Emeritus

Last updated

Emeritus ( /əˈmɛrɪtəs/ ; female: emerita) [Note 1] is an adjective used to designate a retired chair, professor, pastor, bishop, pope, director, president, prime minister, rabbi, emperor, or other person who has been "permitted to retain as an honorary title the rank of the last office held". [1]

Contents

In some cases, the term is conferred automatically upon all persons who retire at a given rank, but in others, it remains a mark of distinguished service awarded selectively on retirement. It is also used when a person of distinction in a profession retires or hands over the position, enabling their former rank to be retained in their title, e.g., "professor emeritus". The term emeritus does not necessarily signify that a person has relinquished all the duties of their former position, and they may continue to exercise some of them.

In the description of deceased professors emeriti listed at U.S. universities, the title emeritus is replaced by indicating the years of their appointments [2] except in obituaries, where it may indicate their status at the time of death. [2]

Etymology

Emeritus (past participle of Latin emerere, meaning "complete one's service") is a compound of the Latin prefix e- (variant of ex-) meaning "out of, from" and merere (source of "merit") meaning "to serve, earn". The word is attested since the early 17th century with the meaning "having served out one's time, having done sufficient service." The Latin feminine equivalent, emerita ( /ɪˈmɛrɪtə/ ), is also sometimes used, although in English the word emeritus is often unmarked for gender. [3]

In academia

In the United States and other countries, a tenured full professor who retires from an educational institution in good standing may be given the title "professor emeritus". [4] The title "professor emerita" is sometimes used for women. In most systems and institutions, the rank is bestowed on all professors who have retired in good standing, while at others, it needs a special act or vote. Professors emeriti may, depending on local circumstances, retain office space or other privileges. The adjective may be placed before or after the title, e.g., "professor emeritus" or "emeritus professor".

Other uses

When a diocesan bishop or auxiliary bishop retires, the word emeritus is added to their former title, i.e., "Archbishop Emeritus of ...". The term "Bishop Emeritus" of a particular see can apply to several people, if the first lives long enough. The title was applied to the Bishop of Rome, Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI, on his retirement. In Community of Christ, the status of emeritus is occasionally granted to senior officials upon retirement. In Judaism, emeritus is often a title granted to long-serving rabbis of synagogues or other Jewish institutions. In some cases, the title is also granted to chazzans. Rabbi Emeritus or Cantor Emeritus is largely an honorific title.

Since 2001, the honorary title of president pro tempore emeritus has been given to a senator of the minority party who has previously served as president pro tempore of the United States Senate.

It is also used in business and nonprofit organizations to denote perpetual status of the founder of an organization or individuals who made significant contributions to the institution.

Following her retirement, the House Steering and Policy Committee voted to grant Nancy Pelosi with the title of "speaker emerita" in recognition of her service as Speaker of the House. [5]

See also

Notes

  1. feminine emerita or emeritus; plural emeriti (masc.) or emeritae (fem.); abbreviation emer.

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Abbot</span> Religious title

Abbot is an ecclesiastical title given to the male head of a monastery in various Western religious traditions, including Christianity. The office may also be given as an honorary title to a clergyman who is not the head of a monastery. The female equivalent is abbess.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Archbishop</span> Bishop of higher rank in many Christian denominations

In Christian denominations, an archbishop is a bishop of higher rank or office. In most cases, such as the Catholic Church, there are many archbishops who either have jurisdiction over an ecclesiastical province in addition to their own archdiocese, or are otherwise granted a titular archbishopric. In others, such as the Lutheran Church of Sweden, the title is only borne by the leader of the denomination.

A style of office or form of address, also called manner of address, is an official or legally recognized form of address for a person or other entity, and may often be used in conjunction with a personal title. A style, by tradition or law, precedes a reference to a person who holds a post or political office, and is sometimes used to refer to the office itself. An honorific can also be awarded to an individual in a personal capacity. Such styles are particularly associated with monarchies, where they may be used by a wife of an office holder or of a prince of the blood, for the duration of their marriage. They are also almost universally used for presidents in republics and in many countries for members of legislative bodies, higher-ranking judges, and senior constitutional office holders. Leading religious figures also have styles.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Prelate</span> High-ranking member of the clergy

A prelate is a high-ranking member of the Christian clergy who is an ordinary or who ranks in precedence with ordinaries. The word derives from the Latin praelatus, the past participle of praeferre, which means 'carry before', 'be set above or over' or 'prefer'; hence, a prelate is one set over others.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Metropolitan bishop</span> Ecclesiastical office

In Christian churches with episcopal polity, the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the diocesan bishop or archbishop of a metropolis.

