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Elmira, New York
|• Mayor||Daniel J. Mandell, Jr. (R)|
|• City Manager||P. Michael Collins|
|• City Council|
|• City||7.58 sq mi (19.63 km2)|
|• Land||7.25 sq mi (18.78 km2)|
|• Water||0.33 sq mi (0.85 km2)|
|Elevation||860 ft (260 m)|
|• Density||3,730.56/sq mi (1,440.36/km2)|
|• Metro||90,070 (Chemung County)|
|Time zone||UTC−5 (EST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−4 (EDT)|
14901, 14904, 14905
Elmira // is the largest city and the county seat of Chemung County, New York, United States. It is the principal city of the Elmira, New York, metropolitan statistical area, which encompasses Chemung County. The population was 29,200 at the 2010 census. The population shrank by slightly more than 7 percent to a population of 27,110 by 2020.
The City of Elmira is in the south-central part of the county, surrounded on three sides by the Town of Elmira. It is in the Southern Tier of New York, a short distance north of the Pennsylvania state line.
The region of Elmira was inhabited by the Cayuga nation (also known as the Kanawaholla) of the Haudenosaunee prior to European colonization. Cayuga residing in the region maintained relations with European settlers, primarily related to the fur trade, but were otherwise relatively isolated from encroaching colonial settlements.
During the American Revolutionary War, the Sullivan Expedition of 1779 was mounted by the Continental Army against the four Haudenosaunee nations which had allied with the British. The expeditionary force fought a combined British-Haudenosaunee force at the Battle of Newtown, south of the current city, in which the Continental Army emerged victorious. [ citation needed ]After the conclusion of the war, the Haudenosaunee and the United States signed a treaty at Elmira in 1791 to settle territorial disputes in the region. Most of the Cayuga emigrated under pressure from encroaching American settlements with the other nations of the Haudenosaunee to Canada, where they resettled on land provided by the British Crown.
The first European-American settler in Elmira was Abraham Miller, who served as a captain in the Continental Army. Miller constructed a cabin after resigning just before the end of the Revolutionary War. Miller's Pond and Miller Street are named after him and are near the location of his house.
The New York legislature established the Township of Chemung, now Chemung County, in 1788. The settlement of Newtown was soon established at the intersection of Newtown Creek and the Chemung River. In 1792, the settlement at Newtown joined with the Wisnerburg and DeWittsburg settlements to form the village of Newtown. In 1808, the village officially changed its name to the Town of Elmira, at a town meeting held at Teal's Tavern. It is said the town was named after tavern owner Nathan Teal's young daughter, but that story has never been confirmed.According to Amos Bugbee Carpenter's "Carpenter Memorial" family history book printed in 1898, Elmira is named after Major General Matthew Carpenter's daughter. This naming occurred, according to this book, in 1821 at the constitutional convention to which Matthew was a delegate. In any case, the City of Elmira, nicknamed "The Queen City," was incorporated in 1864 from part of the town of Elmira and the village of Elmira. The remaining part of the town of Elmira exists still, surrounding the city on the west, north and east. The city and town share an intricately entwined history.
It appears that Amos Carpenter in his 1898 book was referencing an 1879 book.
White Man's Legend.
In the early days, when new settlements had to be named, the white man, in imitation of his aboriginal forerunner, gave a name to his settlement that was associated either with tradition, or, as in this case, with his ideal of loveliness. According to Hon. Hiram Gray, Matthew Carpenter, then a member or the legislature and a man of influence, having seen this beautiful valley, resolved that Newtown should be the principal city, and that it should bear the name of a lady friend for whom he entertained a high opinion, and accordingly, in 188, the name was changed to Elmira.
Elmira served as a transportation hub for New York's Southern Tier in the 1800s, connecting commercial centers in Rochester and Buffalo with Albany and New York City, via the canal system and railroads. The city was the southern terminus of the Chemung Canal completed in 1833; later, the Junction Canal was constructed to connect Elmira with Corning, facilitating transport of coal from the Pennsylvania mines via the Northern branch of the Susquehanna Canal system. In 1849, the New York and Erie Railroad was built through Elmira, giving the area a New York City to Buffalo route. In 1850, the Elmira and Jefferson Railroad gave the area a route north and, in 1854, the Elmira and Williamsport Railroad a route south. These railroads and their connections made the city a prime location for an Army training and muster point early in the Civil War.
