Emilia Prieto Tugores (11 January 1902 – 1986) was a graphic artist, educator, singer, composer, and scholar of folklore from the Central Valley of Costa Rica, one of the few women to enter the field of artistic satire in the first half of the 20th century. Her work was recognized with a Joaquín Monge Prize for cultural periodism in the 1984. Studying her native folklore, Prieto's collection of songs "influenced [a] generation of troubadours".The Nacional de Patrimonio Cultural Inmaterial Emilia Prieto Tugores was named for her, and awarded for the first time, in 2015.
A graphic designer is a professional within the graphic design and graphic arts industry who assembles together images, typography, or motion graphics to create a piece of design. A graphic designer creates the graphics primarily for published, printed or electronic media, such as brochures (sometimes) and advertising. They are also sometimes responsible for typesetting, illustration, user interfaces, and web design. A core responsibility of the designer's job is to present information in a way that is both accessible and memorable.
The Central Valley is a plateau and a geographic region of central Costa Rica. The land in the valley is a relative plain, despite being surrounded by several mountains and volcanos, the latter part of the Central Range. The region houses almost three quarters of Costa Ricans, and includes the capital and most populous city, San José. The valley is shared among the provinces of Alajuela, Heredia, San José and Cartago. The region occupies an area of 11,366 km², more than a fifth of the country, and is drained by the Tárcoles River on the west side and by the Reventazón River on the east side.
Born in San José, Costa Rica, on 11 January 1902, Prieto spent her childhood on the Guarari farm in the hills of Las Hiras, Heredia. She completed her high school education at El Colegio Superior de Señoritas, where she qualified as a schoolteacher in 1921. Prieto became an art teacher in various Costa Rican schools including Ramiro Aguilar School where she was principal. Prieto also taught at the Universidad Obrera or National Workers University. In 1922 she took painting classes at the Costa Rican School of Fine Arts (Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes).
San José is the capital and largest city of Costa Rica, and the capital of the province of the same name. It is located in the centre of the country, specifically in the mid-west of the Central Valley, and contained within San José Canton. San José is the seat of national government, the focal point of political and economic activity, and the major transportation hub of Costa Rica. The population of San José Canton was 288,054 in 2011, and San José’s municipal land area measures 44.2 square kilometers, with an estimated 333,980 residents in 2015. Together with several other cantons of the central valley including Alajuela, Heredia and Cartago it forms the Greater Metropolitan Area of the country, with an estimated population of over 2 million in 2017. The city is named in honor of Joseph of Nazareth.
Heredia is a province of Costa Rica. It is in the north-central part of the country. As a result, the province covers areas as diverse as the agriculture-rich Northern plains to the more metropolitan areas such as the city of Heredia in the Central Valley. It contains several major environmentally important areas such as the Braulio Carrillo National Park and the Sarapiqui River. The capital is the city of Heredia.
Prieto's art is characterized by a spirit of irreverence, as she poked fun at those who were critical of efforts towards social reform. She was herself an active feminist, a member of the Communist Party and the Costa Rican Women's Alliance (Alianza de Mujeres Costarricenses). From 1925 to 1945, Prieto published a number of graphically illustrated satirical essays, sometimes using a pen name. Attacking the conservative attitudes of the times, her drawing La perfecta casada (The Perfect Housewife) is a caricature of the image of a woman (Primera exposición centroamericana de artes plásticas, 1935.)Many of her essays were published in periodicals such as Libertad, Nuestra Voz and Trabajo.
In the 1920s, Prieto looked at the way in which Costa Rican carts and carriages were decorated with a view to encouraging interest and discussion. As a result, the first procession of carts was held on the Paseo Colón with an exhibition of decorated carts in 1935.In the 1930s, she founded the Anti-Fascist League and was a supporter of women's rights. She established the School of Popular Culture and the Workers' University in 1943 and founded the National Committee of Partisans for Peace in 1949. During the 1948 uprising, Prieto was persecuted for her political activism and relieved of her post as head of the Ramiro Aguilar School. She served as president of the Partisans for Peace and attended several conferences in Mexico, Panama, and Sweden. As part of the women's pacifist movement after World War II Prieto worked toward promoting world peace, serving as a delegate at the Peace Conference of the Pacific Rim in Beijing for the Unión de Mujeres Costarricenses (Union of Costa Rican Women) which was led by Carmen Lyra.
Anti-fascism is opposition to fascist ideologies, groups and individuals. The anti-fascist movement began in a few European countries in the 1920s, and eventually spread to other countries around the world. It was at its most significant shortly before and during World War II, where the fascist Axis powers were opposed by many countries forming the Allies of World War II and dozens of resistance movements worldwide. Anti-fascism has been an element of movements holding many different political positions, including social democratic, nationalist, liberal, conservative, communist, Marxist, trade unionist, anarchist, socialist, pacifist and centrist viewpoints.
World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from more than 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 70 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.
Carmen Lyra was the pseudonym of the first prominent female Costa Rican writer, born Maria Isabel Carvajal Quesada. She was a teacher and founder of the country's first Montessori school. She was a co-founder of the Communist Party of Costa Rica, as well as one of the country's first female worker's unions. She was one of the earliest writers to criticize the dominance of the fruit companies. She won many prizes.
