Emanuel Leutze

Last updated
Emanuel Leutze
Emanuel Leutze.jpg
Born(1816-05-24)May 24, 1816
DiedJuly 18, 1868(1868-07-18) (aged 52)
Washington, D.C., U.S.
Resting place Glenwood Cemetery
NationalityGerman American
Education John Rubens Smith
Karl Friedrich Lessing
Known for History painter
Christopher Columbus Before the Council of Salamanca (1841) Christophe Colomb devant le conseil de Salamanque - Emanuel Leutze - MBA Lyon 2014.jpg
Christopher Columbus Before the Council of Salamanca (1841)

Emanuel Gottlieb Leutze (May 24, 1816 July 18, 1868) was a German American history painter best known for his 1851 painting Washington Crossing the Delaware . He is associated with the Düsseldorf school of painting.

Contents

Biography

Leutze was born in Schwäbisch Gmünd, Württemberg, Germany, and was brought to the United States as a child. [1] His parents settled first in Fredericksburg, Virginia, and then at Philadelphia. The first development of his artistic talent occurred while he was attending the sickbed of his father, when he attempted drawing to occupy the long hours of waiting. [2] His father died in 1831. [3] At 14, he was painting portraits for $5 apiece. Through such work, he supported himself after the death of his father. [4] In 1834, he received his first instruction in art in classes of John Rubens Smith, [5] a portrait painter in Philadelphia. He soon became skilled, and promoted a plan for publishing, in Washington, portraits of eminent American statesmen; however, he met with but slight encouragement. [2]

Europe

In 1840, one of his paintings attracted attention and procured him several orders, which enabled him to go to the Kunstakademie Düsseldorf. Due to his anti-academic attitude, he studied only one year at the academy (in the class of Director Schadow). Mainly Leutze was affected by the painter Lessing. [6] In 1842 he went to Munich, studying the works of Cornelius and Kaulbach, and, while there, finished his Columbus before the Queen. The following year he visited Venice and Rome, making studies from Titian and Michelangelo. His first work, Columbus before the Council of Salamanca (1841) was purchased by the Düsseldorf Art Union. A companion picture, Columbus in Chains, procured him the gold medal of the Brussels Art Exhibition, and was subsequently purchased by the Art Union in New York; it was the basis of the 1893 $2 Columbian Issue stamp. In 1845, after a tour in Italy, he returned to Düsseldorf, marrying Juliane Lottner [3] and making his home there for 14 years. [2]

During his years in Düsseldorf, he was a resource for visiting Americans: he found them places to live and work, provided introductions, and emotional and even financial support. [3] For many years, he was the president of the Düsseldorf Artists' Association; in 1848, he was an early promoter of the "Malkasten" art association; and in 1857, he led the call for a gathering of artists which led to the founding of the Allgemeine deutsche Kunstgenossenschaft. [4]

Washington Crossing the Delaware (1851) Washington Crossing the Delaware by Emanuel Leutze, MMA-NYC, 1851.jpg
Washington Crossing the Delaware (1851)

A strong supporter of Europe's Revolutions of 1848, Leutze decided to paint an image that would encourage Europe's liberal reformers with the example of the American Revolution. Using American tourists and art students as models and assistants, Leutze finished a first version of Washington Crossing the Delaware in 1850. Just after it was completed, the first version was damaged by fire in his studio, subsequently restored, and acquired by the Kunsthalle Bremen. On September 5, 1942, during World War II, it was destroyed in a bombing raid by the Allied forces. The second painting, a replica of the first, only larger, was ordered 1850 by the Parisian art trader Adolphe Goupil for his New York branch and placed on exhibition on Broadway in October 1851. [9] It is owned by the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. In 1854, Leutze finished his depiction of the Battle of Monmouth, "Washington rallying the troops at Monmouth," commissioned by an important Leutze patron, banker David Leavitt of New York City and Great Barrington, Massachusetts. [10]

New York City and Washington, D.C.

