Elinor Glyn

Last updated

Elinor Glyn
Elinor Glyn 02.jpg
Elinor Glyn, United States
BornElinor Sutherland
(1864-10-17)17 October 1864
Jersey, Channel Islands, U.K.
Died23 September 1943(1943-09-23) (aged 78)
Chelsea, London, U.K.
Pen nameElinor Glyn
Occupation Novelist and scriptwriter
LanguageEnglish
Period1900–1940
Genre Romance fiction
Literary movement Modernism
Notable works Beyond the Rocks , Three Weeks , The Visits of Elizabeth
Spouse
Clayton Louis Glyn
(m. 1892;died 1915)
Children2, including Juliet
Relatives Lucy, Lady Duff-Gordon (sister)
Sir Edward Rae Davson, 1st Baronet (son-in-law)
Sir Rhys Rhys-Williams, 1st Baronet (son-in-law)
Sir Brandon Rhys-Williams, 2nd Baronet (grandson)

Elinor Glyn ( née Sutherland; 17 October 1864 – 23 September 1943) was a British novelist and scriptwriter who specialised in romantic fiction, which was considered scandalous for its time, although her works are relatively tame by modern standards. She popularized the concept of the it-girl , and had tremendous influence on early 20th-century popular culture and, possibly, on the careers of notable Hollywood stars such as Rudolph Valentino, Gloria Swanson and, especially, Clara Bow.

Contents

Early life and family background

Elinor Sutherland was born on 17 October 1864 in Saint Helier, Jersey, in the Channel Islands. [1] She was the younger daughter of Douglas Sutherland (1838–1865), a civil engineer of Scottish descent, and his wife Elinor Saunders (1841–1937), of an Anglo-French family that had settled in Canada. [1] Her father was said to be related to the Lords Duffus. [2] [3] [lower-alpha 1]

Her father died when she was two months old; her mother returned to the parental home in Guelph, in what was then Upper Canada, British North America (now Ontario) with her two daughters. [4] Here, young Elinor was taught by her grandmother, Lucy Anne Saunders (née Willcocks), daughter of Sir Richard Willcocks, a magistrate in the early Irish police force, who helped to suppress the Emmet Rising in 1803. [5] [6] Richard's brother Joseph also settled in Upper Canada, publishing one of the first opposition papers there, pursuing liberty, and dying a rebel in 1814. The Anglo-Irish grandmother instructed young Elinor in the ways of upper-class society. This training not only gave her an entrée into aristocratic circles on her return to Europe, it also led to her reputation as an authority on style and breeding when she worked in Hollywood in the 1920s. Her grandfather on her mother's side, Thomas Saunders (1795–1873) was a direct descendant of the Saunders family who had possessed Pitchcott Manor in Buckinghamshire for several centuries. [7]

The family lived in Guelph for seven years at a stone home that still stands near the University of Guelph. [4] Glyn's mother remarried in 1871 to David Kennedy, and the family returned to Jersey when Glyn was about eight years old. [8] Her subsequent education at her stepfather's house was by governesses. [1] Glyn's elder sister grew up to be Lucy, Lady Duff-Gordon, famous as a fashion designer under the name Lucile.

Life and career

Elinor married on 27 April 1892, at the age of 28. Her husband was Clayton Louis Glyn (13 July 1857 – 10 November 1915), a wealthy but spendthrift barrister and Essex landowner who was descended from Sir Richard Carr Glyn, an 18th-century Lord Mayor of London. [9] The couple had two daughters, Margot and Juliet, but the marriage foundered on mutual incompatibility.[ citation needed ]

Glyn began writing in 1900, starting with Visits of Elizabeth, serialised in The World , [1] a book based on letters to her mother, although Lady Angela Forbes claimed, in her memoirs, that Glyn used her as the prototype of Elizabeth. [10] As Glyn's husband fell into debt from around 1908, she wrote at least one novel a year to keep up her standard of living.[ citation needed ]

Her marriage was troubled, and Glyn began having affairs with various British aristocrats. Her novel Three Weeks , about a Balkan queen who seduces a young British aristocrat, was allegedly inspired by her affair with Lord Alistair Innes Ker, brother of the Duke of Roxburghe, sixteen years her junior, which scandalized Edwardian society. [1]

Around 1907, Glyn toured the United States, resulting in her book Elizabeth visits America (1909). [1] [11] [12]

