Emilio Madero

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General

Emilio Madero González
Huerta Madero Villa.jpg
Madero in 1912. Left to right: Victoriano Huerta, Emilio Madero, and Pancho Villa.
Born(1880-08-08)8 August 1880
Parras de la Fuente, Coahuila
Died16 January 1962(1962-01-16) (aged 81)
Mexico City, Federal District
Battles/wars Mexican Revolution
Spouse(s)Mercedes Belden Gutiérrez [1]
RelationsBrothers: Ernesto Madero
Francisco I. Madero
Gustavo A. Madero
Children: Pablo Emilio Madero

General Emilio Madero González (8 August 1880 – 16 January 1962) was a Mexican soldier who participated in the Mexican Revolution, and the brother of Francisco I. Madero.

Mexican Revolution major nationwide armed struggle in Mexico between 1910 and 1920

The Mexican Revolution, also known as the Mexican Civil War, was a major armed struggle, lasting roughly from 1910 to 1920, that radically transformed Mexican culture and government. Although recent research has focused on local and regional aspects of the Revolution, it was a genuinely national revolution. Its outbreak in 1910 resulted from the failure of the 35-year-long regime of Porfirio Díaz to find a managed solution to the presidential succession. This meant there was a political crisis among competing elites and the opportunity for agrarian insurrection. Wealthy landowner Francisco I. Madero challenged Díaz in the 1910 presidential election, and following the rigged results, revolted under the Plan of San Luis Potosí. Armed conflict ousted Díaz from power; a new election was held in 1911, bringing Madero to the presidency.

Francisco I. Madero Mexican revolutionary leader and president

Francisco Ignacio Madero González was a Mexican revolutionary, writer and statesman who served as the 33rd president of Mexico from 1911 until shortly before his assassination in 1913. He was an advocate for social justice and democracy. Madero was notable for challenging Mexican President Porfirio Díaz for the presidency in 1910 and being instrumental in sparking the Mexican Revolution.

Contents

Biography

Early life

Emilio Madero was born in Parras, Coahuila, on 8 August 1880, the sixth son of Francisco Madero Hernández and Mercedes González Treviño. He was the brother of Francisco I. Madero, the leader of the Mexican Revolution. [1]

Parras Municipal seat in Coahuila, Mexico

Parras de la Fuente is a city located in the southern part of the Mexican state of Coahuila. The city serves as the municipal seat of the surrounding Parras Municipality, which has an area of 9,271.7 km2 (3,579.8 sq mi).

Coahuila State of Mexico

Coahuila, formally Coahuila de Zaragoza, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Coahuila de Zaragoza, is one of the 31 states which, along with Mexico City, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.

Mexican Revolution

He participated in the Madero movement during the Mexican Revolution. In April 1911 he led the forces which conquered the Mexican state of Durango, capturing Mapimí, Lerdo, and Gómez Palacio. In May 1911 he led the assault on Torreón, which was a key location to seizing control of the surrounding area. However, when his Maderistas finally took the city on 15 May, they were joined by a local mob and massacred the city's Chinese residents. Madero finally managed to bring them under control, but not until 10 hours had passed and over 300 Chinese lay dead. [2] He had difficulty maintaining control of the area, though, and in June was forced to form a group of loyal men, who he paid $1.50 a day, to control rebellious former Maderistas. [3] He was then aligned to the División del Norte [4] :442, 462 in 1912 fighting Pascual Orozco under General Victoriano Huerta as a Colonel. [5] During this time he was instrumental in saving Pancho Villa from execution, arguing for his life with Huerta, who wanted him out of the way. [6]

Durango State of Mexico

Durango, officially Free and Sovereign State of Durango, is a state in northwest Mexico. With a population of 1,632,934, Durango has Mexico's second-lowest population density, after Baja California Sur. The city of Victoria de Durango is the state's capital, named after the first president of Mexico, Guadalupe Victoria.

Mapimí, Durango City & municipal seat in Durango, Mexico

Mapimí is a city and municipal seat of the Mapimí Municipality in the Mexican state of Durango. As of 2010, the town of Mapimí had a population of 5,623.

Lerdo, Durango Municipal seat and city in Durango, Mexico

Ciudad Lerdo is a small city in the northeastern portion of the Mexican state of Durango. It serves as the municipal seat for the surrounding municipality of the same name.

Madero married Mercedes Belden Gutiérrez on 27 January 1913 in Monterrey, Nuevo León. [1] [7] The couple had four children, [7] including Pablo Emilio Madero Belden, [8] who was inspired to go into politics on his father's account. [9]

Monterrey City in Nuevo León, Mexico

Monterrey is the capital and largest city of the northeastern state of Nuevo León, Mexico. The city is anchor to the Monterrey metropolitan area, the second most productive in Mexico with a GDP (PPP) of US$ 123 billion and the third largest with an estimated population of 4,689,601 people as of 2015. Monterrey serves as a commercial center of northern Mexico and is the base of many significant international corporations, its purchasing power parity-adjusted GDP per capita is considerably higher than the rest of the country's at around US$35,500 to the country's US$18,800. It is considered a Beta World City, cosmopolitan and competitive. Rich in history and culture, it is one of the most developed cities in Mexico and is often regarded as its most "Americanized".

Nuevo León State of Mexico

Nuevo León, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Nuevo León, is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 51 municipalities and its capital city is Monterrey.