In 1974, Prieto released an album of collected folksongs on Indica Records and in 1976, she presented a series of essays in conferences accompanied by musician Juan F. Hernández. In 1978, she published a collection of folk stories and maxims, Romanzas ticomeseteñas (Costa Rican lovesongs). In 1984, Prieto received the Joaquín García Monge National Journalism Award and in 1992 she was recognized for her work in preserving traditional folk lore with the National Award of Traditional Popular Culture. Prieto was inducted into the Gallery of Women of the Instituto Nacional de la Mujer (National Institute of Women) in 2005 for her work on behalf of women's equality.
La Galería de las Mujeres de Costa Rica was founded in March 2002 to recognize the contributions of women to the cultural, political and socio-economic development of Costa Rica. The nominations are overseen and the gallery maintained by the Instituto Nacional de la Mujer (INAMU). Of particular focus is the goal of preserving and protecting the history of women who have broken gender stereotypes and advanced human rights principals.
The Costa Rican Football Federation, commonly known as FEDEFUTBOL or FEDEFUT, is the official association football governing body in Costa Rica and is in charge of the Costa Rican national team.
Gonzalo Morales Sáurez was a Costa Rican painter. He studied in The San Fernando Academy in Madrid, Spain from 1970 to 1974. He is best known for his hyper-realistic works, and has exhibited his art in many museums and art galleries in Europe and the Americas.
Costa Rican literature has roots in colonization and is marked by European influences. Because Costa Rica is a young country, its literary tradition is also young. The history of Costa Rican literature dates to the end of the 19th century.
Virginia Pérez-Ratton is the pseudonym for Virginia Pérez Johnston (1950–2010). She was a Costa Rican artist, art historian, art critic and curator. She devoted a large part of her life to the promotion of visual arts and the development of artists in Central America and the Caribbean.
Events in the year 2013 in Costa Rica.
Events in the year 2014 in Costa Rica.
Guido Miranda Gutiérrez, is a Costa Rican civil servant and doctor. Miranda is credited with spearheading the effort to push the Costa Rican Department of Social Insurance from the capital of San José into smaller municipalities and rural regions.
Odilia Castro Hidalgo (1908–1999) was a Costa Rican teacher, communist and feminist. She founded the parent organization which would become the National Association of Educators. Exiled for her communist activities after the Costa Rican Civil War, Castro later returned and founded several social welfare programs. She taught for 32 years and served as a nurse in Costa Rica and Venezuela. Castro was admitted to the Costa Rican National Institute for Women (INAMU)'s Gallery of Women in 2006.
Ángela Acuña Braun, also known as Ángela Acuña de Chacón,, a Costa Rican lawyer, women's rights pioneer and ambassador, was the first woman to graduate as a lawyer in Central America. Orphaned at the age of 12, she was raised by her maternal aunt and uncle, attending elementary school and beginning high school in Costa Rica. She continued her education in France and England, gaining exposure to the ideas of women’s rights. Returning to Costa Rica in 1912, she published articles in support of women's equality. She attended the boys' lyceum or high school where she passed the bachillerato, a prerequisite for entering law school. She embarked on law studies in 1913, leading to a bachelor's degree in 1916. As women were barred from entering the profession, Acuña immediately presented a reform to the civil code allowing this, which was adopted.
Corina Rodríguez López (1895-1982) was a Costa Rican educator, writer, feminist and occasional sculptor. She was the founder of the Casa del Niño and the Temperance League of Costa Rica, as well as a feminist and suffragette. She was twice exiled for her outspokenness on the treatment of women and children and her political views. She taught school in both Costa Rica and Panama and wrote articles for newspapers and magazines criticizing both national and international political policies. When she returned from exile in Panama, she worked as a housing advocate for poor families in the southern neighborhoods of San José. She was inducted into the Costa Rican Gallery of Women in 2007.
Esther de Mezerville Ossaye was a Guatemalan teacher, feminist, suffragette and activist who worked to help women obtain the vote in Costa Rica.
Zarela Villanueva Monge is a Costa Rican magistrate, who served as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Justice of Costa Rica from 13 May 2013 to 13 May 2017.
Doris Yankelewitz Berger was a Costa Rican artist, politician, political activist, and member of the National Liberation Party (PLN). She served as the First Lady of Costa Rica from 1982 to 1986 during the presidency of her then-husband, President Luis Alberto Monge. She was the nation's first Jewish First Lady.
María Teresa Obregón Zamora (1888-1956) was a teacher, suffragist and politician in Costa Rica. She was part of the group that formed the Asociación Nacional de Educadores (ANDE) and fought for women's enfranchisement. After winning the vote, she helped found the National Liberation Party of Costa Rica and was one of the first three women elected as a Deputy of the Legislative Assembly of Costa Rica. In 2002, Obregón was honored as one of the inaugural group of women inducted into La Galería de las Mujeres de Costa Rica.
Roxana Pinto Lopez is a Costa Rican poet, novelist and essayist.
Victoria Garrón de Doryan was a Costa Rican educator and writer. Most known for serving as Second Vice President of Costa Rica from 1986 to 1990. She was the first woman to hold the post and during her tenure was acting president of the country over a dozen times. As a writer, she produced numerous biographies of historical Costa Ricans, as well as poetry.
Bernarda Vásquez Méndez was a Costa Rican feminist that become the first woman to cast the vote in the country on 30 July 1950 after a struggle begun in 1923 by the Liga Feminista Costarricense, the constitution of 1949 granted Costa Rican women the right to vote.
Julieta Dobles Yzaguirre is a Costa Rican poet, writer, and educator. She is a five-time winner of the Premio Nacional Aquileo J. Echeverría and the 2013 winner of the Magón National Prize for Culture.