Grave of Emanuel Leutze at Glenwood Cemetery. Emanuel Leutze grave - Glenwood Cemetery - 2014-09-14.jpg
Grave of Emanuel Leutze at Glenwood Cemetery.

In 1859, Leutze returned to the United States and opened a studio in New York City. [2] He divided his time between New York City and Washington, D.C. [11] In 1859, he painted a portrait of Chief Justice Roger Brooke Taney which hangs in the Harvard Law School. In a 1992 opinion, Justice Antonin Scalia described the portrait of Taney, made two years after Taney's infamous decision in Dred Scott v. Sandford , as showing Taney "in black, sitting in a shadowed red armchair, left hand resting upon a pad of paper in his lap, right hand hanging limply, almost lifelessly, beside the inner arm of the chair. He sits facing the viewer and staring straight out. There seems to be on his face, and in his deep-set eyes, an expression of profound sadness and disillusionment."

Leutze also executed other portraits, including one of fellow painter William Morris Hunt. That portrait was owned by Hunt's brother Leavitt Hunt, a New York attorney and sometime Vermont resident, and was shown at an exhibition devoted to William Morris Hunt's work at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston in 1878. [12]

In 1860 Leutze was commissioned by the U.S. Congress to decorate a stairway in the Capitol Building in Washington, DC, for which he painted a large composition, Westward the Course of Empire Takes Its Way , which is also commonly known as Westward Ho!.

Late in life, he became a member of the National Academy of Design. He was also a member of the Union League Club of New York, which has a number of his paintings. At age 52, he died in Washington, D.C. of heat stroke. He was interred at Glenwood Cemetery. [13] At the time of his death, a painting, The Emancipation of the Slaves, was in preparation. [5]

Leutze's portraits are known for their artistic quality and their patriotic romanticism. Washington Crossing the Delaware firmly ranks among the American national iconography.

Footnotes

  1. According to one art critic. minor historical inaccuracies in Leutze's painting include the Betsy Ross flag, which was created about one year after the event; soldiers used a different type of boat for the crossing; and Washington is depicted older than he was at the time of the crossing at age 44. The soldiers' uniforms are accurately depicted, and the painting correctly conveys colonial unity and pride. [7]  The official United States flag was adopted by Congress on June 14, 1777. [8]

Related Research Articles

Visual art of the United States

Visual art of the United States or American art is visual art made in the United States or by U.S. artists. Before colonization there were many flourishing traditions of Native American art, and where the Spanish colonized Spanish Colonial architecture and the accompanying styles in other media were quickly in place. Early colonial art on the East Coast initially relied on artists from Europe, with John White the earliest example. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, artists primarily painted portraits, and some landscapes in a style based mainly on English painting. Furniture-makers imitating English styles and similar craftsmen were also established in the major cities, but in the English colonies, locally made pottery remained resolutely utilitarian until the 19th century, with fancy products imported.

George Caleb Bingham 19th-century American artist

George Caleb Bingham was an American artist, soldier and politician known in his lifetime as "the Missouri Artist". Initially a Whig, he was elected as a delegate to the Missouri legislature before the American Civil War where he fought the extension of slavery westward. During that war, although born in Virginia, Bingham was dedicated to the Union cause and became captain of a volunteer company which helped keep the state from joining the Confederacy, and then served four years as Missouri's Treasurer. During his final years, Bingham held several offices in Kansas City, while also serving as Missouri's Adjutant General. His paintings of American frontier life along the Missouri River exemplify the Luminist style.

Eastman Johnson 19th-century American painter

Jonathan Eastman Johnson was an American painter and co-founder of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City, with his name inscribed at its entrance. He was best known for his genre paintings, paintings of scenes from everyday life, and his portraits both of everyday people and prominent Americans such as Abraham Lincoln, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. His later works often show the influence of the 17th-century Dutch masters, whom he studied in The Hague in the 1850s; he was known as The American Rembrandt in his day.

Friedrich Wilhelm Schadow German artist

Friedrich Wilhelm von Schadow was a German Romantic painter.

