Emden

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Emden
Flug Emden 2010 191.JPG
Flagge Emden.svg
DEU Emden COA.svg
Location of Emden
Emden
Germany adm location map.svg
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Emden
Lower Saxony location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Emden
Coordinates: 53°22′1″N07°12′22″E / 53.36694°N 7.20611°E / 53.36694; 7.20611
Country Germany
State Lower Saxony
District Urban district
Government
   Lord mayor (201924) Tim Kruithoff [1] (Ind.)
Area
  Total112.33 km2 (43.37 sq mi)
Elevation
1 m (3 ft)
Population
 (2021-12-31) [2]
  Total49,523
  Density440/km2 (1,100/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+01:00 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+02:00 (CEST)
Postal codes
26721, 26723, 26725
Dialling codes 04921, 04927 (Knock)
Vehicle registration EMD
Website www.emden.de
Aerial view Emden 2023.jpg
Aerial view

Emden (German pronunciation: [ˈɛmdn̩] ) is an independent city and seaport in Lower Saxony in the northwest of Germany, on the river Ems. It is the main city of the region of East Frisia and, in 2011, had a total population of 51,528.

Contents

History

Historical affiliations

Ostfriesland Flagge mit Wappen.0.2.svg County of East Frisia 1464–1744
Flag of the Kingdom of Prussia (1750-1801).svg  Kingdom of Prussia 1744–1806
Flag of the Netherlands.svg Kingdom of Holland 1806–1810
Flag of France (1794-1815).svg  First French Empire 1810–1813
Flag of the Kingdom of Prussia (1803-1892).svg  Kingdom of Prussia 1813–1815
Flag of Hanover 1837-1866.svg  Kingdom of Hanover 1815–1866
Flag of the Kingdom of Prussia (1803-1892).svg  Kingdom of Prussia 1866–1871
Flag of the German Empire.svg  German Empire 1871–1918
Flag of Germany (3-2 aspect ratio).svg  Weimar Republic 1918–1933
Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg  Nazi Germany 1933–1945
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg  Allied-occupied Germany 1945–1949
Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany 1949–1990
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 1990–present

A church in Emden built in 1648 Neue Kirche Emden.jpg
A church in Emden built in 1648

The exact founding date of Emden is unknown, but it has existed at least since the 8th century. Older names for Emden are Setutanda, [3] Amuthon, Embda, Emda, Embden and Embderland. Town privilege and the town's coat of arms, the Engelke up de Muer (The Little Angel on the Wall) was granted by Emperor Maximilian I in 1495.

In the 16th century, Emden briefly became an important centre for the Protestant Reformation under the rule of Countess Anna von Oldenburg who was determined to find a religious "third way" between Lutheranism and Catholicism. In 1542 she invited the Polish noble John Laski (or Johannes a Lasco) to become pastor of a Protestant church at Emden, [4] :xi and for seven years he continued to spread the new religion around the area of East Frisia. However, in 1549 following pressure from the Emperor Charles V, the Countess was forced to ask Laski to leave for England and the experiment came to an end. Nevertheless, the legacy was important for the reformation in the Netherlands.

At the end of the 16th century, Emden experienced a period of great prosperity. Due to the Spanish blockade of Flemish and Brabant ports at the start of the Dutch Revolt, Emden became the most important transshipment port on the North Sea. Thousands of Protestant refugees came from Flanders and the Duchy of Brabant to the Protestant city Emden to escape persecution by the Spanish rulers of the Low Countries. During this period, the predominantly Calvinist Emden came into conflict with the Lutheran counts of East Friesland.

