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An emir ( /, , / ; Arabic : أميرʾamīr [ʔaˈmiːr] ), sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, can refer to a king or an aristocratic or noble and military title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries, West Africa, Afghanistan and in the Indian subcontinent. The term has been widely used to denote a "commander", "general", or "leader" i.e. Amir al-Mu'min. The feminine form is emira (أميرةʾamīrah). When translated as "prince", the word "emirate" is analogous to a sovereign principality. In contemporary usage, the term indicates to some Muslim head of states of Emirates or leaders of Islamic organisations.
Amir, meaning "lord" or "commander-in-chief", is derived from the Arabic root a-m-r, "command". Originally simply meaning "commander”, it came to be used as a title of leaders, governors, or rulers of smaller states. In modern Arabic the word is analogous to the title “Prince". The word entered English in 1593, from the French émir. [ citation needed ]It was one of the titles or names of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
From the start, emir has been a military title. In the 9th century the term was used to denote a ruler of a state i.e. Italy's Emirate of Sicily.
In certain decimally-organized Muslim armies, Amir was an officer rank. For example, in Mughal India, the Amirs commanded 1000 horsemen (divided into ten units, each under a sipah salar), ten of them under one malik. In the imperial army of Qajar Persia:
The following posts referred to "amir" under medieval Muslim states include:
In the former Kingdom of Afghanistan, Amir-i-Kabir was a title meaning "great prince" or "great commander".
Muhammad Amin Bughra, Nur Ahmad Jan Bughra, and Abdullah Bughra declared themselves emirs of the First East Turkestan Republic.
Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navies, and in many navies is the highest rank. The rank is generally thought to have originated in Sicily from a conflation of Arabic: أمير البحر, amīr al-baḥr, "prince in Arabic; supervisor in Turkic; (commander) of the sea", with Latin admirabilis ("admirable") or admiratus ("admired"), although alternative etymologies derive the word directly from Latin, or from the Turkish military and naval rank miralay. The French version—amiral without the additional d—tends to add evidence for the Arab origin.
A vizier is a high-ranking political advisor or minister. The Abbasid caliphs gave the title wazir to a minister formerly called katib (secretary), who was at first merely a helper but afterwards became the representative and successor of the dapir of the Sassanian kings.
An emirate is a political territory that is ruled by a dynastic Arabic or Islamic monarch-styled emir. The term may also refer to a kingdom.
Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, Servant of the Two Noble Sanctuaries or Protector of the Two Holy Cities, is a royal style that has been used by many Muslim rulers, including the Ayyubids, the Mamluk Sultans of Egypt, the Ottoman Sultans, and in the modern age, Saudi Arabian kings. The title refers to the ruler taking the responsibility of guarding and maintaining the two holiest mosques in Islam: Al-Haram Mosque in Mecca and the Prophet's Mosque in Medina, both of which are in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula.
Malik, Melik, Malka, Malek, Malick, or Melekh is the Semitic term translating to "king", recorded in East Semitic and later Northwest Semitic and Arabic.
Traditional rank amongst European royalty, peers, and nobility is rooted in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Although they vary over time and among geographic regions, the following is a reasonably comprehensive list that provides information on both general ranks and specific differences.
Sheikh Jaber al-Ahmad al-Sabah, GCB (Hon), GCMG (Hon) of the al-Sabah dynasty, was the Emir of Kuwait and Commander of the Military of Kuwait; serving from 31 December 1977 until his death on 15 January 2006 due to cerebral hemorrhage. The third monarch to rule Kuwait since its independence from Britain, Jaber had previously served as Minister of Finance and Economy from 1962 until 1965, when he was appointed Prime minister prior to becoming Kuwait's ruler.
Mir is a rare ruler's title in princely states and an aristocratic title generally used to refer to a person who is a descendant of a commander in medieval Muslim tradition.
A hajib or hadjib was a court official, equivalent to a chamberlain, in the early Muslim world, which evolved to fulfil various functions, often serving as chief ministers or enjoying dictatorial powers. The post appeared under the Umayyad Caliphate, but gained in influence and prestige in the more settled court of the Abbasids, under whom it ranked as one of the senior offices of the state, alongside the vizier. From the Caliphates, the post spread to other areas under Muslim dominion: in al-Andalus the hajib was always superior to the vizier and by the 10th century had come to wield enormous power; in the eastern dynasties, the Samanids, Buyids and Ghaznavids, the title acquired a mainly military role; under the Seljuks, Ilkhanids and Timurids it reverted to its role as a court official; in Fatimid Egypt, the chief hajib, styled Sahib al-bab or hajib al-hujjab was also an important official; under the Mamluks, they acquired important judicial duties.