A titular see in various churches is an episcopal see of a former diocese that no longer functions, sometimes called a "dead diocese". The ordinary or hierarch of such a see may be styled a "titular metropolitan", "titular archbishop" or "titular bishop", which normally goes by the status conferred on the titular see.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Official</span> Someone who holds an office

An official is someone who holds an office in an organization or government and participates in the exercise of authority,. An elected official is a person who is an official by virtue of an election. Officials may also be appointed ex officio. Some official positions may be inherited. A person who currently holds an office is referred to as an incumbent. Something "official" refers to something endowed with governmental or other authoritative recognition or mandate, as in official language, official gazette, or official scorer.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Canon (clergy)</span> Ecclesiastical position

A canon is a member of certain bodies in subject to an ecclesiastical rule.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Coadjutor bishop</span> Assistant of the diocesan bishop

A coadjutor bishop is a bishop in the Catholic, Anglican, and (historically) Eastern Orthodox churches whose main role is to assist the diocesan bishop in the administration of the diocese. The coadjutor is a bishop himself, although he is also appointed as vicar general. The coadjutor bishop is, however, given authority beyond that ordinarily given to the vicar general, making him co-head of the diocese in all but ceremonial precedence. In modern times, the coadjutor automatically succeeds the diocesan bishop upon the latter's retirement, removal, or death.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hierarchy of the Catholic Church</span> Organization of the Catholic Church

The hierarchy of the Catholic Church consists of its bishops, priests, and deacons. In the ecclesiological sense of the term, "hierarchy" strictly means the "holy ordering" of the Church, the Body of Christ, so to respect the diversity of gifts and ministries necessary for genuine unity.

A diocesan bishop, within various Christian traditions, is a bishop or archbishop in pastoral charge of a diocese or archdiocese. In relation to other bishops, a diocesan bishop may be a suffragan, a metropolitan or a primate. They may also hold various other positions such as being a cardinal or patriarch.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Edward D. Head</span>

Edward D. Head was an American prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as the 11th bishop of the Diocese of Buffalo in New York from 1973 to 1995. He previously served as an auxiliary bishop of the Archdiocese of New York from 1970 to 1973.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bishops in the Catholic Church</span> Ordained ministers of the Catholic Church

In the Catholic Church, a bishop is an ordained minister who holds the fullness of the sacrament of holy orders and is responsible for teaching doctrine, governing Catholics in his jurisdiction, sanctifying the world and representing the Church. Catholics trace the origins of the office of bishop to the apostles, who it is believed were endowed with a special charism and office by the Holy Spirit at Pentecost. Catholics believe this special charism and office has been transmitted through an unbroken succession of bishops by the laying on of hands in the sacrament of holy orders.

A postpositive adjective or postnominal adjective is an adjective that is placed after the noun or pronoun that it modifies, as in noun phrases such as attorney general, queen regnant, or all matters financial. This contrasts with prepositive adjectives, which come before the noun or pronoun, as in noun phrases such as red rose, lucky contestant, or busy bees.

Professors in the United States commonly occupy any of several positions of teaching and research within a college or university. In the U.S., the word "professor" informally refers collectively to the academic ranks of assistant professor, associate professor, or professor. This usage differs from the predominant usage of the word professor internationally, where the unqualified word professor only refers to "full professors." The majority of university lecturers and instructors in the United States, as of 2015, do not occupy these tenure-track ranks, but are part-time adjuncts, or more commonly referred as college teachers.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bernard Joseph McLaughlin</span> Catholic bishop (1912–2015)

Bernard Joseph McLaughlin was an American bishop of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as the Auxiliary Bishop of Buffalo and also held the titular see of Mottola.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Order of precedence in the Catholic Church</span> Precedence of persons

Precedence signifies the right to enjoy a prerogative of honor before other persons; for example, to have the most distinguished place in a procession, a ceremony, or an assembly, to have the right to express an opinion, cast a vote, or append a signature before others, to perform the most honorable offices.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Glossary of the Catholic Church</span>

This is a glossary of terms used within the Catholic Church. Some terms used in everyday English have a different meaning in the context of the Catholic faith, including brother, confession, confirmation, exemption, faithful, father, ordinary, religious, sister, venerable, and vow.

Honorifics are words that connote esteem or respect when used in addressing or referring to a person. In the German language, honorifics distinguish people by age, sex, profession, academic achievement, and rank. In the past, a distinction was also made between married and unmarried women.

References

  1. "emeritus | adjective", Merriam-Webster, 2019. Retrieved 2019-12-07.
  2. 1 2 The Protocol School of Washington, "Emeritus | Emerita"
  3. Harper, Douglas. "emeritus". Online Etymology Dictionary . Retrieved 1 June 2021.
  4. "Descriptions: Professors Emeriti, Research Professor". FAS Appointment and Promotion Handbook. Retrieved 2022-10-13.
  5. Alvord, Kyle (November 30, 2022). "House Democrats Give Outgoing Speaker Nancy Pelosi a New Title to Honor Her 20 Years of Leadership". People Magazine. People Magazine. Retrieved November 30, 2022.

Sources