<i>Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States</i> 1940 painting by Howard Chandler Christy

Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States is a 1940 oil-on-canvas painting by Howard Chandler Christy, depicting the Constitutional Convention signing the U.S. Constitution at Independence Hall in Philadelphia on September 17, 1787. Along with Washington Crossing the Delaware by Emanuel Leutze, the painting is one of the most famous depictions of the early days of the United States. Christy created the painting in April 1940; it is so large that he painted it in a sail loft. It currently is displayed along the east stairway in the House of Representatives wing in the Capitol building.

William Morris Hunt American artist

William Morris Hunt, American painter, was born at Brattleboro, Vermont, to Jane Maria (Leavitt) Hunt and Hon. Jonathan Hunt, who raised one of the preeminent families in American art. William Morris Hunt was the leading painter of mid-19th-century Boston, Massachusetts.

Worthington Whittredge American painter

Thomas Worthington Whittredge was an American artist of the Hudson River School. Whittredge was a highly regarded artist of his time, and was friends with several leading Hudson River School artists including Albert Bierstadt and Sanford Robinson Gifford. He traveled widely and excelled at landscape painting, many examples of which are now in major museums. He served as president of the National Academy of Design from 1874 to 1875 and was a member of the selection committees for the 1876 Philadelphia Centennial Exposition and the 1878 Paris Exposition, both important venues for artists of the day.

Events from the year 1851 in art.

Robert Colescott American visual artist

Robert H. Colescott was an American painter. He is known for satirical genre and crowd subjects, often conveying his exuberant, comical, or bitter reflections on being African American. He studied with Fernand Léger in Paris. Colescott's work is in many major public collections, including those of the Museum of Modern Art in New York, the Corcoran Gallery of Art, the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, and the Baltimore Museum of Art.

Enoch Wood Perry Jr. American painter

Enoch Wood Perry Jr. was a painter from the United States.

<i>Westward the Course of Empire Takes Its Way</i> painting by Emanuel Leutze

Westward the Course of Empire Takes Its Way is a 20-by-30-foot painted mural displayed behind the western staircase of the House of Representatives chamber in the United States Capitol Building. The mural was painted by Emanuel Gottlieb Leutze in 1861 and symbolizes Manifest Destiny, the belief that the United States was destined for Western exploration and expansion originating from the initial colonies along the Atlantic seaboard to the Pacific Ocean. A study measuring 33 14 by 43 38 inches hangs in the Smithsonian American Art Museum.

William D. Washington American artist

William Dickinson Washington was an American painter and teacher of art. He is most famous for his painting The Burial of Latané, which became a symbol of the Lost Cause of the Confederacy in the years following the American Civil War, and for the work he did in establishing the fine arts program of the Virginia Military Institute.

Minnesota Marine Art Museum Art museum in Winona, Minnesota

The Minnesota Marine Art Museum (MMAM) is an art museum in Winona, Minnesota, United States, specializing in marine art. The MMAM features five galleries of world-class art and artifacts including impressionism and Hudson River School paintings, marine art, folk art sculptures and traveling exhibits. Located on the banks of the Mississippi River, the museum is located in a unique, turn-of-the-century-style building and landscaped with over 60,000 native plants.

Richard Caton Woodville American painter, father of Richard Caton Woodville, Jr. (posthumous)

Richard Caton Woodville was an American artist from Baltimore who spent his professional career in Europe, after studying in Düsseldorf under the direction of Karl Ferdinand Sohn. He died of an overdose of morphine in London at the age of 30. He was the father of Richard Caton Woodville Jr., also a noted artist. In his short career he produced fewer than 20 paintings; but they were well known in their time through exhibition and prints and have remained prominent in the canon of American painters.

Helen M. Knowlton American painter

Helen M. Knowlton (1832-1918) was an American artist, art instructor and author. She taught in Boston from 1871 until the mid-1910s, when she was in her 70s. Her instructor and later employer, William Morris Hunt, was the subject of a portrait she made and several books; She is considered his principal biographer.

