Emperor Go-Komatsu

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Go-Komatsu
Emperor Go-Komatsu.jpg
Go-Komatsu
Emperor of Japan
Reign19 November 1392 – 5 October 1412
Predecessor Go-Kameyama
Successor Shōkō
6th Northern Emperor
Reign24 May 1382 – 19 November 1392
Coronation31 January 1383
Predecessor Go-En'yū
SuccessorNone
Born1 August 1377
Died1 December 1433(1433-12-01) (aged 56)
Fukakusa no kita no Misasagi (Kyoto)
SpouseHinonishi Sukeko
Issue
Among others...
Ikkyū Sōjun
Emperor Shōkō
House Yamato
Father Emperor Go-En'yū
MotherSanjō Itsuko

Emperor Go-Komatsu (後小松天皇, Go-Komatsu-tennō, 1 August 1377 – 1 December 1433) was the 100th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession, [1] and the sixth and final Emperor of the Northern Court.

Contents

He is officially considered to have been the Northern pretender from May 24, 1382 to October 21, 1392, when upon Emperor Go-Kameyama's abdication, Go-Komatsu is understood to have been a legitimate emperor (the 100th sovereign) from that date. In 1392, following the post-Nanboku-chō unification of the two formerly contending courts, the Southern Emperor Emperor Go-Kameyama reached an agreement with Go-Komatsu to alternate control of the throne between the Northern and Southern courts on a ten-year plan which effectively signaled the end of the southern court's claims to sovereignty. However, Go-Komatsu reneged, not only ruling for 20 years until his own abdication on October 5, 1412, but was succeeded by his own son, rather than by one from the former Southern Court. According to pre-Meiji scholars, Go-Komatsu's reign as a legitimate emperor spanned the years from 1392 through 1412. [2] The present Japanese Imperial Family is descended from the three Northern Court emperors.

This Nanboku-chō "sovereign" was named after the 9th-century Emperor Kōkō, and go- (後), translates literally as "later." Jien's Gukanshō explains that Kōkō was called "the Emperor of Komatsu". [3] The 14th-century pretender and emperor may be called the "later Emperor Kōkō" or the "later Emperor Komatsu". The Japanese word go has also been translated to mean the "second one;" and in some older sources, this would-be emperor may be identified as "Komatsu, the second", or as "Komatsu II."

Genealogy

Before his ascension to the Chrysanthemum Throne, his personal name (his imina) was Motohito-shinnō (幹仁親王). [4]

Go-Komatsu was the first son of Emperor Go-En'yū. His mother was Tsūyōmonin no Itsuko (通陽門院厳子), daughter of the Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal Sanjō Kimitada (三条公忠).

He was named after Emperor Kōkō, who had the alternate name Komatsu, because they both returned the throne to their families, in the case of Emperor Go-Komatsu, by defeating his Southern Court rivals, and in the case of Emperor Kōkō, by succeeding his elder brother's grandson, Emperor Yōzei.

Events of Go-Komatsu's life

In his own lifetime, Go-Komatsu and those around him believed that he occupied the Chrysanthemum Throne from May 24, 1382 through 1412.

He was raised in the turbulent Nanboku-chō period of rival northern and southern courts in the mansion of Hino Sukenori (日野西資教). He succeeded as Northern Emperor upon the abdication of his father, the Northern Pretender Emperor Go-En'yū. With the help of Ashikaga Yoshimitsu, his father ruled as Cloistered Emperor.

In 1392, an envoy from the Ashikaga Shogunate managed to persuade Emperor Go-Kameyama to convey the Imperial Regalia to Go-Komatsu, which meant that he ceded the Chrysanthemum throne to his former rival. [5] Go-Komatsu received the succession (senso); and he is understood to have formally acceded to the legitimate Imperial power and position (sokui). [4] [6] In the peace at that time, it was agreed that the northern and southern courts would alternate. However, in 1412, when Emperor Go-Komatsu abdicated, the agreement was thrown away, and, instead, he was succeeded by his son, Emperor Shōkō, and all subsequent Emperors were descended from the Northern Court. Until 1911, the Northern Court Emperors were considered the legitimate ones, and the Southern Court to be illegitimate. However, now the Southern Court is considered to have been legitimate, primarily because they retained the three sacred treasures, and thus, Emperor Go-Komatsu is not considered to have been legitimate for the first 10 years of his reign.