The Emden Revolution in 1595 resulted in Emden becoming a distinct city-state. [5] With the support of the Dutch Republic, Emden became a free government city under the protection of the Dutch Republic. The Brabantian dialect became the official language of trade and civil administration. Emden was a very rich city during the 17th century, due to large numbers of Dutch and Flemish immigrants such as Diederik Jansz. Graeff. It was a centre of reformed Protestantism at that time. The political theorist Johannes Althusius served as Syndic from 1604 to 1638. [4] :xii

In 1744, Emden was annexed by Prussia. In 1752 Frederick the Great chartered the Emden Company to trade with Canton, but the company was ruined when Emden was captured by French forces in 1757 during the Seven Years' War. The city was recaptured by Anglo-German forces in 1758 and for the rest of the conflict was used as a major supply base by the British to support the ongoing war in Westphalia. During the Napoleonic Wars, Emden and the surrounding lands of East Frisia were part of the short-lived Kingdom of Holland. Industrialization started at around 1870, with a paper mill and a somewhat bigger shipyard. At the end of the 19th century, a big canal, the Dortmund-Ems Canal was constructed, which connected Emden with the Ruhr area. This made Emden the "seaport of the Ruhr area", which lasted until the 1970s. Coal from the south was transported to the North Sea port, and imported iron ore was shipped via the canal towards Rhine and the Ruhr. The last iron ore freighter was moored in the port of Emden in 1986.

In 1903, a large shipyard ( Nordseewerke , "North Sea Works") was founded and was in operation until 2010. During World War II, Emden was repeatedly targeted by Allied bombing raids, which destroyed the majority of the city center. The Royal Air Force (RAF) launched its first bombing raid over Emden in 31 March 1940, and both the RAF and the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) continued to launch raids against the city for the duration of the war. On 6 September 1944, the RAF and USAAF launched their largest bombing raid against Emden, which destroyed approximately 80% of all structures in the city center. However, the Emden shipyards, in contrast to the rest of the city, was left largely unaffected by the bombing raids. [6] After the war, Emden came under Allied occupation and rebuilding efforts commenced. On 6 September 1962, exactly 18 years after the 1944 raid, the current Emden city hall was officially opened.[ citation needed ]

Climate

Climate data for Emden (1991–2020 normals)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Mean daily maximum °C (°F)5.1
(41.2)
5.9
(42.6)
9.0
(48.2)
13.8
(56.8)
17.4
(63.3)
20.1
(68.2)
22.1
(71.8)
22.3
(72.1)
18.9
(66.0)
14.1
(57.4)
9.0
(48.2)
6.0
(42.8)
13.7
(56.7)
Daily mean °C (°F)2.9
(37.2)
3.1
(37.6)
5.3
(41.5)
8.9
(48.0)
12.5
(54.5)
15.5
(59.9)
17.5
(63.5)
17.6
(63.7)
14.6
(58.3)
10.5
(50.9)
6.5
(43.7)
3.9
(39.0)
9.9
(49.8)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F)0.5
(32.9)
0.4
(32.7)
1.6
(34.9)
4.1
(39.4)
7.6
(45.7)
10.8
(51.4)
13.0
(55.4)
13.1
(55.6)
10.5
(50.9)
7.1
(44.8)
3.8
(38.8)
1.5
(34.7)
6.2
(43.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches)69.9
(2.75)
51.8
(2.04)
50.6
(1.99)
42.2
(1.66)
53.6
(2.11)
71.9
(2.83)
86.0
(3.39)
83.0
(3.27)
77.7
(3.06)
75.0
(2.95)
66.7
(2.63)
75.3
(2.96)
808.8
(31.84)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)20.616.015.613.914.015.317.716.716.418.619.321.0205.4
Average relative humidity (%)89.486.582.477.876.677.778.579.682.985.989.790.383.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 42.970.7122.3185.4214.1202.8202.4186.4145.9103.352.742.21,582
Source: NOAA [7]

Economy

The main industries in Emden are automobile production and shipbuilding. Volkswagen runs a large production plant which builds the Volkswagen Passat car and which employs around 10,000 people. Emden harbor is also one of the three main ports for car shipping in Europe (together with Zeebrugge in Belgium and Bremerhaven in Germany). More than 1.4 million cars were imported and exported in 2017. [8] The Nordseewerke shipyard, a subsidiary of ThyssenKrupp, employs around 1,400 dockers and specializes in conventional submarines. It also produces different kinds of cargo ships as well as ships for special purposes such as icebreakers, dredgers and other ships of that type.

