Emil Hácha

Last updated
Emil Hácha
Emil Hacha 5.jpg
State President of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia
In office
16 March 1939 9 May 1945
3rd President of Czechoslovakia
In office
30 November 1938 14 March 1939
Preceded by Edvard Beneš
Succeeded by Edvard Beneš
Personal details
Born(1872-07-12)12 July 1872
Trhové Sviny, Bohemia, Austria-Hungary
Died27 June 1945(1945-06-27) (aged 72)
Prague, Czechoslovakia
Political party National Partnership
Spouse(s) Marie Háchová (1873–1938)
Profession Lawyer
Signature Emil Hacha signature.svg

Emil Dominik Josef Hácha (12 July 1872 – 27 June 1945) was a Czech lawyer, the third President of Czechoslovakia from 1938 to 1939. From March 1939, his country was under the control of the Germans and was known as the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia.


Early life

Emil Hácha was born on 12 July 1872 in the South Bohemian town of Trhové Sviny. [1]

Judicial career

He graduated from a secondary school in Budweis and then applied for the law faculty at the University of Prague. After finishing his studies in 1896 (JUDr.) he worked for the Country Committee of the Kingdom of Bohemia in Prague (a self-government body with quite limited power). Shortly after the outbreak of World War I, he became a judge at the Supreme Administrative Court in Vienna (the court was responsible for Cisleithania). He met Ferdinand Pantůček there.

After the Treaty of Versailles, Pantůček became President of the Supreme Administrative Court of the Republic of Czechoslovakia in Prague, and Hácha became a judge (1918) and Deputy President (1919) of the court.

After Pantůček's death in 1925 he was chosen by T. G. Masaryk as his successor,[ citation needed ] becoming first President of the Supreme Administration Court. [1]

He became one of the most notable lawyers in Czechoslovakia, [2] a specialist in English common law and international law. He was also a translator of English literature (most notably Three Men in a Boat by Jerome K. Jerome), collector of art and a poet. His book Omyly a přeludy ( Errors and Delusions ) was published in 1939 anonymously, then later under his own name in 2001. [3] He also became a member of the Legislative Council.

President of Czechoslovakia

Second Czechoslovak Republic

Hacha, Hitler and Goring meeting in Berlin, March 1939 Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F051623-0206, Berlin, Besuch Emil Hacha, Gesprach mit Hitler.jpg
Hácha, Hitler and Göring meeting in Berlin, March 1939

Following the Munich Agreement, Hácha was nominated as successor to Edvard Beneš on 30 November 1938 as President of Czechoslovakia. [1] He was nominated because of his Catholicism, conservatism and lack of involvement in any of the governments that had led to the partition of the country.

The short era of his presidency before the German occupation is known as the Second Czechoslovak Republic and was marked by the shift from democracy to authoritarian state with the Enabling act giving previously unusual powers to the president and government and restricting the powers of the parliament.

After the secession of Slovakia and Ruthenia, British Ambassador to Czechoslovakia Basil Newton advised President Hácha to meet with Hitler. [4] When Hácha first arrived in Berlin, he first met with the German Foreign Minister, Joachim von Ribbentrop prior to meeting with Hitler. Von Ribbentrop testified at the Nuremberg trials that during this meeting Hácha had told him that "he wanted to place the fate of the Czech State in the Führer's hands." [5]

In the evening of 14 March 1939, Hitler summoned President Hácha to the Reich Chancellery in Berlin. [1] Hitler deliberately kept him waiting for hours, while Hitler watched a film. [6] Wilhelm Keitel in his memoirs recalled that when Hácha arrived Hitler said that "he was going to let the old gentleman rest and recover for two hours" which was incomprehensible to Keitel. [7] Finally, at 1:30 a.m., on 15 March 1939, Hitler saw the President. He told Hácha that as they were speaking, the German army was about to invade Czechoslovakia. [1]