Exile

Emilio Madero (center) between Alvaro Obregon (left) and Pancho Villa (right) at Fort Bliss on 27 August 1914 Emilio Madero cropped 2.jpg
Emilio Madero (center) between Álvaro Obregón (left) and Pancho Villa (right) at Fort Bliss on 27 August 1914

Madero was in San Pedro, Coahuila, with Venustiano Carranza during La Decena Trágica in February 1913. [10] [11] Following the death of his brother Francisco, it was reported that he had been shot and killed just north of Monterrey on 26 February; according to rumor he had been overtaken by General Trevino between Villaldama and Bustamante while leading a group of 35 to join a force of rebels in Laredo. The report was declared false the next day. [12] [13] [14] On 6 March, he was forced to flee Mexico with another brother, General Raúl Madero, and the two swore to avenge the President's death. [12]

San Pedro, Coahuila Municipal seat in Coahuila, Mexico

San Pedro is a city located in the southwestern part of the state of Coahuila in Mexico. San Pedro lies east-northeast of the city of Torreón and serves as the seat of the surrounding municipality of the same name.

Venustiano Carranza Mexican politician and president of Mexico

Venustiano Carranza Garza was one of the main leaders of the Mexican Revolution, whose victorious northern revolutionary Constitutionalist Army defeated the counter-revolutionary regime of Victoriano Huerta and then defeated fellow revolutionaries after Huerta's ouster. He secured power in Mexico, serving as head of state from 1915–1917. With the promulgation of a new revolutionary Mexican Constitution of 1917, he was elected president, serving from 1917 to 1920.

Ten Tragic Days series of armed conflicts and controversies that took place in Mexico City during the Mexican Revolution

The Ten Tragic Days was a series of events that took place in Mexico City between February 9 and February 19, 1913, during the Mexican Revolution. This led up to a coup d'état and the assassination of President Francisco I. Madero, and his Vice President, José María Pino Suárez. Much of what happened these days followed from the crumbling of the Porfiriato system of repressive order giving way to chaos, and as such, these days' events have been among the most influential of the Revolution's history. Madero's martyrdom shocked a critical portion of the population, and the unwelcome foreign intervention prepared the way for the growing nationalism and anti-imperialism of the Revolution. In many ways, then, it set the tone for the Revolution's most violent period, but it also prepared the way for an agenda of profound political and social change.

He had returned to Mexico by August 1914, and was in Chihuahua with Pancho Villa. [15] In early 1915, Madero led 2,000 troops to capture Saltillo under the command of General Felipe Ángeles, [16] later participating in a cavalry charge on 8 January that resulted in the capture of 3,000 prisoners in Ramos Arizpe. [17] Following the appointment of Roque González Garza as President, Madero was made governor of Sinaloa. [18] Later that same year, however, on 12 October 1915, Emilio and Raúl refused to join Villa in waging guerrilla warfare. [4] :518 [19] Madero was still abroad in 1918, and was living in San Antonio. [20]

Saltillo City in Coahuila, Mexico

Saltillo is the capital and largest city of the northeastern Mexican state of Coahuila and the municipal seat of the municipality of the same name. As of the 2015 census, Saltillo had a population of 807,537 people, while the population of the metropolitan area was 923,636 inhabitants, making Saltillo the largest city and the second largest metropolitan area in the state of Coahuila and the 19th most populated metropolitan area in the country.

Felipe Ángeles Mexican military officer

Felipe Ángeles Ramírez (1868–1919) was a Mexican military officer, noteworthy for his participation in the Mexican Revolution of 1910 to 1920.

Ramos Arizpe Municipal seat in Coahuila, Mexico

Ramos Arizpe is a city and seat of the surrounding municipality of the same name in the Mexican state of Coahuila. Ramos Arizpe is located 11 km from the state capital of Saltillo. It is part of the Saltillo metropolitan area. The city reported a population of 48,228 in the 2005 census; the municipality had a population of 56,708. Its area is 5,306.6 km².

By 1921 he had returned to Mexico, and was living on a farm in San Pedro. Madero and his family went into exile again in 1926. They spent a year in California and two in Texas before returning to Mexico in 1929. [21]

Later life

He was the leader of the Revolutionary Party of National Unification until 1940, when he was removed for calling the party "paralyzed" due to lack of communication with leader Juan Andreu Almazán. [22]

Madero died in Mexico City on 16 January 1962, [1] and was buried in the Panteón Francés de la Piedad. [23]

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References

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  9. Camp, Roderic Ai (1995). Political Recruitment across Two Centuries: Mexico, 1884–1991. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press. ISBN   0-292-71172-7.
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  13. The Commercial & Financial Chronicle ...: A Weekly …. 96. New York: Commercial & Financial Chronicle. 1913. p. 591.
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  19. New York Times Index for the Published News. New York: The New York Times. 1915. p. 315. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
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  21. Gil, Carlos B., ed. (1992). Hope and Frustration: Interviews with Leaders of Mexico's Political Opposition. Wilmington, Delaware: Scholarly Resources, Inc. p. 122. ISBN   0-8420-2395-X.
  22. Navarro, Aaron W. (2010). Political Intelligence and the Creation of Modern Mexico, 1938–1954. Pennsylvania State University Press. p. 69. ISBN   978-0-271-03705-9.
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