Another important economic sector is tourism, mainly as a day trip destination for tourists staying in the surrounding villages on the North Sea coastline.

A university of applied sciences ( Fachhochschule ) was opened in 1973. At present, around 4,240 students are enrolled, most of them studying for technical degrees.

The airline Ostfriesische Lufttransport had its headquarters in Emden. [9]

Sports

The highest playing[ clarification needed ] association football club is BSV Kickers Emden. The capacity of the stadium is 7,200, due to safety objections of the German Football Association. In 1994, some 12,000 spectators followed a match against the reserves squad of Hamburger SV, which remains the record. In that season, Kickers Emden finished top of the 3rd League, but were not promoted to the Second League as they lost the promotion round.

Since Emden is not only located close to the North Sea, but also to the river Ems and various small rivers and canals, boat sports are very popular among inhabitants and tourists.

Notable people

Ludolf Bakhuizen self-portrait Zelfportret Bakhuizen.jpg
Ludolf Bakhuizen self-portrait
Melusine von der Schulenburg, ca 1705 Melusine von der Schulenburg - Kloster Barsinghausen..png
Melusine von der Schulenburg, ca 1705

Ships and places named after the city

Retired light vessel Amrumbank in front of Emden city hall. Emden Feuerschiff 06.jpg
Retired light vessel Amrumbank in front of Emden city hall.
The City Hall (Rathaus) Emden city hall.jpg
The City Hall (Rathaus)

Three German light cruisers were named after the city, two of which served in World War I and the third in World War II. Today, the fifth navy ship named after the city is in service.

A deep sea spot in the Pacific Ocean close to the Philippines is named after the first Emden ship, and is therefore called Emdentief in German. The spot (10,400 m or 34,100 ft deep) was sounded in the 1920s (in 1920, 1923 or 1928—sources vary).

The word "Yamandan" and "Emden" entered the lexicons of Malayalam and Tamil respectively after the bombing of Madras Harbour in 1914 by SMS Emden. The word in the local language means a humongous or huge and sometimes "a person who dares and works with precision". [13]

In addition, the village of Emden, Illinois in the United States was named after Jacob Emden [14] due to the large number of emigrants from Emden to the village in northwestern Logan County, Illinois. Other places in the U.S. named after the city include Emden, Missouri; Embden, Maine; and Embden, North Dakota. [15]

Twin towns – sister cities

Emden is twinned with: [16]

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ems (river)</span> River in Germany and the Netherlands

The Ems is a river in northwestern Germany. It runs through the states of North Rhine-Westphalia and Lower Saxony, and discharges into the Dollart Bay which is part of the Wadden Sea. Its total length is 362.4 kilometres (225.2 mi). The state border between the Lower Saxon area of East Friesland (Germany) and the province of Groningen (Netherlands), whose exact course was the subject of a border dispute between Germany and the Netherlands, runs through the Ems estuary.

Leer is a district (Landkreis) in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is bounded by the city of Emden, the districts of Aurich, Wittmund, Friesland, Ammerland, Cloppenburg and Emsland, and by the Netherlands.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">East Frisia</span> Historic region in Lower Saxony, Germany

East Frisia or East Friesland is a historic region in the northwest of Lower Saxony, Germany. It is primarily located on the western half of the East Frisian peninsula, to the east of West Frisia and to the west of Landkreis Friesland.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Leer, Lower Saxony</span> Town in Lower Saxony, Germany

Leer is a town in the district of Leer, in the northwestern part of Lower Saxony, Germany. It is situated on the river Leda, a tributary of the river Ems, near the border with the Netherlands. With 34,958 inhabitants (2021), it is the third-largest city in East Frisia after Emden and Aurich.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lingen, Germany</span> Town in Lower Saxony, Germany

Lingen (German pronunciation:[ˈlɪŋən] ), officially Lingen (Ems), is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany. In 2008, its population was 52,353, and in addition there were about 5,000 people who registered the city as their secondary residence. Lingen, specifically "Lingen (Ems)" is located on the river Ems in the southern part of the Emsland District, which borders North Rhine-Westphalia in the south and the Netherlands in the west.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dortmund–Ems Canal</span> Canal in Germany