In 1872 construction began on the Utica, Ithaca and Elmira Railroad, eventually creating a route to Cortland and Syracuse via Horseheads, Breesport and Van Etten. The Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad, completed in 1884, competed with the Erie's New York City to Buffalo line.
A great deal of the 30-acre (120,000 m2) Union installation, known as Camp Rathbun, fell into disuse as the Civil War progressed, and the camp's "Barracks #3" were converted into a Civil War prisoner of war camp in the summer of 1864. The camp, in use from June 6, 1864, until autumn 1865, was dubbed "Hellmira" by its inmates. Towner's history of 1892 and maps from the period indicate the camp occupied a somewhat irregular parallelogram, running about 1,000 feet (300 m) west and approximately the same distance south of a location several hundred feet west of Hoffman Street (Foster Avenue) and Winsor Avenue, bordered on the south by Foster's Pond, on the north bank of the Chemung River.
In the months the site was used as a camp, 12,123 Confederate soldiers were incarcerated; of these, 2,963 died during their stay from a combination of malnutrition, prolonged exposure to brutal winter weather and disease directly attributable to the dismal sanitary conditions on Foster's Pond and lack of medical care. The camp's dead were prepared for burial and laid to rest by the sexton at Woodlawn National Cemetery, ex-slave John W. Jones. At the end of the war, each prisoner was given a loyalty oath and given a train ticket back home; the last prisoner left the camp on September 27, 1865. The camp was closed, demolished and converted to farmland. Woodlawn Cemetery, about 2 miles (3 km) north of the original prison camp site (bounded by West Hill, Bancroft, Davis and Mary Streets), was designated a "National Cemetery" in 1877. The prison camp site is today a residential area.
The state legislature authorized the building of a state prison for first offenders in 1866. It opened in 1876 as the Elmira Reformatory, under the direction of Zebulon Brockway, serving offenders aged sixteen to thirty. It was the first institution of its kind, and a model for others to follow.In 1970 the complex was renamed the Elmira Correctional and Reception Center.
In 1950, the Elmira's population peaked at about 50,000, which represented 57 percent of Chemung County's total population at the time. Today, the city has approximately 30,000 residents, which represents 34 percent of Chemung County's population. This population decline is due to the national decline in railroads and manufacturing as well as a population shift to the outer suburbs around Elmira. The Elmira Metro area has nearly 100,000 people.
The population decline began during the recession of the early 1970s during which several large employers (Ann Page, American Bridge, General Electric, American LaFrance, Westinghouse and Remington Rand) either closed their factories or moved to other states. The decline was exacerbated by the flood of 1972, during which many of the downtown businesses and single-family homes were destroyed or replaced by subsequent Urban Renewal projects in the Chemung River flood plain.
Anchor Glass Container Corporation,headquartered in Tampa, Florida, is in the old Thatcher Glass facility in Elmira Heights. Anchor Glass produces a diverse line of flint, amber, green and other colored glass containers of various types and designs for the beer, food, beverage and liquor markets in North America. Anchor Glass is now wholly owned by the Ardagh Group S.A..
CAF-USA Inchas its main U.S. plant in Elmira Heights on the site of the former American Bridge Company. CAF USA is a subsidiary company of Construcciones y Auxiliar de Ferrocarriles, a Spanish manufacturer of passenger rail products (including trains, high-speed trains, locomotives, light rail vehicles and other rail equipment). CAF-USA Inc trains are typically designed for North America's market, based on Spanish design and technologies.
Elmira Heat Treating,established in 1962 in Elmira, offers a wide variety of heat treatment technologies to both domestic and international customers such as Hilliard Corp., Ford Motors, General Signal and others.
