Emery Roth

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Emery Roth
Emery roth photo.jpg
Born1871
Gálszécs, Austria-Hungary, (now Sečovce, Slovakia)
DiedAugust 20, 1948 (aged 77)
ResidenceAustria-Hungary, United States
Citizenship
OccupationArchitect
Notable work
Hotel Belleclaire (1903)
Ritz Hotel Tower (1925)
The Eldorado (1929–31)
The San Remo (1930)
The Ardsley (1931)
2 Sutton Place South (1938)
300 East 57th Street (1947)
Spouse(s)Ella Grosman
ChildrenJulian, Richard, Elizabeth, Kathrin

Emery Roth (Hungarian : Róth Imre, 1871 August 20, 1948) was an American architect of Jewish descent who designed many of the definitive New York City hotels and apartment buildings of the 1920s and 1930s, incorporating Beaux-Arts and Art Deco details. His sons continued in the family enterprise, largely expanding the firm under the name Emery Roth & Sons.

Hungarian language language spoken in and around Hungary

Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and parts of several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine (Subcarpathia), central and western Romania (Transylvania), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia and northern Slovenia. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America and Israel. Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family. With 13 million speakers, it is the family's largest member by number of speakers.

Architect person trained to plan and design buildings, and oversee their construction

An architect is a person who plans, designs and reviews the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the buildings that have human occupancy or use as their principal purpose. Etymologically, architect derives from the Latin architectus, which derives from the Greek, i.e., chief builder.

New York City Largest city in the United States

The City of New York, usually called either New York City (NYC) or simply New York (NY), is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2018 population of 8,398,748 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles (784 km2), New York is also the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 19,979,477 people in its 2018 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 22,679,948 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural, financial, and media capital of the world, and exerts a significant impact upon commerce, entertainment, research, technology, education, politics, tourism, art, fashion, and sports. The city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.

Contents

Life and career

This World Columbian Exposition pavilion was designed by the young Roth alone. It housed a temporary shop for the Menier Chocolate Company. Its design is a direct quotation of the ancient Roman Temple of Vesta, a visual trope that would return later in his life to cap some of his most famous skyscrapers. A Chocolate Pavilion -- Official Views Of The World's Columbian Exposition -- 14.jpg
This World Columbian Exposition pavilion was designed by the young Roth alone. It housed a temporary shop for the Menier Chocolate Company. Its design is a direct quotation of the ancient Roman Temple of Vesta, a visual trope that would return later in his life to cap some of his most famous skyscrapers.

Born in Gálszécs, Austria-Hungary (now Sečovce, Slovakia) to a Jewish family, he emigrated to the United States at the age of 13 after his family fell into poverty upon his father's death. He began his architectural apprenticeship as a draftsman in the Chicago offices of Burnham & Root, working on the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893. At the Exposition Roth also designed one of his first solo projects; a pavilion that housed a chocolatier. [1] There he met Richard Morris Hunt, who was impressed with his skills and invited Roth to work in his office in New York. Following Hunt's premature death in 1895, Roth moved to the office of Ogden Codman, Jr., a designer and decorator with a Newport clientele. In the interwar years, the firm of Emery Roth delivered some of the most influential examples of architecture for apartment houses in the at-the-time fashionable beaux art-style, especially in Manhattan. [2] In 1938, Roth included his sons Julian and Richard as partners.

Austria-Hungary Constitutional monarchic union between 1867 and 1918

Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy in Central and Eastern Europe between 1867 and 1918. It was formed when the Austrian Empire adopted a new constitution; as a result Austria (Cisleithania) and Hungary (Transleithania) were placed on equal footing. It dissolved into several new states at the end of the First World War.

Sečovce Town in Slovakia

Sečovce is a town in the Trebišov District in the Košice Region of south-eastern Slovakia.

Slovakia Republic in Central Europe

Slovakia, officially the Slovak Republic, is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east, Hungary to the south, Austria to the west, and the Czech Republic to the northwest. Slovakia's territory spans about 49,000 square kilometres (19,000 sq mi) and is mostly mountainous. The population is over 5.4 million and consists mostly of Slovaks. The capital and largest city is Bratislava, and the second-largest city is Košice. The official language is Slovak.