Glyn had a long affair between circa 1907 and 1916 with Lord Curzon, the former Viceroy of India. [13] [lower-alpha 2] Society painter Philip de László painted her in 1912, when she was 48. Curzon is presumed to have commissioned it and had given Glyn the sapphires she wears in the portrait. [14] [lower-alpha 3] In 1915, Curzon leased Montacute House, in South Somerset, for him and Glyn, now a widow as her husband had died that autumn at the age of 58 after several years of illness. Curzon asked Glyn to decorate Montacute House and with Glyn away from London, Curzon courted heiress Grace Duggan. Glyn learned of Curzon and Duggan's engagement from the morning papers and burnt 500 love letters in the bedroom fireplace, never speaking to Curzon again. [15]

Glyn pioneered risqué, and sometimes erotic, romantic fiction aimed at a female readership, a radical idea for its time. In her novel The Man and the Moment (1914), [1] she coined the use of the word it to mean a characteristic that "draws all others with magnetic force. With 'IT' you win all men if you are a woman–and all women if you are a man. 'IT' can be a quality of the mind as well as a physical attraction." [16] Her use of the word is often erroneously taken to simply be a euphemism for sexuality or sex appeal. [17]

During World War I, Glyn became a war correspondent, working in France. [1] At the signing of the Treaty of Versailles, 28 June 1919, Glyn was one of only two women present. [1]

This 1922 Vanity Fair caricature by Ralph Barton shows the famous people who, he imagined, left work each day in Hollywood; use cursor to identify individual figures. RalphBartonExtract.jpgPicture taken in 1907 of this junctionBill HartRex IngramPeter the hermitUse button to enlarge or cursor to investigate
This 1922 Vanity Fair caricature by Ralph Barton shows the famous people who, he imagined, left work each day in Hollywood; use cursor to identify individual figures.

After the war, Glyn went to Hollywood, for the filming of her novel The Great Moment . [1] [19] In 1919, she signed a contract with William Randolph Hearst's International Magazine Company to write stories and articles that included a clause for the motion picture rights. [20] She was brought over from England to write screenplays by the Famous Players–Lasky production company. [21] She wrote for Cosmopolitan and other Hearst press titles, advising women on how to keep their men and imparting health and beauty tips. The Elinor Glyn System of Writing (1922) gives insights into writing for Hollywood studios and magazine editors of the time. [22]

Glyn was one of the most famous women screenwriters in the 1920s. She has 28 story or screenwriting credits, three producing credits, and two credits for directing. [19] Her first script was called The Great Moment and starred Gloria Swanson.

Glyn was responsible for many screenplays in the 1920s, including Six Hours (1923) and the film version of her novel Three Weeks (1924). [19] Other films she wrote were His Hour (1924), directed by King Vidor; Love's Blindness (1926), about a marriage that is done strictly for financial reasons; Man and Maid (1925), about a man who must choose between two women; The Only Thing (1925); and Ritzy . Three screenplays based on Glyn's novels and a story in the mid to late twenties, Man and Maid, The Only Thing, and Ritzy, did not do well at the box office, despite the success Glyn gained with her first project, The Great Moment, which was in the same genre. [19] In 1930 she wrote her first non-silent film, Such Men Are Dangerous , her last screenplay in the United States. [19]

Apart from being a scriptwriter for the silent movie industry, working for both MGM and Paramount Pictures in Hollywood in the mid-1920s, she had a brief career as one of the earliest female directors. [23] In addition to being credited as an author, adapter, and co-producer on the 1927 film adaptation of It, she also made a cameo appearance. [21]

She is credited[ who? ] with the re-styling of Gloria Swanson from giggly starlet to elegant star. The duo connected again when Beyond the Rocks was made into a silent film that was released in 1922. The Sam Wood–directed film stars Swanson and Rudolph Valentino as a romantic pair. In 1927, Glyn helped to make a star of actress Clara Bow, for whom she coined the sobriquet "the It girl." In 1928, Bow also starred in Red Hair , which was based on Glyn's 1905 novel of the same name. [24] The film was a comedy vehicle to demonstrate the supposed passion of red-haired people. [25]

Glyn returned home to England in 1929 in part because of tax demands. With her return she set out to form her own production company, Elinor Glyn Ltd. Her family had established a company in 1924, Elinor Glyn Ltd, to which she signed her copyrights, receiving an income from the firm and an annuity in later life. The firm was an early pioneer of cross-media branding. [26] After she started the company, she began working as a film director as well. Paying out of her own pocket, she directed Knowing Men in 1930, which showed a more traditionalist view of men as sexual harassers. The project was a disaster, and the screenwriter Edward Knoblock sued Glyn so that the work could not be released. Elinor Glyn Ltd produced a second film in 1930, The Price of Things , which was also unsuccessful and was never released in the US. As her company failed and she exhausted her finances, Glyn decided to retire from film work and instead focus on her first passion, writing novels. [21]

Death

After a short illness, Glyn died on 23 September 1943, at 39 Royal Avenue, Chelsea, London, aged 78, [27] and was cremated at Golders Green Crematorium. Her ashes lie above the door to the Jewish Shrine at the west end of the columbarium.