Hardinge, Inc. (formerly Hardinge Brothers),established in 1890 and now headquartered in Elmira, manufactures precise turning machines for the domestic and international market. Starting in 1995, Hardinge began expanding their product line and over the years has acquired L. Kellenberger & Co. AG, Hauser-Tripet-Tschudin AG, Jones & Shipman, and Usach Technologies, Inc. In 2004 they also acquired Bridgeport, world-famous for its milling machines and machining centers.
Hilliard Corporation,established in 1905, has two locations in Elmira and serves the international market in filters, brakes, clutches and starters for a variety of industrial and commercial uses as well as consumer equipment from Polaris and MTD.
Kennedy Valve,located in Elmira since 1905, is one of the world's largest manufacturers of products for waterworks distribution, potable and wastewater treatment, and fire protection system projects. They are most famous for their fire hydrants which can be found around the world. Kennedy Valve was acquired by McWane in 1988.
Trayer Products,established in 1929, manufactures parts mostly for the heavy truck industry; primarily truck chassis parts such as king pins and shackles.
During the summer of 1972, Hurricane Agnes struck the eastern seaboard of the United States, causing significant damage stretching from Florida into New England. Elmira was particularly hit hard by the flood, with over an estimated $291 million in damage.Over 15,000 people had to flee the city, and approximately 5,000 homes were damaged or destroyed. Coordinated efforts between local churches and regional businesses helped with the cleanup. Operating in secrecy, Rochester NY based Eastman Kodak sent crews as part of Operation Rebuild. Their efforts rebuilt 78 homes and assisted in the repairs of countless others.
Elmira city leaders approached the New York State Urban Development Corporation (UDC) to lead the redevelopment of the city post-flood. With a select group of businessmen and city officials attempting to minimize public input, the UDC implemented the "New Elmira Plan". This entailed the removal of buildings along the river to create Riverside Park, and razing other buildings in the business district for two parking garages. Altogether, forty percent of Elmira's commercial space was eliminated as part of the plan. Local citizens lamented the loss of character and vibrancy of downtown Elmira.
On July 26, 2012, an EF1 tornado touched down near Cottage Drive off of Route 352 and traveled through Golden Glow and the rest of the city. Moderate damage was seen after the storm passed and hundreds of trees and power lines were blown down. No one was injured. The tornado was 0.5 miles (0.80 km) wide and took the city by surprise as this area has not been prone to tornadic activity.
The City Slogan is "Honoring the Past, Building the Future". It is featured on an Entrance sign erected in 2003 into the city from Exit 56 of the Southern Tier Expressway along with other honored Elmirans including (L to R) Brian Williams, Hal Roach, Ernie Davis, Mark Twain, Eileen Collins, John Jones, and Tommy Hilfiger. The slogan was designated by Mayor Stephen Hughes following the conclusion of a slogan contest in which Marlin Stewart, Alan and Barbara Hutchinson, and James Lloyd were recognized for their contributions to the winning slogan.
On at least two hilltops near the city (mostly on Harris Hill to the northwest) pioneer pilots established the sport of gliding in America. Harris Hill is the site of the National Soaring Museum. These sites are now recognized as National Landmarks of Soaring.
The following are listed on the National Register of Historic Places:
Elmira is at(42.089874, −76.809559).
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 7.6 sq mi (19.6 km2), of which 7.3 sq mi (19.0 km2) is land and 0.27 sq mi (0.7 km2) (3.56%) is water.
The Chemung River flows eastward through the city. Elmira is built almost entirely in the flood plain of the Chemung River and has suffered many floods, the worst from Hurricane Agnes in 1972. Newtown Creek, flowing from the north, joins the Chemung River at the city's southeast corner.