The Dortmund–Ems Canal is a 269-kilometre (167 mi) long canal in Germany between the inland port of the city of Dortmund and the seaport of Emden. The artificial southern part of the canal ends after 215 kilometres (134 mi) at Herbrum lock near Meppen. The route then takes the river Ems for 45 kilometres (28 mi) to Oldersum lock. From there, the canal continues along a second artificial segment of 9 kilometres (6 mi). This latter section was built because inland ships at the time of the construction of the canal were not built for the open sea, which they would have faced at the Dollart and the entry to the sea port of Emden. It is connected to the Ems-Jade Canal from Emden to Wilhelmshaven.

German cruiser <i>Emden</i> Light cruiser

Emden was a light cruiser built for the German Navy in the early 1920s. She was the only ship of her class and was the first large warship built in Germany after the end of World War I. She was built at the Reichsmarinewerft in Wilhelmshaven; her keel was laid down in December 1921 and her completed hull was launched in January 1925. Emden was commissioned into the fleet in October 1925. Her design was heavily informed by the restrictions of the Treaty of Versailles and the dictates of the Allied disarmament commission. Displacement was capped at 6,000 long tons (6,100 t), though like all German warships built in the period, Emden exceeded the size limitations. She was armed with a main battery of surplus 15 cm (5.9 in) guns left over from World War I, mounted in single gun turrets, as mandated by the Allied powers. She had a top speed of 29 knots.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Karl von Müller</span> German naval officer and politician (1873–1923)

Karl Friedrich Max von Müller was a German naval officer who was the captain of a commerce raider, the light cruiser SMS Emden during the First World War.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Johannes Althusius</span>

Johannes Althusius was a German-French jurist and Calvinist political philosopher.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nordseewerke</span>

Nordseewerke Emden GmbH was a shipbuilding company, located in the Emden Harbor of the north German city of Emden. Founded in 1903, shipbuilding ended in 2010, and the company was taken over by the Schaaf Industrie AG, which among other products, makes components for off-shore systems.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Battle of Penang</span>

The Battle of Penang was a surprise naval engagement by the Imperial German Navy's East Asia Squadron during the First World War that took place on 28 October 1914. The battle involved the German cruiser SMS Emden in the Penang Strait, which sank two Allied warships as part of its commerce raiding operations throughout the Indian Ocean. During the battle, a total of 135 French and Russian sailors were killed and 157 others were wounded, while the Germans sustained no casualties. It was the only battle of the war fought in British Malaya.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bunde, Germany</span> Municipality in Lower Saxony, Germany

Bunde is a municipal district in East Frisia, in Lower Saxony, Germany, about 20 km (12 mi) south of Emden, Germany, and 50 km (30 mi) east of Groningen, Netherlands. It lies on the southern tip of the Dollart, a bay of the North Sea between Germany and the Netherlands, and has a land border with the Netherlands.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Rheiderland</span> Historical region in Germany and the Netherlands

The Rheiderland is a region of Germany and the Netherlands between the River Ems and the Bay of Dollart. The German part of the Rheiderland lies in East Frisia, west of the Ems. The Dutch part lies in the Dutch province of Groningen and is mostly part of Oldambt. The Rheiderland is one of the four historic regions on the mainland in the district of Leer; the others being the Overledingerland, the Moormerland and the Lengenerland.