Descendants

Would you like to sin
With Elinor Glyn
On a tiger skin?
Or would you prefer
To err with her
On some other fur?
I read my Plato
Love, I thought a sin
But since your kiss
I'm reading missus Glyn!

Selected writings

Cover of the 1915 edition of Three Things Three Thing by Elinor Glyn - book cover.jpg
Cover of the 1915 edition of Three Things
Elizabeth series
  1. The Visits of Elizabeth (1900)
  2. Elizabeth Visits America (1909) [11] [12]
Three Weeks series
  1. Three Weeks (1907)
  2. One Day (1909) (unauthorized sequel by an anonymous author)
  3. High Noon (1910) (unauthorized sequel by an anonymous author)
The Price of Things series
  1. The Price of Things (1919), a.k.a. Family
  2. Glorious Flames (1932)
Single novels
Story collections
Non-fiction

Filmography

Screenwriter

Director

Notes

  1. The Sutherlands were descended from David Sutherland, Laird of Cambusavie, allegedly a son of Alexander Sutherland, a younger brother of the Jacobite 3rd Lord Duffus, who is described in The Scots Peerage as having died without issue. The fact that the 6th Lord Duffus inherited in 1827 over the now Canadian Sutherlands, who sold their estates in the 1770s to the Earl of Sutherland, probably means that the relationship was more distant, or if the same, that the Laird of Cambusavie was illegitimate. [3]
  2. Their affair lasted eight-years and collapsed circa 1915–16. [13]
  3. The painting is reportedly still owned by her family. [14]

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Liane Haid</span> Austrian actress and singer

Juliane "Liane" Haid was an Austrian actress and singer. She has often been referred to as Austria's first movie star.

<i>It</i> (1927 film) 1927 film

It is a 1927 American silent film directed by Clarence G. Badger and Josef von Sternberg, and starring Clara Bow. It is based on the serialised novella of the same name, republished in "It" and Other Stories (1927), by Elinor Glyn, who adapted the story and appears in the film as herself.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Frederick Lonsdale</span> British playwright (1881-1954)

Frederick Lonsdale was a British playwright known for his librettos to several successful musicals early in the 20th century, including King of Cadonia (1908), The Balkan Princess (1910), Betty (1915), The Maid of the Mountains (1917), Monsieur Beaucaire (1919) and Madame Pompadour (1923). He also wrote comedy plays, including The Last of Mrs. Cheyney (1925) and On Approval (1927) and the murder melodrama But for the Grace of God (1946). Some of his plays and musicals were made into films, and he also wrote a few screenplays.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Vicki Baum</span> Austrian writer

Hedwig "Vicki" Baum was an Austrian writer. She is known for the novel Menschen im Hotel, one of her first international successes. It was made into a 1932 film and a 1989 Broadway musical.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lucy, Lady Duff-Gordon</span> British fashion designer and Titanic survivor (1863-1935)

Lucy Christiana, Lady Duff-Gordon was a leading British fashion designer in the late 19th and early 20th centuries who worked under the professional name Lucile.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Juliet Rhys-Williams</span> British writer and politician

Dame Juliet Evangeline Rhys-Williams, Lady Rhys-Williams, was a British writer and politician who was successively a member of the Liberal National Party, the Liberal Party and the Conservative Party.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Emily Fitzroy</span> British actress (1860–1954)

Emily Fitzroy was an English theatre and film actress who eventually became an American citizen. She was at one time a leading lady in London for Sir Charles Wyndham.

Sir Rhys Rhys-Williams, 1st Baronet,, born Rhys Williams, was a British Liberal Party politician from Wales. He later left the Liberal Party for the Conservatives.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Charlotte Ander</span> German actress (1902–1969)

Charlotte Ander was a German actress.