Interstate 86/New York State Route 17, The Southern Tier Expressway, connects with the city at Exit 56. New York State Route 14 passes through Elmira between Watkins Glen and Pennsylvania. New York State Route 13 begins near Lake Ontario and travels through Cortland and Ithaca before ending in Elmira. New York State Route 352 begins in Elmira at Exit 56 of the Southern Tier Expressway and continues West into Corning.
|Climate data for Elmira, New York (1991–2020 normals, extremes 1894–present)|
|Record high °F (°C)||72|
|Average high °F (°C)||33.7|
|Daily mean °F (°C)||24.8|
|Average low °F (°C)||15.9|
|Record low °F (°C)||−24|
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||2.12|
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||8.4|
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||12.2||9.8||10.6||12.5||13.2||12.6||11.8||11.4||10.6||13.0||10.6||11.8||140.1|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||6.4||5.6||3.7||0.9||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.1||1.4||3.6||21.7|
|U.S. Decennial Census|
As of the censusof 2000, there were 30,940 people, 11,475 households, and 6,701 families residing in the city. The population density was 4,229.5 people per square mile (1,632.0/km2). There were 12,895 housing units at an average density of 1,762.7 per square mile (680.2/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 82.03% White, 13.05% Black or African American, 0.39% Native American, 0.49% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.37% from other races, and 2.64% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.14% of the population.
There were 11,475 households, out of which 31.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.3% were married couples living together, 18.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 41.6% were non-families. 34.5% of all households were made up of individuals, and 13.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 3.05.
In the city, the population was spread out, with 25.1% under the age of 18, 13.0% from 18 to 24, 29.9% from 25 to 44, 18.2% from 45 to 64, and 13.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.2 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $27,292, and the median income for a family was $33,592. Males had a median income of $31,775 versus $22,350 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,495. About 17.9% of families and 23.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.6% of those under age 18 and 12.1% of those age 65 or over.
The Elmira, NY Metropolitan Statistical Area (or Elmira MSA) is frequently used for statistical information such as labor rates and includes all of Chemung County with a population in 2000 of 90,070.
The Elmira MSA was ranked as the 59th safest place to live out of 344 Metro Areas in 2005 by Morgan Quitno Press.
The three largest ethnic groups in Elmira are Irish, German and Italian.
|Mayors of Elmira|
|Daniel J. Mandell||R||2016–present|
|Susan J. Skidmore||D||2012–2015|
|John S. Tonello||D||2006–2011|
|J. William O'Brien||D||3/2005-2006|
|Stephen M. Hughes||D||1998-2/2005|
|Howard F. Townsend||R||1994–1997|
|James E. Hare||D||1988–1993|
|Stephen J. Fesh Jr.||R||1984–1987|
|Mary P. Ciccariello||D||1982–1983|
|Robert G. Densberger||R||1980–1981|
|John M. Kennedy||D||1976–1979|
|Richard C. Loll||R||1972–1975|
|Edward T. Lagonegro||D||1968–1971|
|Howard H. Kimball||R||1966–1967|
|Edward T. Lagonegro||D||1962–1965|
|Edward A. Mooers||R||1956–1961|
|J. Maxwell Beers||R||1936–1939|
|Henry W. Honan||D||1934–1935|
|W. Glenn Sweet||R||1932–1933|
|Frank P. Robinson||D||1930–1931|
|David N. Heller||D||1926–1929|
|J. Norton Wood||R||1922–1925|
|George W. Peck||D||1920–1921|
|Harry N. Hoffman||-||1914–1919|
|Z. Reed Brockway||-||1906–1907|
|William T. Coleman||R||1904–1905|
|Frank H. Flood||-||1900–1901|
|David C. Robinson||D||1892–1894|
|Charles S. Davison||D||1888–1892|
|John B. Stanchfield||D||1886–1888|
|Stephen T. Arnot||D||1883–1884|
|David B. Hill||D||1882–1883|
|Granville D. Parsons||-||1878–1880|
|Robert T. Turner||-||1876–1878|
|Howard M. Smith||-||1875–1876|
|Patrick H. Flood||-||1872–1873|
|John Arnot, Jr.||D||1870–1871|
|Eaton N. Frisbie||-||1867–1868|
|John I. Nicks||R||1865–1867|
|John Arnot, Jr.||D||1864–1865|
|* Source: City Clerk of the City of Elmira|
The city government is a Council-Manager form of government in which the City Manager is the primary administrator of the city. There is one mayor elected at large and six council members elected from each of six council districts. The term of office of the mayor and council members was two years, until a 2003 referendum extended the terms to four years (four-year terms began after the 2007 election). The mayor and council members are all part-time employees. The City Manager, City Clerk, City Chamberlain, City Assessor, and Corporation Counsel are all appointed by the City Council. All remaining department heads serve at the request of the City Manager.
