Pozzoleone. On 10 November 1910 he was made the parish priest for Schio and remained there until 1922.

Seminary, school of theology, theological seminary, and divinity school are educational institutions for educating students in scripture, theology, generally to prepare them for ordination to server as clergy, in academics, or in Christian ministry. The English word is taken from the Latin seminarium, translated as seed-bed, an image taken from the Council of Trent document Cum adolescentium aetas which called for the first modern seminaries. In the West, the term now refers to Catholic educational institutes and has widened to include other Christian denominations and American Jewish institutions.

Vicenza Comune in Veneto, Italy

Vicenza is a city in northeastern Italy. It is in the Veneto region at the northern base of the Monte Berico, where it straddles the Bacchiglione River. Vicenza is approximately 60 kilometres (37 mi) west of Venice and 200 kilometres (120 mi) east of Milan.

Padua Comune in Veneto, Italy

Padua is a city and comune in Veneto, northern Italy. It is the capital of the province of Padua and the economic and communications hub of the area. Padua's population is 214,000. The city is sometimes included, with Venice and Treviso, in the Padua-Treviso-Venice Metropolitan Area (PATREVE) which has a population of c. 2,600,000.

Dalla Costa rendered humanitarian services to the wounded and assumed care for orphaned children throughout World War I and was later decorated with the Croce di Cavaliere della Corona d'Italia for his actions. It was while serving as a bishop in Padua that he would restore 50 parishes that were damaged during the war. [1] [2]

Order of the Crown of Italy Italian order

The Order of the Crown of Italy, Italian: Ordine della Corona d'Italia, was founded as a national order in 1868 by King Vittorio Emanuele II, to commemorate the unification of Italy in 1861. It was awarded in five degrees for civilian and military merit.

Episcopate

In mid-1923 he was appointed as the Bishop of Padua and he received his episcopal consecration on the following 12 August from Bishop Ferdinando Rodolfi in the Vicenza Cathedral with Bishops Andrea Longhin and Apollonio Maggio serving as the co-consecrators. He was enthroned in his new diocese on the following 7 October at an installation Mass. Dalla Costa was later named as the Archbishop of Florence on 19 December 1931 and for five months in 1932 served as the apostolic administrator for his old Padua diocese. He was enthroned in his new archdiocese in 1932. [2]

Cardinalate

Pope Pius XI created Dalla Costa as the Cardinal-Priest of San Marco on 13 March 1933. He received the red hat and his titular church on 16 March. [1] Dalla Costa was a staunch anti-communist and anti-fascist; when Adolf Hitler visited Florence in 1938 he took the dramatic decision (despite great external pressure) to close all the doors and windows of the episcopal palace and refused to participate in the celebrations. [4] He railed against the Italian Racial Laws deeming them an affront to human rights and dignities. He was one of the cardinal electors in the 1939 papal conclave (at which he received some votes as he was also a "papabile" candidate) [5] that selected Pope Pius XII. He was considered to be papabile due to his pastoral sensitivities and due to the fact that he was considered a non-political prelate. Cardinal Francesco Marchetti Selvaggiani - who had voted for Pacelli - said Dalla Costa would have been elected as pope if the cardinals had wanted "an angel" rather than a diplomat. There were some sources suggesting that Pacelli himself had voted for either Dalla Costa or Federico Tedeschini. But others suggested that his candidature did not gain traction since he was deemed too anti-fascist (which could have been problematic) and was deemed to be cold and aloof. [3] [2]

During World War II and the Holocaust he became known for helping to save thousands of Italians from execution under the Fascist regime. [6] He encouraged his priests to save Jewish people from persecution knowing all to well the fate that would befall them if arrested and deported. Dalla Costa organized an elaborate rescue network and also wrote to the heads of all the Florentine convents and monasteries asking them to shelter Jews to keep them safe. [4] The cardinal also established a shelter for Jews within the Seminar Minore di Montughi and even sheltered some in the episcopal palace with him. Dalla Costa provided Jews with fake documents for them to flee and received these fake documents from one of the Franciscan monasteries in Assisi. But it soon became too dangerous to accept them from Assisi himself so decided that the Tour de France winner and famed athlete Gino Bartali (he presided over Bartali's 1940 wedding) could do so. Dalla Costa's rationale was that no soldier would dare stop Bartali from training when he was in fact delivering the fake documents. [3] He had given safe haven to over 100 Italian Jews and 220 others from other countries.