Buildings designed

The Beresford 211 Central Park West (The Beresford) by David Shankbone.jpg
The Beresford
The Eldorado The Eldorado Apartments.jpg
The Eldorado
BuildingYearLocationNotes
The Saxony1899-1900250 West 82nd Street
Hotel Belleclaire1903250 West 77th Street (aka 1271-1277 Broadway)
The Adath Jeshurun of Jassy synagogue190358 Rivington Street
Whitestone190945 Tiemann PlaceBuilder Charter Construction Co.
601 West End Avenue1915601 West End Avenue
The First Hungarian Reformed Church 1915346 East 69th Street
1000 Park Avenue [3] 1916 Park Avenue and East 84th Street
151 East 80th Street1922151 East 80th Street
The Whitby 1924325 West 45th Street
The Gilford 1924140 East 46th Street
110 West 86th Street1924110 West 86th Street
Chester Court [4] [5] 1924201 West 89th Street
243 West End Avenue1925243 West End Avenue (Manhattan)
Mayflower Hotel1925 15 Central Park West demolished in 2004
221 West 82nd Street1925221 West 82nd Street
930 Fifth Avenue 1925930 Fifth Avenue
Ritz Hotel Tower1925109 East 57th Street With Carrère and Hastings. New York's first residential skyscraper introduced terraces at the setback levels.
41 West 96th Street192641 West 96th Street
65 Central Park West192665 Central Park West; Lincoln Square
The Alden1927225 Central Park West; Upper West Side
The Oliver Cromwell192712 West 72nd Street
Warwick Hotel 192765 West 54th Street
Hotel Benjamin1927125 East 50th Street
Hotel Carteret1927208 West 23rd Street
Manchester House1928145 West 79th Street
The Eldorado 1929–1931300 Central Park West / Central Park West Historic District
The Beresford 1929211 Central Park West
15 West 81st Street192915 West 81st Street
300 West 23rd Street1929300 West 23rd Street
35 Prospect Park West1929 Prospect Park; Brooklyn
Hotel St. George 1930100 Henry Street, Brooklyn Heights
Hotel St. Moritz 193050 Central Park South
993 Fifth Avenue1930993 Fifth Avenue
784 Park Avenue1930784 Park Avenue
The San Remo 1930145 and 146 Central Park West The first of the twin-towered residential skyscrapers.
The Ardsley1931320 Central Park West Roth's outstanding Art Deco residential skyscraper.
275 Central Park West1930–1931275 Central Park West
299 West 12th Street 1931 299 West 12th Street
140 East 28th Street1932140 East 28th Street
888 Grand Concourse1937888 Grand Concourse
880 Fifth Avenue 1948880 Fifth Avenue 1938

2 Sutton Place South

41 West 96th Street192541 West 96th Street
310 West End Avenue1927310 West End Avenue
The Normandy 1938140 Riverside Drive Last of the twin-towered residences, and Roth's choice for his retirement apartment.
Shenandoah Apartments192910 Sheridan Square

Emery Roth & Sons

Despite the fact that Roth's sons, Julian and Richard, had joined the firm many years earlier, it was not until 1947 that the firm's name was changed to Emery Roth & Sons, approximately one year before Roth's death. [6] Julian (1901–1992) specialized in construction costs and building materials and technology, while Richard (1904–1987) was named the firm's principal architect. In the 1950s and 1960s Emery Roth & Sons became the most influential architectural firm in New York and contributed substantially in changing the appearance of Midtown and Lower Manhattan. In that particular period of time Emery Roth & Sons designed dozens of speculative office buildings, mostly with curtain wall facades, which soon became a ubiquitous feature of the city. [7] Beginning in the mid-1960s, the firm was also hired as associate architects in large-scale projects like the Pan Am Building (1963), the World Trade Center (1966–1973) and the Citicorp Center (1977). In the early 1960s, Richard Roth's son, Richard Roth, Jr. (b. 1933) became the third generation to join the firm, eventually rising to chief architect CEO and shareholder. As the firm expanded and diversified over six decades, it remained a family business through the 1990s. In 1988 Richard Roth Jr's daughter Robyn Roth-Moise joined the firm as comptroller. Richard Roth Jr's son Richard Lee Roth joined the firm in 1982 and became the chief specification writer for Emery Roth & Sons. Both retired from the firm when Richard Roth Jr retired and was replaced as the company's CEO in 1993 by Robert Sobel, Roth's cousin. [8] But only three years later, in 1996, the firm ceased to operate, apparently because of financial distress. [9] Emery's great-grandson Richard Lee Roth currently works in the architectural profession and resides in South Florida.

Architectural firm company employing licensed architects, offering architecture-related services

In the United States, an architectural firm or architecture firm is a company which employs one or more licensed architects and practices the profession of architecture; while in other countries such as the United Kingdom, an architectural firm is a company which offers architectural services.

Midtown Manhattan central business district in New York City

Midtown Manhattan is the central portion of the borough of Manhattan in New York City. Midtown is home to some of the city's most iconic buildings, including the Empire State Building, the Chrysler Building, the Hudson Yards Redevelopment Project, the headquarters of the United Nations, Grand Central Terminal, and Rockefeller Center, as well as Broadway and Times Square.