The city has 125 miles (201 km) of road, 210 miles (340 km) of water lines, and 175 miles (282 km) of sewer lines. There are four ZIP codes in the City of Elmira: 14901 (northside), 14902 (downtown), 14904 (southside), and 14905 (West Elmira).
The Chemung County Transit System operates regularly scheduled fixed route service within the City of Elmira and Village of Horseheads. Another route links Elmira with Corning Community College, also linking passengers with the Steuben County Transit System (SCT) and Corning Erwin Area Transit System (CEATS).
The Elmira Corning Regional Airport (IATA code ELM, ICAO code KELM) is a medium-size regional airport, and the only area airport that offers scheduled airline service. Located 7 miles (11 km) northwest of downtown, the airport has non-stop flights to Detroit in addition to seasonal flights to Atlanta served by Delta Air Lines, and two routes to Florida served by Allegiant Air with the airline serving seasonal flights to Punta Gorda and Myrtle Beach.
Chemung County is a county in the southern tier of the U.S. state of New York. The population was 88,830 as of the 2010 census and was estimated at 83,456 as of 2019. Its county seat is Elmira. Its name is derived from a Delaware Indian village whose name meant "big horn".
Steuben County is a county located in the U.S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 98,990. Its county seat is Bath. Its name is in honor of Baron von Steuben, a Prussian general who fought on the American side in the American Revolutionary War, though it is not pronounced the same. There is no direct link between Baron von Steuben and modern Steuben County, which he never visited.
Ashland is a town in Chemung County, New York, United States. The population was 1,695 at the 2010 census. The town is named after the home of Henry Clay.
Chemung is a town in Chemung County, New York, United States. The population was 2,563 at the 2010 census. The town name is derived from the Chemung River, which means "Big Horn" in the native language.
Erin is a town in Chemung County, New York, United States. The population was 1,962 at the 2010 census. The town was named by early settlers from Ireland.
Waverly is the largest village in Tioga County, New York, United States. It is located southeast of Elmira in the Southern Tier region. This village was incorporated as the southwest part of the town of Barton in 1854. The village name is attributed to Joseph "Uncle Joe" Hallett, founder of its first Fire Department and pillar of the community, who conceived the name by dropping the second "e" from the name of his favorite author's novel, Waverley by Sir Walter Scott. The former village hall is listed on the National Historic Places list.
Elmira is a town in Chemung County, New York, United States. It surrounds the city of Elmira on three sides. The town's population was 6,934 at the 2010 census. The town is in the south-central part of the county, in the Southern Tier of New York. It is part of the Elmira Metropolitan Statistical Area.
Horseheads is a village in Chemung County, New York, United States. The population was 6,461 at the 2010 census. The name is derived from the number of bleached skulls of pack horses left behind by the Sullivan Expedition.
Horseheads is a town in Chemung County, New York, United States. The population was 19,485 at the 2010 census. The name of the town is derived from the number of bleached horses' skulls once found there.
Corning is a city in Steuben County, New York, United States, on the Chemung River. The population was 11,183 at the 2010 census. It is named for Erastus Corning, an Albany financier and railroad executive who was an investor in the company that developed the community. The city is best known as the headquarters of Fortune 500 company Corning Incorporated, formerly Corning Glass Works, a manufacturer of glass and ceramic products for industrial, scientific and technical uses.
The Chemung River is a tributary of the Susquehanna River, approximately 46.4 miles (74.7 km) long, in south central New York and northern Pennsylvania in the United States. It drains a mountainous region of the northern Allegheny Plateau in the Southern Tier of New York. The valley of the river has long been an important manufacturing center in the region but has suffered a decline in the late 20th century.
