Bobu (left) honored by Nicolae Ceauşescu on his 50th birthday, 1977
|Born||22 February 1927|
Vârfu Câmpului , Botoşani County, Romania
|Died|| 12 July 2014 87) (aged|
|Cause of death||stroke|
|Organization||Romanian Communist Party|
|Criminal charge||Aggravated manslaughter|
|Criminal penalty||Ten years|
Emil Bobu (22 February 1927 – 12 July 2014) was a Romanian Communist activist and politician, who served as Interior Minister from 1973 to 1975 and as Labor Minister from 1979 to 1981. He was an influential figure in the later years of the Communist regime until his downfall during the 1989 Revolution.
Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe. It borders the Black Sea to the southeast, Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to the southwest, and Moldova to the east. It has a predominantly temperate-continental climate. With a total area of 238,397 square kilometres (92,046 sq mi), Romania is the 12th largest country and also the 7th most populous member state of the European Union, having almost 20 million inhabitants. Its capital and largest city is Bucharest, and other major urban areas include Cluj-Napoca, Timișoara, Iași, Constanța, Craiova, and Brașov.
The Romanian Communist Party was a communist party in Romania. Successor to the pro-Bolshevik wing of the Socialist Party of Romania, it gave ideological endorsement to communist revolution and the disestablishment of the Kingdom of Romania. The PCR was a minor and illegal grouping for much of the interwar period, and submitted to direct Comintern control. During the 1930s, most of its activists were imprisoned or took refuge in the Soviet Union, which led to the creation of separate and competing factions until the 1950s. The Communist Party emerged as a powerful actor on the Romanian political scene in August 1944, when it became involved in the royal coup that toppled the pro-Nazi government of Ion Antonescu. With support from Soviet occupation forces, the PCR was able to force King Michael I into exile, and establish undisguised Communist rule in 1948.
Bobu was born to a peasant family in Vârfu Câmpului , Botoşani County. He attended seven grades of primary school and the school for Romanian Railways (CFR) employees, subsequently becoming a lathe operator at the CFR workshop in Iaşi from 1943 to 1945. He entered the Union of Communist Youth in 1941 and the Romanian Communist Party (PCR) in November 1945. From that time until 1947, he was responsible for youth issues in the communist organization at the Iaşi CFR workshop. During 1948, by which time a communist regime had been established, he studied in Bucharest to become a teacher at the CFR schools. In 1949, he attended the law school in Iaşi, and in 1950 he was named principal legal counsel at the Justice Ministry. Also that year, he became a military prosecutor in Bucharest, receiving the rank of lieutenant, and in 1952, he was promoted to the general prosecutor's office with the rank of captain. He studied law at the university level between 1954 and 1957. Meanwhile, at the administrative section of the party's central committee, he was named law instructor (March–November 1953) and deputy section chief (1953–1958), as well as instructor at the central committee's mass organizations section. He also attended courses at the Ştefan Gheorghiu Academy during this period.
Vârfu Câmpului is a commune in Botoșani County, Romania. It is composed of six villages: Dobrinăuți-Hapăi, Ionășeni, Lunca, Maghera, Pustoaia and Vârfu Câmpului.
Căile Ferate Române is the state railway carrier of Romania. As of 2014, the railway network of Romania consists of 10,777 km (6,697 mi), of which 4,029 km (2,504 mi) (37.4%) are electrified. The total track length is 22,247 km (13,824 mi), of which 8,585 km (5,334 mi) (38.5%) are electrified. The CIA World Factbook lists Romania with the 23rd largest railway network in the world. The network is significantly interconnected with other European railway networks, providing pan-European passenger and freight services. CFR as an entity has been operating since 1880, even though the first railway on current Romanian territory was opened in 1854.
The Union of Communist Youth was the Romanian Communist Party's youth organisation. Like many Young Communist organisations, it was modelled after the Soviet Komsomol. It aimed to cultivate young cadres into the party, as well as to help create the "new man" envisioned by communist ideologues.
In 1959, he became president of the executive committee of the Suceava Region's council and a member of the regional party committee's bureau (1965–1966). In June 1960, he became a supplementary member of the central committee, advancing to full member in July 1965, shortly after Nicolae Ceauşescu came to power. Between 1968 and 1973, he was first secretary of the Suceava County party committee and president of the county council's executive committee. In December 1972, he became an adviser to Ceauşescu.He was Interior Minister from March 1973 to March 1975.
Suceava County is a county of Romania. Most of its territory lies in the southern portion of the historical region of Bukovina, while the remainder forms part of Western Moldavia proper. The county seat is Suceava.