Hitler then gave the Czech President two options: cooperate with Germany, in which case the "entry of German troops would take place in a tolerable manner" and "permit Czechoslovakia a generous life of her own, autonomy and a degree of national freedom..." or face a scenario in which "resistance would be broken by force of arms, using all means." [8] Minutes of the conversation noted that for Hácha this was the most difficult decision of his life, but believed that in only a few years this decision would be comprehensible and in 50 years would probably be regarded as a blessing. [9] According to Joachim Fest, Hácha suffered a heart attack induced by Göring's threat to bomb the capital and by four o'clock he contacted Prague, effectively "signing Czechoslovakia away" to Germany. [10] Göring acknowledged making the threat to the British ambassador to Germany, Neville Henderson, but said that the threat came as a warning because the Czech government, after already agreeing to German occupation, couldn't guarantee that the Czech army would not fire on the advancing Germans. [11] Göring however doesn't mention that Hácha had a heart attack because of his threat.

The French Ambassador Robert Coulondre reported that according to an unnamed, considered a reliable source by Coulondre, by half past four, Hácha was "in a state of total collapse, and kept going only by means of injections." [12] Coulondre described the scene at the Reich Chancellory:

"The German ministers [Göring and Ribbentrop] were pitiless. They literally hunted Dr. Hácha and M. Chvalkovsky round the table on which the documents were lying, thrusting them continually before them, pushing pens into their hands, incessantly repeating that if they continued in their refusal, half of Prague would lie in ruins from bombing within two hours, and that this would be only the beginning. Hundreds of bombers were waiting the order to take off, and they would receive that order at six in the morning if the signatures were not forthcoming". [13]

However, Hitler's interpreter Paul Schmidt, who was present during the meeting, in his memoirs denied such turbulent scenes ever taking place with the Czechoslovak President. [14] The Israeli Jean Ancel noted that Schmidt's memoirs are not a reliable source of information as Schmidt consistently downplayed and ignored the criminal policies of the Nazi regime and his own role in them. [15]

Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia

After the occupation of the remnants of Czechoslovakia on 16 March, [16] Hácha retained his office as President, but was forced to swear an oath to Hitler, who appointed Konstantin von Neurath as Protector of Bohemia and Moravia . [17] During his time as President of the Protectorate, Hácha also signed into law legislation modeled after the Nazi Nuremberg Laws that discriminated against Czech Jews. [18] He dissolved the parliament, replacing it with the National Partnership. [19]

Hácha's situation changed on 29 September 1941 when Reinhard Heydrich was appointed Deputy Protector of Bohemia and Moravia, as Neurath had been considered not harsh enough by Hitler. Hácha lost all remaining influence over the matters in his country and became a puppet. Many of his colleagues and friends were arrested (including the Prime Minister Alois Eliáš) and shot or sent to concentration camps.

After the death of Heydrich, the new Deputy Protector was Kurt Daluege. Hitler had originally planned to execute 10,000 Czechs in reprisal for the murder of Heydrich and warned Hácha that if another such incident occurred, "we should have to consider deporting the whole Czech population". [20] This threat was made at Heydrich's funeral. [21]

On 9 May 1945, Prague was liberated by the Red Army during the Prague Offensive. Emil Hácha was arrested on 13 May and transferred immediately to Pankrác Prison. He died in prison on 27 June [1] [22] under mysterious circumstances, with many historians entertaining the possibility of assassination,[ citation needed ] a suspicion shared by the Hácha family. After his death, he was buried at first in an unmarked grave at the Vinohrady Cemetery, but now there is a marker on his grave. [22]


In 1902, Hácha married Marie Háchová, née Klaus (born 17 April 1873 in Prague, died 6 February 1938 in Prague). They had a daughter, Milada. Marie died ten months before Hácha became president.