Washington Crossing the Delaware is a 1953 painting by New York painter Larry Rivers. Made of charcoal, oil paint, and linen, it is painted on linen and is in the collection of the Museum of Modern Art in New York City. In 1958 it was damaged by fire.. The painting is a variation on the painting with the same name by Emanuel Leutze.

<i>The Capture of the Hessians at Trenton, December 26, 1776</i> painting by John Trumbull

The Capture of the Hessians at Trenton, December 26, 1776 is the title of an oil painting by the American artist John Trumbull depicting the capture of the Hessian soldiers at the Battle of Trenton on the morning of Thursday, December 26, 1776 during the American Revolutionary War. The focus is on General George Washington aiding the mortally wounded Hessian Colonel Johann Gottlieb Rall. Nearly 900 Hessians were captured at the battle. It is one of Trumbull's series of historical paintings on the war, which also includes the Declaration of Independence and The Death of General Mercer at the Battle of Princeton, January 3, 1777. The painting is on view at the Yale University Art Gallery in New Haven, Connecticut.

<i>Washington Crossing the Delaware</i> (1851 painting) 1851 painting by Emanuel Leutze

Washington Crossing the Delaware is an 1851 oil-on-canvas painting by the German-American artist Emanuel Leutze.

<i>The Storming of Teocalli by Cortez and his Troops</i> painting by Emanuel Leutze


The Storming of the Teocalli by Cortez and his troops is an 1848 oil on canvas painting by the German American history painter, Emanuel Leutze.

<i>The Old Stagecoach</i>

The Old Stagecoach is an 1871 painting by American painter Eastman Johnson. Occasionally written as The Old Stage Coach or The Old Stage-Coach, the painting is considered one of Johnson's finest and best known works, second only to his Antebellum masterpiece Negro Life at the South.

References

  1. Marter, Joan M. (2011). The Grove Encyclopedia of American Art. Oxford University Press. p. 144. ISBN   978-0-19-533579-8.
  2. 1 2 3 4 Wikisource-logo.svg  Wilson, J. G.; Fiske, J., eds. (1892). "Leutze, Emanuel"  . Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography . New York: D. Appleton.
  3. 1 2 3 Witthoft, Brucia; et al. (1982). American Artists in Düsseldorf: 1840–1865. Framingham, Massachusetts: Danforth Museum. pp. 14, 32.
  4. 1 2 Moritz Blanckarts (1883), "Leutze, Emanuel", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB) (in German), 18, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 500–502
  5. 1 2 Groseclose, Barbara (1999). "Leutze, Emanuel Gottlieb". American National Biography (online ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/anb/9780198606697.article.1700519.(subscription required)
  6. Wolfgang Müller von Königswinter: Düsseldorfer Künstler aus den letzten fünfundzwanzig Jahren. 1854, S. 139.
  7. Parrish 2014.
  8. Preble 1880, p. 259.
  9. Barratt, Carrie Rebora (2011). Washington Crossing the Delaware. Restoring an American Masterpiece. MET publications. S. 7.
  10. "Washington at Monmouth," American Heritage Magazine, June 1965, AmericanHeritage.com Archived 2008-06-08 at the Wayback Machine
  11. Downes, William Howe (1933). "Leutze, Emanuel". Dictionary of American Biography . New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.
  12. Exhibition of the Works of William Morris Hunt, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, John C. Dalton, Alfred Mudge & Son, Boston, 1879
  13. Heiderstadt, Dorothy (1970). Painters of America . New York: D. McKay Co. p.  88.
  14. Metcalfe, Peter M., ed. (1991). "History, State Designations and Superlatives". Alaska Blue Book (Tenth ed.). Juneau: Alaska Department of Education, Division of State Libraries, Archives and Museums. p. 227.
  15. Harrington, Peter. "Emanuel Leutze's Portrait of General Ambrose Burnside at Antietam". Brown University Library. Retrieved 8 May 2015.

Additional References: