Elwood Curtin Zimmermanʻi Press and Australian Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) published by Australia's CSIRO.(born in Spokane, Washington on December 8, 1912; died in Tura Beach, New South Wales on June 18, 2004) was an American entomologist best known for his two multivolume series: Insects of Hawaii published by the University of Hawai
During his school years in the hills above Oakland, California, where his father was a woodworker, he developed such a passion for entomology that he acquired the nickname "Bugs." He would go on summer camping trips organized by the Boy Scout leader "Bugsy" Cain, and developed a circle of boyhood friends who went on to become entomologists, including Robert L. Usinger, Judson Linsley Gressitt, and E. Gorton Linsley. At first he collected butterflies, but began to concentrate on weevils at the suggestion of a professor at the nearby University of California, Berkeley. During a camping trip in 1930, he discovered a new species of weevil that became the subject of his first academic publication, in 1932, soon after enrolling in UC Berkeley, where he received a B.S. degree in 1936.
On the basis of his considerable field experience and his earlier work mounting specimens of Hawaiian and Pacific insects for the Pacific Entomological Survey, which was then headquartered at UC Berkeley, his mentors there recommended him to serve as the field entomologist on the Bernice P. Bishop Museum's Mangarevan Expedition to southeastern Polynesia in 1934. His senior colleagues on that expedition gave him a new, lifelong nickname, "Zimmie," and his close-up encounters with a wide variety of island ecosystems gave him a new, enduring passion for biogeography.
He settled in Honolulu in 1936, where he worked as an entomologist for the Bishop Museum and conceived the idea for a single-author, multivolume Insects of Hawaii monograph modeled on the Insects of Western North America (1926) by his Berkeley mentor, Edward Oliver Essig. By 1946, he had completed the first five volumes, but Bishop Museum director Peter H. Buck was more eager to publish new works in anthropology than in entomology, so Zimmie turned instead to the University of Hawaiʻi, whose president, Gregg M. Sinclair, agreed to publish the volumes under the auspices of the newly established University of Hawaiʻi Press. The first five volumes finally appeared—to considerable local and international acclaim—in 1948, the same year that their author received a Fulbright fellowship to work at the British Natural History Museum on its large holdings of Hawaiian insects, many of them collected by R. C. L. Perkins over a period of 25 years beginning in the 1890s, at a time when many native fauna were disappearing.
Zimmie spent most of the next two decades living on grant money and private funds, in London as an honorary associate of the British Museum and in Peterborough, New Hampshire, where he had easy access to the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard University. He completed a Ph.D. from the University of London in 1956, published three more volumes of Insects of Hawaii in 1957–58, and prepared one more that languished in the pipeline until 1978. He was also made a life-fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1957.
Meanwhile, back in Honolulu, D. Elmo Hardy and others began publishing further volumes of Insects of Hawaii devoted to the exceptionally rich variety of Diptera (true flies) in the islands, a variety Zimmie had called attention to in a short contribution to Evolution in 1958 with the provocative title, "300 insect species of Drosophila in Hawaii?—A challenge to geneticists and evolutionists" (Evolution 12, pp. 557–558).
This paper helped stimulate one of the most outstanding and scientifically rewarding long-term, multidisciplinary research efforts in the history of evolutionary biology, encompassing systematics, genetics, ecology, and ethology of the Drosophila complex.
By the 1970s, however, Zimmie had trouble securing the funds needed to keep working on Insects of Hawaii and ended up accepting a generous offer from Douglas Waterhouse at Australia's CSIRO to turn his attention to producing another ambitious multivolume monograph, this time on Australian Weevils. By 1990, he had the first five volumes ready to publish, only to find that funding for this project, too, had dried up. He and his wife sold much of their estate, not just to subsidize publication, but also to endow an ongoing position at CSIRO for research on Pacific weevils. In 1992, they moved from their cattle ranch near Canberra to a home and laboratory on Tura Beach, where Zimmie spent his remaining years.
Among the awards Zimmie received for his life's work were a fellowship to the Entomological Society of America in 1946;v a D.Sc. from the University of London in 1980; the Karl Jordan Medal for his work on Hawaiian Lepidoptera in 1983; ʻi Regents' Medal of Distinction in 1998.the Herbert E. Gregory Medal at the Pacific Science Congress in Beijing in 1995; and Member of the Order of Australia and the University of Hawai
The Insects of Hawaii series, now under the editorship of James K. Liebherr of Cornell University, aims to provide a collaborative, comprehensive, taxonomy of all known Hawaiian insect fauna. So far, more than 5,000 native arthropod species have been described. Only vols. 1, 16, and 17 are still in print,but the out-of-print volumes are being scanned and added to the University of Hawaii's digital repository, ScholarSpace.