See also


  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Snyder "Hácha, Emil" Encyclopedia of the Third Reich p. 134
  2. Mazower Hitler's Empire p. 55
  3. Emil Hácha, in Czech
  4. Nicoll, Britain’s Blunder (German edition) p. 63.
  5. Nuremberg Trial Proceedings Vol. 10 Friday, 29 March 1946 Avalon
  6. Evans Third Reich in Power pp. 682–684
  7. Keitel, Third Reich in Power p. 79
  8. Fest Hitler pp. 570–571
  9. The Road to War III: Appeasement to Occupation of Prague. 15 March 1939 Notes of Conversation between Adolf Hitler and Emil Hacha. Boston College
  10. Fest Hitler pp. 570–571
  11. IMT XXXI DOCUMENT 2861-PS, p. 246
  12. Robert Coulondre to Georges Bonnet, Minister for Foreign Affairs. Berlin, March 17, 1939., available online here: http://avalon.law.yale.edu/wwii/ylbk077.asp
  13. Shirer, William The Rise of and Fall of the Third Reich, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1960 pages 446-447
  14. Schultze-Rhonhof, 1939 - the War that Had Many Fathers p. 231
  15. Ancel, Jean The History of the Holocaust in Romania, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2011 page 214.
  16. Kershaw Hitler pp. 170–171
  17. Evans Third Reich in Power pp. 685–686
  18. "Nuremberg Laws Proclaimed in Czech Protectorate by President Hacha". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 24 March 1942. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
  19. Gruner, Wolf (2015). "Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia". In Gruner, Wolf; Osterloh, Jörg (eds.). The Greater German Reich and the Jews: Nazi Persecution Policies in the Annexed Territories 1935-1945. War and Genocide. Translated by Heise, Bernard. New York: Berghahn Books. pp. 105–106. ISBN   978-1-78238-444-1.
  20. Evans Third Reich at War p. 277
  21. Mazower Hitler's Empire p. 213
  22. 1 2 Emil Hacha, hrad.cz, retrieved 20 November 2013

Related Research Articles

Reinhard Heydrich High Nazi German official, deputy head of the SS

Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich was a high-ranking German SS and police official during the Nazi era and a main architect of the Holocaust. He was chief of the Reich Main Security Office. He was also Stellvertretender Reichsprotektor of Bohemia and Moravia. He served as president of the International Criminal Police Commission and chaired the January 1942 Wannsee Conference which formalised plans for the "Final Solution to the Jewish Question"—the deportation and genocide of all Jews in German-occupied Europe.

Sudetenland historical German name for areas of Czechoslovakia which were inhabited by Sudeten Germans

The Sudetenland is the historical German name for the northern, southern, and western areas of former Czechoslovakia which were inhabited primarily by Sudeten Germans. These German speakers had predominated in the border districts of Bohemia, Moravia, and Czech Silesia from the time of the Austrian Empire.

Konstantin von Neurath German general and Nazi war criminal

Konstantin Hermann Karl Freiherr von Neurath was a German diplomat who served as Foreign Minister of Germany between 1932 and 1938.

Fall Grün was a German plan for an aggressive war against Czechoslovakia before World War II. Some of the plan's psychological warfare and use of paramilitary actions were carried out, but the planned open war failed to occur because of the Munich Agreement.

German occupation of Czechoslovakia German military presence in Czechoslovakia between 1939–1945

The German occupation of Czechoslovakia (1938–1945) began with the German annexation of Sudetenland as outlined by the Munich Agreement. Adolf Hitler justified the invasion by the purported suffering of the ethnic Germans living in these regions. The Sudetenland annexation by Nazi Germany was detrimental to the future defense of crippled Czechslovakia as the extensive Czechoslovak border fortifications were also located in the same area.

Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia former country

The Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia was a protectorate of Nazi Germany established on 16 March 1939 following the German occupation of the Czech lands on 15 March 1939. Earlier, following the Munich Agreement of September 1938, Nazi Germany had incorporated the Czech Sudetenland territory as a Reichsgau.

Prague Castle castle complex in Prague, Czech Republic, dating from the 9th century

Prague Castle is a castle complex in Prague, Czech Republic, built in the 9th century. It is the official office of the President of the Czech Republic. The castle was a seat of power for kings of Bohemia, Holy Roman emperors, and presidents of Czechoslovakia. The Bohemian Crown Jewels are kept within a hidden room inside it.

