Emperor Hanazono

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Hanazono
Tenno Hanazono detail.jpg
Emperor of Japan
ReignSeptember 11, 1308 – March 29, 1318
Predecessor Go-Nijō
Successor Go-Daigo
BornAugust 14, 1297
DiedDecember 2, 1348(1348-12-02) (aged 51)
Burial
Jirakūu-in no ue no Misasagi (Kyoto)
House Yamato
Father Emperor Fushimi
MotherTōin Fujiwara

Emperor Hanazono (花園天皇 Hanazono-tennō) (August 14, 1297 – December 2, 1348) was the 95th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. His reign spanned the years from 1308 through 1318. [1]

Emperor of Japan Head of state of Japan

The Emperor of Japan is the head of the Imperial Family and the head of state of Japan. Under the 1947 constitution, he is defined as "the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people." Historically, he is also the highest authority of the Shinto religion. In Japanese, the emperor is called Tennō (天皇), literally "heavenly sovereign". In English, the use of the term Mikado for the emperor was once common, but is now considered obsolete.

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Contents

Genealogy

Before his ascension to the Chrysanthemum Throne, his personal name (his imina) was Tomihito-shinnō (富仁親王). [2]

Chrysanthemum Throne Throne of the Emperor of Japan

The Chrysanthemum Throne is the throne of the Emperor of Japan. While the term is often used as a metonym for the monarchy of Japan, the term also can refer to very specific seating, such as the Takamikura (高御座) throne in the Shishin-den at Kyoto Imperial Palace.

He was the fourth son of the 92nd Emperor, Fushimi. He belonged to the Jimyōin-tō branch of the Imperial Family.

Emperor Fushimi Emperor of Japan

Emperor Fushimi was the 92nd emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. His reign spanned the years from 1287 through 1298.

Consort: Ogimachi Michiko (正親町実子) later Senkomon’in(宣光門院, 1297-1360), Ogimachi Saneakira’s daughter

Consort: Ichijo-no-Tsubone (d.1325), Ogimachi Saneakira’s daughter

lady-in-waiting: Wamuro Yoriko (葉室頼子), Wamuro Yorito’s daughter

Events of Hanazono's life

Tomihito-shinnō became emperor upon the abdication of his second cousin, the Daikakuji-tō Emperor Go-Nijō.

Tokuji Japanese era

Tokuji (徳治) was a Japanese era name after Kagen and before Enkyō. This period spanned the years from December 1306 through October 1308. The reigning emperor was Go-Nijō-tennō (後二条天皇).

Enkyō (Kamakura period) Japanese era

Enkyō (延慶), also romanized as Enkei, was a Japanese era name after Tokuji and before Ōchō. This period spanned the years from October 1308 through April 1311. The reigning emperor was Hanazono-tennō (花園天皇).

Hanazono's father, the retired-Emperor Fushimi, and Hanazono's brother, the retired-Emperor Go-Fushimi, both exerted influence as cloistered emperors during this reign.

In these years, negotiations between the Bakufu and the two imperial lines resulted in an agreement to alternate the throne between the two lines every 10 years (the Bumpō Agreement). This agreement was not long-lasting. The negotiated provisions would soon broken by Hanazono's successor.

In 1318, he abdicated to his second cousin, the Daikakuji-tō Emperor Go-Daigo, who was Nijō's brother.

After his abdication, he raised his nephew, the future Northern Pretender Emperor Kōgon.

Emperor Hanazono after taking the tonsure. Portrait of Emperor Hanazono.jpg
Emperor Hanazono after taking the tonsure.

In 1335, he became a Buddhist monk of the Zen sect, and under his sponsorship, his palace became the temple of Myōshin-ji, now the largest network in Rinzai Buddhism. Many places and institutions in the area are named for him, including Hanazono University (the Rinzai university) and Hanazono Station.

He died in 1348. Hanazono's imperial tomb is known as Jurakuin no ue no misasagi; it is located in Higashiyama-ku, Kyoto. [5]

He excelled at waka composition, and was an important member of the Kyōgoku School. He also left behind a diary, called Hanazono-in-Minki (Imperial Chronicles of the Flower Garden Temple or Hanazono-in) (花園院宸記). He was a very religious and literate person, never missing his prayers to the Amitabha Buddha.

Kugyō

Kugyō (公卿) is a collective term for the very few most powerful men attached to the court of the Emperor of Japan in pre-Meiji eras. Even during those years in which the court's actual influence outside the palace walls was minimal, the hierarchic organization persisted.

In general, this elite group included only three to four men at a time. These were hereditary courtiers whose experience and background would have brought them to the pinnacle of a life's career. During Hanazono's reign, this apex of the Daijō-kan included:

Eras of Hanazono's reign

The years of Hanazono's reign are more specifically identified by more than one era name or nengō . [6]

Notes

Japanese Imperial kamon -- a stylized chrysanthemum blossom Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Japanese Imperial kamon — a stylized chrysanthemum blossom
  1. Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du Japon, pp. 278–281; Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki. pp. 239–241.
  2. Titsingh, p. 278; Varley, p. 240.
  3. Titsingh, p. 278; Varley, p. 44; n.b., a distinct act of senso is unrecognized prior to Emperor Tenji; and all sovereigns except Jitō, Yōzei, Go-Toba, and Fushimi have senso and sokui in the same year until the reign of Emperor Go-Murakami.
  4. Varley, p. 240.
  5. Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1959). The Imperial House of Japan, p. 422.
  6. Titsingh, p. 278.

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References

See also

Regnal titles
Preceded by
Emperor Go-Nijō
Emperor of Japan:
Hanazono

1308–1318
Succeeded by
Emperor Go-Daigo