<i>The Only Thing</i> 1925 film by Jack Conway

The Only Thing is a 1925 American silent romantic drama film starring Eleanor Boardman. The film's scenario was written by author Elinor Glyn, and was based on a story adapted from Glyn's novel of the same name.

The Davson Baronetcy, of Berbice in British Guiana, is a title in the Baronetage of the United Kingdom. It was created on 21 January 1927 for Edward Rae Davson. He was Chairman of the Federation of Chambers of Commerce of the British Empire and a member of the Imperial Economic Committee and the Colonial Development Advisory Committee. Davson married Margot Elinor, daughter of Clayton Louis Glyn and his wife, the novelist Elinor Glyn. He was succeeded by his eldest son, the second Baronet. Like his maternal grandmother he was an author. In 1957 he assumed by deed poll the surname of Glyn in lieu of his patronymic as well as the additional forename of Anthony. As of 2014 the title is held by the latter's nephew, the fourth Baronet, who succeeded his father in 2004.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dale Fuller (actress)</span> American actress

Dale Fuller was an American actress of the silent era. She appeared in more than 60 films between 1915 and 1935. She is best known for her role as the maid in Foolish Wives.

<i>Three Weeks</i> (film) 1924 film by Alan Crosland

Three Weeks is a 1924 American drama film directed by Alan Crosland. The movie is based on the 1907 novel of the same name by Elinor Glyn, and the title refers to the length of an affair by the Queen of Sardalia. Formerly a lost film, the FIAF database indicates a print is preserved by Russia's Gosfilmofond. That print formed the basis of a restoration by La Cineteca del Friuli.

<i>Soul Mates</i> (1925 film) 1925 film

Soul Mates is a surviving 1925 American silent drama film directed by Jack Conway, based on the 1911 novel The Reason Why by Elinor Glyn. The movie was the second successful collaboration between Glyn and Conway.

Winifred Carter was an English author and playwright, who was particularly active from the 1920s–40s.

<i>Man and Maid</i> 1925 film

Man and Maid is a lost 1925 drama film directed by Victor Schertzinger based on a 1922 novel by Elinor Glyn. The film stars Lew Cody, Renée Adorée and Harriet Hammond.

<i>Three Weeks</i> (book)

Three Weeks is a 1907 erotic romance novel by Elinor Glyn.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Victor Heerman</span> American screenwriter and film director

Victor Eugene Heerman was an English-American film director, screenwriter, and film producer. After writing and directing short comedies for Mack Sennett, Heerman teamed with his wife Sarah Y. Mason to win the Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay of Louisa May Alcott's novel Little Women in 1933. He directed the Marx Brothers' second film, Animal Crackers, in 1930. He and Mason were the first screenwriters involved in early, never-produced scripts commissioned for what would become MGM's Pride and Prejudice.

Mad Hour is a 1928 American silent drama film directed by Joseph Boyle and starring Sally O'Neil, Alice White and Donald Reed. It was adapted from a 1914 novel by Elinor Glyn.