Dalla Costa was close friends with Giorgio La Pira and the two often dined together and had discussions about the issues of the times. It was Dalla Costa who encouraged La Pira to run in Florentine local elections in 1951. [3] The cardinal held two Catechetical Conferences in the archdiocese in 1933 and in 1940 and held two Diocesan Eucharistic Conferences in 1937 and later in 1946. He made four pastoral visits while serving as the archbishop. In 1951 he offered his resignation to Pope Pius XII though the pope refused it. But a compromise was later reached in 1954: Ermenegildo Florit was made the coadjutor so that he could aid Dalla Costa in his episcopal duties as the aged prelate grew ill. [2]

He later participated in the 1958 conclave that resulted in the election of Pope John XXIII. Dalla Costa was close friends with Roncalli and met with him twice prior to the conclave to discuss it. It was alleged that Roncalli had either voted for Valerio Valeri or his friend Dalla Costa. [1] Dalla Costa believed that Roncalli would make a good pope and confided as much to his old friend. But Roncalli objected that he was too old to serve at 76 though the aged cardinal was said to have replied: "That's ten years younger than me". [2] He attended the coronation for the new pope on 4 November 1958 and returned to Florence that month where he said to people: "We have chosen a pope that you will like". It had been said that Dalla Costa voted for Roncalli in the conclave. [3]

Dalla Costa ordained the two future cardinals Domenico Bartolucci (1939) and Silvano Piovanelli (1947) as priests.

Death

Dalla Costa died from lung complications in Florence during the morning on 22 December 1961 and is buried in the Duomo di Firenze. [2] He was the oldest member of the College of Cardinals at his death.

Beatification process

Tomb in the Florentine cathedral. Duomo di firenze, tomba del cardinale elia dalla costa.JPG
Tomb in the Florentine cathedral.

The cause for Dalla Costa's canonization opened on 26 January 1981 under Pope John Paul II after the Congregation for the Causes of Saints issued the edict of "nihil obstat" (nothing against the cause) and titled him as a Servant of God. On 22 December 1981 the diocesan phase for the cause opened and closed sometime later. This investigation was held in the Florence archdiocese and the C.C.S. later validated this investigation on 19 November 1993 before receiving the Positio dossier from the postulation in 2007. This dossier was an extensive collation of documents and testimonies collected throughout the diocesan process.

The board of theologians assented to the continuation of the cause after investigating the dossier in their meeting held on 29 November 2016 while the cardinal and bishop members of the C.C.S. also approved it later on 2 May 2017. Dalla Costa was named as Venerable on 4 May 2017 after Pope Francis confirmed that the late cardinal had lived a model Christian life of heroic virtue.

Recognition

In November 2012 it was announced that Dalla Costa had been named on the previous 29 February as a "Righteous Among the Nations" after Yad Vashem in Jerusalem determined that he had done the most - at risk to himself - to save Jews from the horror of the Nazi Holocaust (or the Shoah) during the period before and during the war. [7]

Related Research Articles

Pope John XXIII 261st Pope of the Catholic Church

Pope John XXIII was head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 28 October 1958 to his death in 1963; he was canonized on 27 April 2014. Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli was the fourth of fourteen children born to a family of sharecroppers who lived in a village in Lombardy. He was ordained to the priesthood on 10 August 1904 and served in a number of posts, as nuncio in France and a delegate to Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey. In a consistory on 12 January 1953 Pope Pius XII made Roncalli a cardinal as the Cardinal-Priest of Santa Prisca in addition to naming him as the Patriarch of Venice.

Giuseppe Siri Catholic cardinal

Giuseppe Siri was an Italian Cardinal of the Catholic Church who served as Archbishop of Genoa from 1946 to 1987, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1953 by Pope Pius XII. Some sedevacantist groups believe a conspiracy theory known as the Siri thesis, which states that Siri was elected during the 1958 papal conclave that elected Angelo Roncalli as John XXIII. Siri never held these views and accepted the authority of John XXIII, Paul VI, John Paul I, and John Paul II.

Carlo Agostini was an Italian prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Patriarch of Venice from 1949 until his death, and died shortly after the announcement for his elevation to the cardinalate in 1952.

Ennio Antonelli Catholic cardinal

Ennio Antonelli is an Italian cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church and retired President of the Pontifical Council for the Family.

Silvano Piovanelli Catholic cardinal

Silvano Piovanelli was an Italian prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Archbishop of Florence from 1983 to 2001, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1985.

Giovanni Urbani was an Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Patriarch of Venice from 1958 until his death, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1958. He was considered to be overly dependent upon his advisers.

Joseph Höffner German Cardinal

Joseph Höffner was a German cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as the Archbishop of Cologne from 1969 to 1987 and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1969.

Giacomo Lercaro Catholic cardinal

Giacomo Lercaro was an Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church who served as Archbishop of Ravenna from 1947 to 1952, and Archbishop of Bologna from 1952 to 1968. Pope Pius XII made him a cardinal in 1953.