He is enshrined with other emperors at the imperial tomb called Fukakusa no kita no misasagi (深草北陵) in Fushimi-ku, Kyoto. [7]

Kugyō

Kugyō (公卿) is a collective term for the very few most powerful men attached to the court of the Emperor of Japan in pre-Meiji eras. Even during those years in which the court's actual influence outside the palace walls was minimal, the hierarchic organization persisted.

In general, this elite group included only three to four men at a time. These were hereditary courtiers whose experience and background would have brought them to the pinnacle of a life's career. During Go-Komatsu's reign, this apex of the Daijō-kan included:

Eras of Go-Komatsu's reign

The years of Go-Komatsu's Nanboku-chō and post-Nanboku-chō reign are more specifically identified by more than one era name or nengō .

Nanboku-chō northern court
Nanboku-chō southern court
Post-Nanboku-chō court

Southern Court rivals

See also

Notes

Japanese Imperial kamon -- a stylized chrysanthemum blossom Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Japanese Imperial kamon — a stylized chrysanthemum blossom
  1. Imperial Household Agency (Kunaichō): 後小松天皇 (100); retrieved 2013-8-28.
  2. Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du japon, pp. 317–327.
  3. Brown, Delmer M. (1979). Gukanshō, p. 289; excerpt, "Koko's personal name was Tokiayasu, and he was called the 'Emperor of Komatsu'. He received the throne on the 4th day of the 1st month of 884 ...."
  4. 1 2 Titsingh, p. 317.
  5. William, Griffis (1913). The Mikado's Empire: book 1. History of Japan from 660 B. C. to 1872 A. D.
  6. Sansom, George (1961). A History of Japan, 1334-1615. Stanford University Press. pp. 117–118. ISBN   0804705259.
  7. Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1959). The Imperial House of Japan, p. 423.

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Genchū Japanese era

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Kōwa (Muromachi period)

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{{History ofImage explanation = Shōsōin}} Kōō (康応), also romanized as Kō-ō, was a Japanese era name of the Northern Court during the Era of Northern and Southern Courts after Kakei and before Meitoku. This period spanned the years from February 1389 to March 1390. The emperor in Kyoto was Emperor Go-Komatsu The Southern Court rival in Yoshino during this time-frame was Emperor Go-Kameyama.

Kakei Japanese era

Kakei (嘉慶) was a Japanese era name of the Northern Court during the Era of Northern and Southern Courts after Shitoku and before Kōō. This period spanned the years from August 1387 to February 1389. The emperor in Kyoto was Emperor Go-Komatsu The Southern Court rival in Yoshino during this time-frame was Emperor Go-Kameyama.

Shitoku Japanese era

Shitoku (至徳) was a Japanese era name of the Northern Court during the Era of Northern and Southern Courts after Eitoku and before Kakei. This period spanned the years from February 1384 to August 1387. The emperor in Kyoto was Emperor Go-Komatsu The Southern Court rival in Yoshino during this time-frame was Emperor Go-Kameyama.

Eitoku Japanese era

Eitoku (永徳) was a Japanese era name of the Northern Court during the Era of Northern and Southern Courts after Kōryaku and before Shitoku. This period spanned the years from February 1381 to February 1384. The emperors in Kyoto were Emperor Go-En'yū and Emperor Go-Komatsu The Southern Court rivals in Yoshino during this time-frame were Emperor Chōkei and Emperor Go-Kameyama.

Emperor Kōgon 1St Northern Emperor

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References

Regnal titles
Preceded by
Emperor Go-En'yū
Northern Emperor
1382–1392
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Emperor Go-Kameyama
Emperor of Japan:
Go-Komatsu

1392–1412
Succeeded by
Emperor Shōkō