Sudeten German Party political party

The Sudeten German Party was created by Konrad Henlein under the name Sudetendeutsche Heimatfront on 1 October 1933, some months after the First Czechoslovak Republic had outlawed the German National Socialist Workers' Party. In April 1935, the party was renamed Sudetendeutsche Partei following a mandatory demand of the Czechoslovak government. The name was officially changed to Sudeten German and Carpathian German Party in November 1935.

Karl Hermann Frank Czechoslovak member of Czechoslovak national parliament and Nazi Germany politician

Karl Hermann Frank was a prominent Sudeten German Nazi official in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia prior to and during World War II. Attaining the rank of Obergruppenführer, he was in command of the Nazi police apparatus in the Protectorate, including the Gestapo, the SD, and the Kripo. After the war, Frank was tried, convicted and executed for his role in organizing the massacres of the people of the Czech villages of Lidice and Ležáky.

Alois Eliáš Czechoslovak general and politician

Alois Eliáš was a Czech General and politician. He served as Prime Minister of the puppet government of the German-occupied Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia from 27 April 1939 to 27 September 1941, but maintained contact with the government-in-exile. Because of his participation in the anti-Nazi resistance, he was the only head of government to be murdered by the Nazis during the war.

Richard Bienert Czechoslovak minister of interior and Czechoslovak politician

Richard Bienert was a Czech high-ranking police officer and politician. He served as prime minister of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia from January 19 to May 5, 1945. After World War II he was sentenced to prison for collaboration with Nazis.

Emanuel Moravec Czech military officer, writer, and politician

Emanuel Moravec was a Czech army officer and writer who served as the collaborationist Minister of Education of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia between 1942 and 1945. He was also chair of the Board of Trustees for the Education of Youth, a fascist youth organisation in the protectorate.

Second Czechoslovak Republic 1938-1939 republic in Central/Eastern Europe

The Second Czechoslovak Republic existed for 169 days, between 30 September 1938 and 15 March 1939. It was composed of Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia and the autonomous regions of Slovakia and Subcarpathian Rus', the latter being renamed on 30 December 1938 to Carpathian Ukraine.

Resistance in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia

Resistance to the German occupation of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia during World War II began after the occupation of the rest of Czechoslovakia and formation of the protectorate on 15 March 1939. German policy deterred acts of resistance and annihilated organizations of resistance. In the early days of the war, the Czech population participated in boycotts of public transport and large-scale demonstrations. Later on, armed communist partisan groups participated in sabotage and skirmishes with German police forces. The most well known act of resistance was the assassination of Reinhard Heydrich. Resistance culminated in the so-called Prague uprising of May 1945; with Allied armies approaching, about 30,000 Czechs seized weapons. Four days of bloody street fighting ensued before the Soviet Red Army entered the nearly liberated city.

Final Solution of the Czech Question

The Final Solution of the Czech Question was the Nazi German plan for the complete Germanization of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. German sociologist and anthropologist Karl Valentin Müller asserted that a large part of the Czech nation was racially Aryan and could be Germanized. This was in stark contrast to Germany's Final Solution to the Jewish Question. However, Müller asserted that the Germanization should take place without coercion; instead, he suggested a system of social incentives.

National Partnership Czechoslovak political party

National Partnership was the only authorized political party in Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. It had mandatory membership for all Czech male full-aged citizens of the Protectorate.

Government Army (Bohemia and Moravia) Army of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia

The Government Army was the military force of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia during the time period of the German occupation of the Czech lands.

Robert Coulondre was a French diplomat who served as the last French ambassador to Germany before World War II.


Political offices
Preceded by
Edvard Beneš
President of Czechoslovakia
Succeeded by
Edvard Beneš
Preceded by
Office created
State President of Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia
Succeeded by
Office abolished