Ḥakīm and Ḥākim are two Arabic titles derived from the same triliteral root Ḥ-K-M "appoint, choose, judge". Compare the Hebrew title hakham.
Amir al-Mu'minin is an Arabic title that is usually translated "Commander of the Faithful" or "Leader of the Faithful". The term was initially used to denote Caliph Umar bin Khattab, although later Shias believed that the title is exclusive to Ali ibn Abi Talib, as opposed to others, while Sunnis believe that title can be applied to others, including other caliphs and scholars.
Almami is a title of West African Muslim rulers, used especially in the conquest states of the 19th century. It is a contraction of Amir al-Mu'minin, usually translated "Commander of the Faithful" or "Emperor of the Believers". In the Arabic world, Amir al-Mu'minin is similar to Caliphs and to other independent sovereign Muslim rulers that claim legitimacy from a community of Muslims. It has been claimed as the title of rulers in Muslim countries and empires and is still used for some Muslim leaders.
Al-Mustanjid was the fourteenth caliph of Cairo, Egypt, for the Mamluk Sultanate between 1455 and 1479.
Amir ; is a multinational and multilingual masculine name.
Khalifa or Khalifah is a name or title which means "successor", "ruler" or "leader". It most commonly refers to the leader of a Caliphate, but is also used as a title among various Islamic religious groups and orders. Khalifa is sometimes also pronounced as "kalifa". There were 4 khalifas after Prophet Mohammed died, beginning with Abu Bakr. This was a difficult decision for the people to make, for no one except Prophet Mohammed had ever thought with foresight about who would rule after he would die. The Khilaafat was then contested and gave rise to the eventual division of the Islamic Umma into two groups, the Sunni and the Shi'a who interpret the word, Khalifa in differently nuanced ways.
Qatar–United Arab Emirates relations are the relations between Qatar and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The relationship between the two countries has been severed following the Qatar diplomatic crisis.
The Caliphate of Córdoba was a state in Islamic Iberia along with a part of North Africa ruled by the Umayyad dynasty. The state, with the capital in Córdoba, existed from 929 to 1031. The region was formerly dominated by the Umayyad Emirate of Córdoba (756–929). The period was characterized by an expansion of trade and culture, and saw the construction of masterpieces of al-Andalus architecture. In January 929, Abd ar-Rahman III proclaimed himself Caliph of Córdoba, replacing thus his original title of Emir of Córdoba. He was a member of the Umayyad dynasty, which had held the title of Emir of Córdoba since 756.
Sabah al-Ahmad al-Jaber al-Sabah GCB (Hon) is the Emir of Kuwait and the Commander of the Kuwait Military Forces. He was sworn in on 29 January 2006 after confirmation by the National Assembly. He is the fourth son of Sheikh Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah.
The office of amir al-umara, variously rendered in English as emir of emirs, chief emir, and commander of commanders, was a senior military position in the 10th-century Abbasid Caliphate, whose holders in the decade after 936 came to supersede the civilian bureaucracy under the vizier and become effective regents, relegating the Abbasid caliphs to a purely ceremonial role. The office then formed the basis for the Buyid control over the Abbasid caliphs and over Iraq after 946.
Abū al-Husayn Bajkam al-Mākānī, referred to as Bajkam, Badjkam or Bachkam, was a Turkish military commander and official of the Abbasid Caliphate. A former ghulam of the Ziyarid dynasty, Bajkam entered Abbasid service following the assassination of the Ziyarid ruler Mardavij in 935. During his five-year tenure at the Caliphate's court at Baghdad, he was granted the title of amir al-umara, consolidating his dominance over the Caliphs ar-Radi and al-Muttaqi and giving him absolute power over their domains. Bajkam was challenged throughout his rule by various opponents, including his predecessor as amir al-umara, Muhammad ibn Ra'iq, the Basra-based Baridis, and the Buyid dynasty of Iran, but he succeeded in retaining control until his death. He was murdered by a party of Kurds during a hunting excursion in 941, shortly after the accession of al-Muttaqi as Caliph. Bajkam was known both for his firm rule and for his patronage of Baghdad intellectuals, who respected and in some cases befriended him. His death led to a void in central power, resulting in a brief period of instability and fighting in Baghdad.