Emden is a city in Lower Saxony.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">County of East Frisia</span> Territory in the Holy Roman Empire

The County of East-Frisia was a county in the region of East Frisia in the northwest of the present-day German state of Lower Saxony.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Emden Company</span>

The Emden Company was a Prussian trading company which was established on 24 May 1751 to trade primarily with the city of Canton in China. Its full name was the Royal Prussian Asiatic Company in Emden to Canton and China, but it was generally known by the shorter name.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of East Frisia</span>

The history of East Frisia developed rather independently from the rest of Germany because the region was relatively isolated for centuries by large stretches of bog to the south, while at the same time its people were oriented towards the sea. Thus in East Frisia in the Middle Ages there was little feudalism, instead a system of fellowship under the so-called Friesian Freedom emerged. It was not until 1464, that the House of Cirksena was enfeoffed with the Imperial County of East Frisia. Nevertheless absolutism had been, and continued to be, unknown in East Frisia. In the two centuries after about 1500, the influence of the Netherlands is discernable - politically, economically and culturally. In 1744, the county lost its independence within the Holy Roman Empire and became part of Prussia. Following the Vienna Congress of 1815, it was transferred to the Kingdom of Hanover, in 1866 it went back to Prussia and, from 1946, it has been part of the German state of Lower Saxony.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Emden Revolution</span>

The Emden Revolution of 18 March 1595 marked the beginning of the status of Emden as a quasi-autonomous city-state.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">German commerce raiders in World War I</span>

The German commerce raiders of World War I were surface vessels used by the Imperial German Navy for its Handelskrieg, a campaign against Allied seaborne trade. The ships comprised warships, principally cruisers, stationed in the German colonial empire before the war began, express liners commissioned as auxiliary cruisers and later, freighters outfitted as merchant raiders. These vessels had a number of successes and had a significant effect on Allied naval strategy, particularly in the early months of the war.

SMS <i>Emden</i> Light cruiser of the German Imperial Navy

SMS Emden was the second and final member of the Dresden class of light cruisers built for the German Kaiserliche Marine. Named for the town of Emden, she was laid down at the Kaiserliche Werft in Danzig in 1906. The hull was launched in May 1908, and completed in July 1909. She had one sister ship, Dresden. Like the preceding Königsberg-class cruisers, Emden was armed with ten 10.5 cm (4.1 in) guns and two torpedo tubes.

References

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  3. "Old Germanic Toponymie | PDF". Scribd. Retrieved 18 March 2022.
  4. 1 2 Carney, Frederick S. (1995). Politica:Translator's Introduction. Liberty Fund. ISBN   9780865971158.
  5. Mentzer, Raymond (1994). Sin and the Calvinists: Morals, Control and the Consistory in Reformed Tradition. Truman State University Press. p. 22. ISBN   1931112185.
  6. "You have no chance – Airminded". Airminded. 2 February 2011. Retrieved 14 March 2020. Why are we doing so? It is not revenge, though we do not forget Warsaw, Belgrade, Rotterdam, London, Plymouth and Coventry. We are bombing Germany, city by city, and ever more terribly, in order to make it impossible for you to go on with the war. That is our object. We shall pursue it remorselessly. City by city: Lübeck, Rostock, Cologne, Emden, Bremen, Wilhelmshaven, Duisburg, Hamburg -- and the list will grow longer and longer.
  7. "Emden Climate Normals 1991–2020". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on 16 September 2023. Retrieved 16 September 2023.
  8. Emden Autoport. Retrieved 21 September 2021 (german).
  9. "Imprint". (Archive) Ostfriesische Lufttransport. Retrieved on 4 August 2011. "Gorch-Fock-Str. 103 26721 Emden Germany".
  10. "Alting, Johann Heinrich"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . Vol. 1 (11th ed.). 1911. p. 764.
  11. "Backhuysen, Ludolf"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . Vol. 3 (11th ed.). 1911. p. 135.
  12. "Kendal, Dukedom of"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . Vol. 15 (11th ed.). 1911. p. 727, see second para = "In 1719 Ehrengarde Melusina (1667–1743), mistress of.......".
  13. "108 years of Emden – the only World War I attack on India".
  14. Emdenil.com Archived 29 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  15. Wick, Douglas A. (1988). "Embden (Cass County)". North Dakota Place Names. Bismarck, ND: Hedemarken Collectibles. ISBN   0962096806. OCLC   18941733. Archived from the original on 10 September 2013. Retrieved 12 May 2012.
  16. "Emder Städtepartnerschaften". emden.de (in German). Emden. Retrieved 30 November 2019.