The out-of-print volumes follow:
Australian Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) is an 8-volume, comprehensive monograph that includes all the recorded species, with notes about their distributions, economic importance, host plants, and life histories, amply illustrated with roughly 10,000 images, over half of them in color. The following volumes are still in print.
Weevils are beetles belonging to the superfamily Curculionoidea, known for their elongated snouts. They are usually small, less than 6 mm in length, and herbivorous. About 97,000 species of weevils are known. They belong to several families, with most of them in the family Curculionidae. Some other beetles, although not closely related, bear the name "weevil", such as the biscuit weevil, which belongs to the family Ptinidae.
Harold Oldroyd was a British entomologist, born in 1914. He specialised in the biology of flies, and wrote many books, especially popular science that helped entomology to reach a broader public. His The Natural History of Flies is considered to be the "fly Bible". Although his speciality was the Diptera, he acknowledged that they are not a popular topic: "Breeding in dung, carrion, sewage and even living flesh, flies are a subject of disgust...not to be discussed in polite society". It was Oldroyd who proposed the idea of hyphenating the names of true flies (Diptera) to distinguish them from other insects with "fly" in their names. Thus, the "house-fly", "crane-fly" and "blow-fly" would be true flies, while the "dragonfly", "scorpion fly" and so on belong to other orders. He also debunked the calculation that a single pair of house-flies, if allowed to reproduce without inhibitions could, within nine months, number 5.6×1012 individuals, enough to cover the Earth to a thickness of 14.3 m (47 ft). Oldroyd calculated that such a layer would only cover Germany, but remarked "that is still a lot of flies".
Theodor Becker was a Danish-born German civil engineer and entomologist primarily known for studies on the taxonomy of flies.
Evelyn Cecil Muschamp d’Assis Fonseca was a British dipterist. He was responsible for formally naming a number of fly species, including:
Dilbert Elmo Hardy was an American entomologist who specialized in Diptera systematics.
†Carelia paradoxa was a species of small, air-breathing, land snail, a terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Amastridae and superfamily Cochlicopoidea.
Eurynogaster is a genus of flies in the family Dolichopodidae, endemic to Hawaii. It is part of the Eurynogaster complex of genera.
Pelastoneurus is a genus of fly in the family Dolichopodidae.
Thinophilus is a genus of flies in the family Dolichopodidae.
Thomas Blackburn was an English-born Australian entomologist who specialized in the study of beetles.
The Insects of Hawaii series, now under the editorship of James K. Liebherr of Cornell University, aims to provide a collaborative, comprehensive, taxonomy of all known Hawaiian insect fauna. So far, more than 5,000 native arthropod species have been described. Only vols. 1, 16, and 17 are still in print, but the out-of-print volumes are being scanned and added to the University of Hawaii's digital repository.
Charles Henry Tyler Townsend was an American entomologist specializing in the study of tachinids (Tachinidae), a large and diverse family of flies (Diptera) with larvae that are parasitoids of other insects. He was perhaps the most prolific publisher of new tachinids, naming and describing some 3000 species and genera. He made important contributions to the biological control of insect pests and he was the first to identify the insect vector of a debilitating disease in Peru. Townsend was also a controversial figure and criticism of his approach to insect taxonomy continues to this day.
John Merton Aldrich was an American entomologist. Aldrich was the Associate Curator of Insects at the United States National Museum. He is considered one of the most prolific entomologists in the study of flies.
Sciapodinae is a subfamily of flies in the family Dolichopodidae.
Plecia is a genus of March flies (Bibionidae).
Oscar Ringdahl (1885–1966) was a Swedish entomologist who specialised in Diptera and Trichoptera.
Elmoia is a genus of flies in the family Dolichopodidae, endemic to Hawaii. It is part of the Eurynogaster complex of genera. The genus is named in honor of D. Elmo Hardy.
George Hudleston Hurlstone Hardy was an entomologist who specialized in the biology of Diptera, especially Asilidae, Muscidae, Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae.
Chrysosomatini is a tribe of flies in the family Dolichopodidae.