Lower Manhattan Central business district in New York, United States

Lower Manhattan, also known as Downtown Manhattan or Downtown New York, is the southernmost part of Manhattan, the central borough for business, culture, and government in the City of New York, which itself originated at the southern tip of Manhattan Island in 1624, at a point which now constitutes the present-day Financial District. The population of the Financial District alone has grown to an estimated 61,000 residents as of 2018, up from 43,000 as of 2014, which in turn was nearly double the 23,000 recorded at the 2000 Census.

The extensive architectural records and papers of both Emery Roth and Emery Roth & Sons are now held in the Department of Drawings & Archives at the Avery Architectural and Fine Arts Library at Columbia University.

Avery Architectural and Fine Arts Library library at Columbia University in New York City

The Avery Architectural and Fine Arts Library is a library located in Avery Hall on the Morningside Heights campus of Columbia University in the New York City. It is the largest architecture library in the world. Serving Columbia's Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation and the Department of Art History and Archaeology, Avery Library collects books and periodicals in architecture, historic preservation, art history, painting, sculpting, graphic arts, decorative arts, city planning, real estate, and archaeology, as well as archival materials primarily documenting 19th- and 20th-century American architects and architecture. The architectural, fine arts, and archival collections are non-circulating. The Ware Collection, mainly books on urban planning and real estate development, does circulate.

Columbia University Private Ivy League research university in New York City

Columbia University is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City. Established in 1754, Columbia is the oldest institution of higher education in New York and the fifth-oldest institution of higher learning in the United States. It is one of nine colonial colleges founded prior to the Declaration of Independence, seven of which belong to the Ivy League. It has been ranked by numerous major education publications as among the top ten universities in the world.

Work by Emery Roth & Sons

The Look Building (1949). Look-building.jpg
The Look Building (1949).
The Bronx High School of Science (1959). BronxScience.jpg
The Bronx High School of Science (1959).
The MetLife Building (1963). MetLife Building by David Shankbone.jpg
The MetLife Building (1963).
The General Motors Building (1968). Sherry Netherland Hotel jeh.JPG
The General Motors Building (1968).
The Uris Building (1970), now known as Paramount Plaza. Paramount-plaza.jpg
The Uris Building (1970), now known as Paramount Plaza.
Citigroup Center (1977) Citigroup center.jpg
Citigroup Center (1977)
7 World Trade Center (1987 - 2001) Wtc7 from wtc observation deck.jpg
7 World Trade Center (1987 - 2001)
300 East 57th Street

300 East 57th Street is an apartment building on the corner of East 57th Street and Second Avenue in the Midtown neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City.

<i>Look</i> (American magazine) magazine published in Des Moines, Iowa

Look was a bi-weekly, general-interest magazine published in Des Moines, Iowa, from 1937 to 1971, with more of an emphasis on photographs than articles. A large-size magazine of 11 in × 14 in, it was generally considered a competitor to Life magazine, which began publication months earlier and ended in 1972, a few months after Look ceased publication.

Baruch Houses

Bernard M. Baruch Houses, or Baruch Houses, is a public housing development built by the New York City Housing Authority (NYCHA) on the Lower East Side of Manhattan. The development is named after Bernard Baruch, a Wall Street trader, economic advisor during World War I and World War II, and confidant to six presidents. Baruch Houses is bounded by Franklin D. Roosevelt East River Drive to the east, E. Houston Street to the north, Columbia Street to the west, and Delancey Street to the south. Nearby housing developments include the Gompers Houses, west of here.

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References

  1. 1 2 Ruttenbaum, Steven (1986). Mansions in the Clouds: The Skyscraper Palazzi of Emery Roth. Balsam Press. ISBN   978-0917439094.
  2. Prisco, Jacopo (2019-02-08). "A short history of the elevator". CNN Style. Retrieved 2019-03-13.
  3. Gray, Christopher (March 9, 2008). "STREETSCAPES: Park Avenue Between 83rd and 84th Street. Seven Apartment Houses in a Piazza-Like Setting". https://www.nytimes.com . New York Times. Retrieved August 2, 2013.External link in |website= (help)
  4. 201 W. 89 St. - Chester Court, Columbia University Libraries. Retrieved June 16, 2011
  5. About us, Chester Court official website. Retrieved June 16, 2011
  6. Robert A. M. Stern and others: New York 1960, p. 50
  7. Robert A. M. Stern and others: "New York 1960", p. 51
  8. Richard Roth retires; Robert Sobel succeeds. Real Estate Weekly, September 22, 1993. Retrieved June 16, 2011.
  9. Emery Roth & Sons architectural records and papers, 1906-1996 (bulk 1951-1994) at Columbia University Libraries: Avery Architectural & Fine Arts Library. Retrieved June 16, 2011
  10. "675 Third Avenue". durst.org. Retrieved 3 December 2015.

Further reading

International Standard Book Number Unique numeric book identifier

The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.