Pietro Palazzini was an Italian Cardinal, who helped to save the lives of Jewish people in World War II. He was consecrated bishop by the pope in 1962 and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1973. He has been commemorated by Yad Vashem.

Salvatore Pappalardo Italian cardinal

Salvatore Pappalardo STD JUD was an Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church who was Archbishop of Palermo for over 25 years, from 1970 to 1996. He was the first senior clergyman from Sicily to speak out against the Mafia, breaking its code of omertà.

Áron Márton Roman Catholic bishop

Áron Márton was a Hungarian Roman Catholic prelate who served as the Bishop of Alba Iulia from his appointment in late 1938 until his resignation in 1980 prior to his death. Márton held the title of Archbishop after he was raised to the honor despite leading a simple bishopric. He served as a prelate during a tumultuous period that was World War II as well as the communist regime in Romania that emerged afterwards. He was even meant to become a cardinal but refused the honor when he learnt that another Romanian prelate would not be elevated into the cardinalate with him.

Pierre-Marie Gerlier Catholic cardinal

Pierre-Marie Gerlier was a French Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Archbishop of Lyon from 1937 until his death, was Primate of Gaul and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1937.

Ermenegildo Florit Catholic cardinal

Ermenegildo Florit was an Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Archbishop of Florence from 1962 to 1977, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1965.

Vincenzo Fagiolo Catholic cardinal

Vincenzo Fagiolo S.T.D. J.C.D. was an Italian cardinal and President of the Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts from 1990 until 1994.

Jules-Géraud Saliège Catholic cardinal

Jules-Géraud Saliège was a French Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Archbishop of Toulouse from 1928 until his death, and was a significant figure in Catholic resistance to Nazism in France. He was elevated to the cardinalate in 1946 by Pope Pius XII. For his efforts to protect Jews during the Nazi Holocaust he was recognised as Righteous among the Nations by Yad Vashem.

Andrea Carlo Ferrari Italian Catholic cardinal

Blessed Andrea Ferrari - later adopting the middle name "Carlo" - was an Italian Roman Catholic prelate who served as a cardinal and as the Archbishop of Milan from 1894 until his death. Ferrari was a well-regarded pastor and theologian who led two dioceses before being appointed to the prestigious Milanese archdiocese which he led until his death. But he was later accused of Modernism which led to a strained relationship with Pope Pius X who later reconciled with Ferrari in 1912.

Loris Francesco Capovilla Roman Catholic bishop

Loris Francesco Capovilla was an Italian Roman Catholic prelate and a cardinal. At his death, he was the oldest Roman Catholic bishop from Italy and the fourth oldest in the world. At the time of his elevation to the rank of cardinal in 2014, he was the oldest member of the College of Cardinals.

Monsignor Francesco Repetto was an Italian priest and librarian. He is honored by Jews as a Righteous Among the Nations for his leading role in the clandestine DELASEM organization, which contributed to the saving of thousands of Jews during the Holocaust in Italy during the German occupation.

<i>My Italian Secret: The Forgotten Heroes</i> 2014 film by Oren Jacoby

My Italian Secret: The Forgotten Heroes is a 2014 documentary film, directed and written by Oren Jacoby, that tells the story of the rescue of thousands of Italian Jews during World War II by ordinary and prominent Italians, including the champion cyclist Gino Bartali. The film had its U.S. premiere at the Hamptons International Film Festival in October 2014, and opened at theaters in Los Angeles and New York in March 2015.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Salvador Miranda. "Consistory of March 13, 1933". The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church. Retrieved 17 October 2017.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 "Venerabile Elia Dalla Costa". Santi e Beati. Retrieved 17 October 2017.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Jesús Colina (20 July 2017). "Pope recognizes heroism of cardinal who organized a rescue network to save Jews". Aleteia.
  4. 1 2 3 "Cardinal Elia Angelo Dalla Costa". Yad Vashem . Retrieved 17 October 2017.
  5. "Habemus Papam". Time Magazine . 13 March 1939. Retrieved 15 July 2014.
  6. "Milestones: 29 Dec. 1961". Time Magazine. 29 December 1961. Retrieved 15 July 2014.
  7. "Late Italian cardinal honored for helping rescue Jews during Holocaust". Catholic News Service. 27 November 2012. Archived from the original on 5 December 2012. Retrieved 15 July 2014.
Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Luigi Pellizzo
Bishop of Padua
25 May 192319 December 1931
Succeeded by
Carlo Agostini
Preceded by
Alfonso Mistrangelo
Archbishop of Florence
19 December 193122 December 1961
Succeeded by
Ermenegildo Florit
Preceded by
Friedrich Gustav Piffl
Cardinal-Priest of San Marco
16 March 193322 December 1961
Succeeded by
Giovanni Urbani