He was a supplementary member of the PCR's executive political committee (CPEx) from July to November 1974, when he rose to full member, holding the position until the 1989 Revolution. From 1975 to 1979, he was a vice president of the Council of State. Starting in 1975, he headed the central committee's section for military and judicial affairs, becoming head of its cadres section in 1977. He served as Labor Minister and head of the General Trade Union Federation of Romania from January 1979 to February 1981. During the Ilie Verdeţ government, he was deputy premier from January 1980 to May 1982. Until the latter date, he headed the national council of agriculture, food industry and water management.The following month, he became president of the council for economic and social organization, remaining until the Revolution. From 1984 until December 1989, he was general secretary of the PCR for organizational matters, and in November–December 1989, he sat on the central committee's permanent bureau. According to Ion Stănescu, who was Tourism Minister at the time, the fourteenth and final party congress of November 1989 saw flagging enthusiasm among attendees. It was Bobu who encouraged delegates with vigorous applause and shouted slogans, getting up and clapping after every phrase, sometimes interrupting Ceauşescu with applause before he had finished speaking.
He was a member of the Great National Assembly between 1961 and 1989, variously representing Suceava, Iaşi, Dâmboviţa and Dolj counties. In 1981, he was awarded the title Hero of Socialist Labor.Political scientist Vladimir Tismăneanu describes him as part of a group of "deeply subservient" and "utterly incompetent" figures with whom Ceauşescu surrounded himself in the 1980s. Starting in 1982, as part of her personal court of hagiographers, he was the undisputed second-in-command of Elena Ceauşescu; described by Tismăneanu as "her most obedient servant", they were together responsible for all personnel appointments. In their study of the regime's last years, Roger Kirk, United States Ambassador to Romania from 1985 to 1989, and Romanian diplomat Mircea Răceanu assert that Bobu was "arguably the most powerful Romanian after the two Ceauşescus", although his status within the party structure slipped following the thirteenth congress in November 1984.
The Great National Assembly was the legislature of the Socialist Republic of Romania. After the overthrow of Communism in Romania in December 1989, the National Assembly was dissolved by decree of the National Salvation Front and eventually replaced by the bicameral parliament, made up of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate.
Vladimir Tismăneanu is a Romanian American political scientist, political analyst, sociologist, and professor at the University of Maryland, College Park. A specialist in political systems and comparative politics, he is director of the University of Maryland's Center for the Study of Post-Communist Societies, having served as chairman of the editorial committee (2004–2008) and editor (1998–2004) of the East European Politics and Societies academic review. Over the years, Tismăneanu has been a contributor to several periodicals, including Studia Politica, Journal of Democracy, Sfera Politicii, Revista 22, Evenimentul Zilei, Idei în Dialog and Cotidianul. He has also worked with the international radio stations Radio Free Europe and Deutsche Welle, and authored programs for the Romanian Television Company. As of 2009, he is Academic Council Chairman of the Institute for People's Studies, a think tank of the Romanian Democratic Liberal Party. Between February 2010 and May 2012, he was also President of the Scientific Council of the Institute for the Investigation of Communist Crimes in Romania.
Roger Kirk is a career diplomat and former United States Ambassador to Somalia (1973–75) and Romania (1985–1989).
On 20 December 1989, Ceauşescu sent Bobu, together with Prime Minister Constantin Dăscălescu, to Timişoara, ordering them to try and quell the revolutionary activities there. The mission ended in failure and they returned to Bucharest early the following morning. Snagov . Left there with a promise by the dictator that a second helicopter would arrive, Bobu and Manea Mănescu left after twenty minutes in an ARO vehicle driven by a Securitate officer. An angry crowd ambushed their car near the center of Găeşti, beating the driver and throwing a few punches at Bobu as well. Placed under arrest by the local prosecutor, Bobu was found to be carrying 6,000 lei in his pockets and a list of organizers of the "enemy demonstration in Timişoara". In February 1990, the Bucharest Military Tribunal pronounced sentence on four former CPEx members; Bobu, found guilty of complicity in genocide for his role in issuing orders to fire during the Revolution, received a term of life imprisonment and confiscation of all his personal property. The well-publicised proceedings have been described as a "show trial"; Bobu and three other prominent defendants pleaded guilty after delivering rehearsed, self-critical testimony that they later renounced. The state prosecutor filed an appeal in the case of the four, and in April 1993, the Supreme Court of Justice found that Bobu had committed not genocide but complicity in aggravated manslaughter and complicity in attempted aggravated manslaughter. His sentence was thus altered to ten years' imprisonment and five years' loss of political rights. In June 1993, the military tribunal accepted his request for parole, and he was released. Bobu died in 2014 in a Bucharest hospital, as the result of a brain ischemia.On the morning of 22 December, he accompanied Nicolae and Elena Ceauşescu in their flight by helicopter as far as the presidential retreat at
The Prime Minister of the Government of Romania is the head of the Government of Romania. Initially, the office was styled President of the Council of Ministers, when the term "Government" included more than the Cabinet, and the Cabinet was called The Council of Ministers. The title was officially changed to Prime Minister by the 1965 Constitution of Romania during the communist regime.
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