Interstate 86 (I-86) is an Interstate Highway that extends for 222.26 miles (358 km) through northwestern Pennsylvania and the Southern Tier region of New York, in the United States. The highway has two segments: the longer of the two begins at an interchange with I-90 east of Erie, Pennsylvania, and ends just beyond the Chemung-Tioga County line at the Pennsylvania border, while the second extends from I-81 east of Binghamton to New York State Route 79 (NY 79) in Windsor. When projects to upgrade the existing NY 17 to Interstate Highway standards are completed, I-86 will extend from I-90 near Erie to the New York State Thruway (I-87) in Woodbury. The current and future alignment of I-86 is known as the Southern Tier Expressway west of I-81 in Binghamton and the Quickway east of I-81.
New York State Route 14 (NY 14) is a state highway located in western New York in the United States. Along with NY 19, it is one of two routes to transect the state in a north–south fashion between the Pennsylvania border and Lake Ontario. The southern terminus is at the state line in the Chemung County town of Ashland, where it continues south as Pennsylvania Route 14 (PA 14). Its northern terminus is at a cul-de-sac on Greig Street in the Wayne County village of Sodus Point. NY 14 has direct connections with every major east–west highway in western New York, including Interstate 86 (I-86) and NY 17, U.S. Route 20 (US 20) and NY 5, and the New York State Thruway (I-90). It passes through two cities—Elmira and Geneva—and serves many villages as it traverses the state.
The Chemung Canal is a former canal in New York, United States. The canal connected Seneca Lake at Watkins Glen to the Chemung River at Elmira, New York. It was planned to connect the Finger Lakes region and Pennsylvania's Susquehanna River watershed with New York's Erie Canal system. The latter connected the Great Lakes with the Hudson River and ultimately the Atlantic port of New York City.
New York State Route 352 (NY 352) is a state highway in the Southern Tier of New York in the United States. It generally parallels the Southern Tier Expressway from the village of Riverside (exit 45) east through the city of Corning to the city of Elmira (exit 56). The portion of NY 352 west of the hamlet of Big Flats was once part of NY 17; the rest was originally New York State Route 17E. Construction of and improvements to the Southern Tier Expressway have resulted in extensions of NY 352, primarily along the former NY 17 right-of-way.
Woodlawn National Cemetery is a United States National Cemetery within Woodlawn Cemetery, which is in the city of Elmira, in Chemung County, New York. Administered by the United States Department of Veterans Affairs, it encompasses 10.5 acres (4.2 ha), and as of 2021, had over 11,000 interred remains.
New York State Route 225 (NY 225) is a state highway in the Southern Tier of New York in the United States. It is a 15.54-mile (25.01 km) loop route off NY 352 that connects the town of Big Flats and the city of Corning to the hamlet of Caton. The route begins in Big Flats and follows a generally east–west alignment across rural areas to Caton, where it turns to run in a north–south direction toward Corning. Development along the highway increases once it enters the Corning suburb of South Corning, and the rest of the route serves residential neighborhoods in South Corning and Corning. NY 225 is two lanes wide for its entire length; however, part of the highway in South Corning also has a center turn lane.
First Transit operates several bus systems in the Southern Tier region of New York under contract. Many of these systems are medium-sized bus systems, operating within certain city, village, or county borders. With the exception of CTran Elmira, all systems operate Monday through Saturday
The Chemung County Historical Society is headquartered in the historic Chemung Canal Bank Building in Elmira, New York. It is dedicated to the collection, preservation, and presentation of the history of the Chemung River Valley region. The society was founded in 1923 and first chartered by New York State in 1947. It is accredited by the American Alliance of Museums, and currently operates two cultural repositories, the Chemung Valley History Museum and the Booth Library, both as non-profit educational institutions.
Pierce & Bickford was an American architect partnership of Joseph H. Pierce and H. H. Bickford, based in Elmira, New York, that was active during 1890–1930.
|Wikisource has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia article " Elmira ".|