Sir Edward Rae Davson, 1st Baronet, was a British businessman who was influential in colonial economics. He was the managing director of Messrs. S. Davson & Co., Ltd., a prominent West Indies merchant firm.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Merriman, C.D. "Elinor Glyn - Biography and Works". online-literature.com. Jalic Inc. Retrieved 24 September 2022.
  2. Stevenson, Jane. "Features". archiveshub.jisc.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 30 July 2012. Retrieved 25 October 2019.
  3. 1 2 Glyn, Anthony (1955). Elinor Glyn. Doubleday & Co. Retrieved 18 October 2021;[ page needed ] Anthony Glyn was her grandson.
  4. 1 2 Outhit, Jeff (15 October 2016). "A Titanic feat: the Guelph girls who conquered the world". TheRecord.com.
  5. "'Rescuing a complicated story from silence': the Willcocks brothers, Joseph and Richard". 28 February 2013.
  6. Henderson, Michael. "Traitor and Knight" . Retrieved 6 May 2016.
  7. https://wcma.pastperfectonline.com/archive/45847070-1DE7-4124-896E-577334953500 Wellington County Archives: Saunders Family Papers
  8. Glyn, Anthony, Elinor Glyn: A Biography (Hutchinson, London, 1955), p. 35.
  9. Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, 106th Edition, Volume 1. Burke's (Genealogical Books) Ltd. 1999. p. 1161. ISBN   2-940085-02-1.Family history of Glyn Baronets. His wife is simply described as: "Elinor (d[ied] 23 Sep[tember] 1943), y[ounge]r dau[ghter] of Douglas Sutherland, of Toronto."
  10. Lady Angela Forbes, Memories and Base Details (1921), p. 79
  11. 1 2 Glyn, Elinor (1909). Elizabeth Visits America. B. Tauchnitz.
  12. 1 2 Glyn, Elinor (1 April 2004). "Elizabeth Visits America". gutenberg.org . Retrieved 24 September 2022.
  13. 1 2 "Historic People: Montacute's Tigress: Elinor Glyn" BBC, 11 February 2009. Retrieved 15 March 2009.
  14. 1 2 Jssgallery.org Archived 12 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine . Retrieved 15 March 2008.
  15. "A love affair at Montacute House". 23 March 2018.
  16. Elinor Glyn (1927) "It", Paramount Pictures
  17. Horak, Laura (2010). ""Would you like to sin with Elinor Glyn?" Film as a Vehicle of Sensual Education". Camera Obscura: Feminism, Culture, and Media Studies. 25 (2): 75–117. doi:10.1215/02705346-2010-003. ISSN   0270-5346.
  18. "When the Five O'Clock Whistle Blows in Hollywood". Vanity Fair . September 1922. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
  19. 1 2 3 4 5 "Elinor Glyn Biography". imdb.com. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
  20. Barnett, Vincent L., & Alexis Weedon (2014). Elinor Glyn as Novelist, Movie-maker, Glamour Icon and Businesswoman. Ashgate. p. 36. ISBN   978-1-4724-2182-1.
  21. 1 2 3 "Elinor Glynn Facts". biography.yourdictionary.com. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
  22. Weedon, Alexis, "Elinor Glyn's System of Writing", Publishing History, vol. 60, pp. 31–50, 2006.
  23. Barnett, Vincent L., "Picturization partners: Elinor Glyn and the Thalberg contract affair", Film History, vol. 19, no. 3, 2007.
  24. Glyn, Elinor (22 February 2006). Red Hair. gutenberg.org . Retrieved 24 September 2022.
  25. source?
  26. Barnett & Weedon (2014). Elinor Glyn as Novelist, Movie-maker, Glamour Icon and Businesswoman. pp. 42, 89.
  27. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Volume 22. Oxford University Press. 2004. p. 510. ISBN   0-19-861372-5.
  28. "Death Announcements (D to G), London Times", p. 3 (Archived 26 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine ). Retrieved 15 March 2009.
  29. "Books: Love & Sin on a Tiger Skin". Time . 11 July 1955. Archived from the original on 15 December 2008. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
  30. G. Chowdharay-Best. [sic: G. Chowdhury-Best]. "Anthony Glyn" (obituary), The Independent (as archived in findarticles.com), 10 February 1998.
  31. Sarah Lyall. "Sir Anthony Glyn, 75, Author Known for Spirit and Diversity", The New York Times , 28 January 1998.
  32. Papers of Juliet Rhys-Williams, British Library of Political and Economic Science. Retrieved 15 March 2009.
  33. Burke's Peerage: Rhys-Williams. Retrieved 15 March 2009.
  34. Schmidt, Barbara. "Mark Twain Interview with Elinor Glyn". twain quotes. Archived from the original on 22 November 2006. Retrieved 24 September 2022.
  35. Glyn, Elinor (1922), Man and Maid, Philadelphia: Lippincott, p. 125 Man and Maid in libraries ( WorldCat catalog).
  36. Perelman, S. J. (1949), Listen to the Mocking Bird, pp. 70–78, London: Reinhardt and Evans Listen to the Mocking Bird in libraries ( WorldCat catalog).
  37. Glyn, Elinor (1 March 2004). The Point of View. gutenberg.org . Retrieved 24 September 2022.
  38. Glyn, Elinor (1913). The Contrast and Other Stories. B. Tauchnitz. Retrieved 24 September 2022.
  39. Glyn, Elinor (1927). "It" and Other Stories. B. Tauchnitz. Retrieved 24 September 2022.
  40. Glyn, Elinor (1922). The Elinor Glyn System of Writing 1. Authors' Press. Retrieved 24 September 2022.
  41. Glyn, Elinor (1922). The Elinor Glyn System of Writing 2. Authors' Press.
  42. Glyn, Elinor (1922). The Elinor Glyn System of Writing 3. Authors' Press.
  43. Glyn, Elinor (1922). The Elinor Glyn System of Writing 4. Authors' Press.

Further reading

Portraits