Emperor Kōkaku

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Kōkaku
Emperor Kokaku.jpg
Kōkaku
Emperor of Japan
Reign16 December 1780 – 7 May 1817
Predecessor Go-Momozono
Successor Ninkō
Shōguns
Daijō Tennō
Reign7 May 1817 – 11 December 1840
Successor Akihito
BornMorohito(師仁)
(1771-09-23)23 September 1771
Died11 December 1840(1840-12-11) (aged 69)
Burial
Spouse Princess Yoshiko
Issue
Among others...
Emperor Ninkō
House Yamato
FatherPrince Kan'in Sukehito
MotherŌe Iwashiro
Religion Shinto

Emperor Kōkaku(光格天皇,Kōkaku-tennō, 23 September 1771 – 11 December 1840) was the 119th Emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. [1] [2] Kōkaku's reigned from 16 December 1780 until his abdication on 7 May 1817 in favor of his son, Emperor Ninkō. After his abdication, he ruled as Daijō Tennō (太上天皇, Abdicated Emperor) also known as a Jōkō(上皇) until his death in 1840.

Emperor of Japan Head of state of Japan

The Emperor of Japan is the head of the Imperial Family and the head of state of Japan. Under the 1947 constitution, he is defined as "the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people." Historically, he was also the highest authority of the Shinto religion. In Japanese, the Emperor is called Tennō (天皇), literally "heavenly sovereign". In English, the use of the term Mikado for the Emperor was once common, but is now considered obsolete.

Emperor Ninkō Emperor of Japan

Emperor Ninkō was the 120th Emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. Ninkō's reign spanned the years from 1817, until his death in 1846 and saw further deterioration of the ruling Shōgun's power. Disasters which included famine, combined with corruption and increasing Western interference helped to erode public trust in the bakufu government. Emperor Ninkō attempted to revive certain court rituals and practices upon the wishes of his father. However, it's unknown what role if any the Emperor had in the turmoil which occurred during his reign. His family included fifteen children from various concubines, but only three of them lived to adulthood. His fourth son, Imperial Prince Osahito became the next Emperor upon his death in 1846. While political power at the time still resided with the Shōgun, the beginnings of the Bakumatsu were at hand.

Abdication voluntary or forced renunciation of sovereign power

Abdication is the act of formally relinquishing monarchical authority. Abdications have played various roles in the succession procedures of monarchies. While some cultures have viewed abdication as an extreme abandonment of duty, in other societies, abdication was a regular event, and helped maintain stability during political succession.

Contents

Major events in Kōkaku's life included an ongoing famine that affected Japan early into his rule. The response he gave during the time was welcomed by the people, and helped to undermine the shōgun's authority. The Kansei Reforms came afterwards as a way for the shōgun to cure a range of perceived problems which had developed in mid-18th century but was met with partial success.

A member of a cadet branch of the Imperial Family, Kōkaku is the founder of the dynastic imperial branch which currently sits on the throne. Kōkaku had one spouse during his lifetime, and six concubines who gave birth to sixteen children. Only one son survived into adulthood and eventually became the next Emperor. Genealogically, Kōkaku is the lineal ancestor of all the succeeding Emperors up to the current Emperor, Naruhito.

Kanin-no-miya one of four "Seshū Shinnōke," cadet branches of the Imperial Household of Japan

The Kan'in-no-miya (閑院宮家) is the youngest of the four shinnōke, branches of the Imperial Family of Japan which were eligible to succeed to the Chrysanthemum Throne in the event that the main line should die out. It was founded by Prince Naohito, the son of Emperor Higashiyama.

Imperial House of Japan Members of the extended family of the reigning Emperor of Japan

The Imperial House of Japan, also referred to as the Imperial Family or the Yamato Dynasty, comprises those members of the extended family of the reigning Emperor of Japan who undertake official and public duties. Under the present Constitution of Japan, the Emperor is "the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people". Other members of the Imperial Family perform ceremonial and social duties, but have no role in the affairs of government. The duties as an Emperor are passed down the line to their children.

Chrysanthemum Throne Throne of the Emperor of Japan

The Chrysanthemum Throne is the throne of the Emperor of Japan. The term also can refer to very specific seating, such as the Takamikura (高御座) throne in the Shishin-den at Kyoto Imperial Palace.

Events of Kōkaku's life

Early life

Before Kōkaku's accession to the Chrysanthemum Throne, his personal name ( imina ) was Morohito(師仁). He was the sixth son of Imperial Prince Kan'in Sukehito (閑院宮典仁, 1733–1794) the second Prince Kan'in of the Kan'in-no-miya imperial collateral branch. As a younger son of a cadet branch, the Kan'in house, it was originally expected that Morohito would go into the priesthood at the Shugoin Temple. The situation changed in 1779 in the form of a problem as Emperor Go-Momozono was dying without an heir to the throne. In order to avoid a dynastic interregnum, the now-retired Empress Go-Sakuramachi and the Emperor's chief adviser encouraged Go-Momozono to hastily adopt Prince Morohito. The adopted prince was the Emperor's second cousin once removed in the biological male line. Go-Momozono died on 16 December 1779, and a year later Morohito acceded to the throne at age eight.

Emperor Go-Momozono emperor of Japan

Emperor Go-Momozono was the 118th Emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. He was named after his father Emperor Momozono. The wording of go- (後) in the name translates as "later", so he has also been referred to as "Later Emperor Momozono", "Momozono, the second", or "Momozono II". Go-Momozono became Emperor in 1771, but had a short reign that lasted to his death in 1779. Events during his reign were confined to a series of natural calamities that occurred in 1772, aside from that the political situation with the Shōgun was quiet. Things came to a head towards the end of Go-Momozono's life in the form of a succession issue as the Emperor had no eligible successor. As a result, he hastily adopted a son on his deathbed who later became the next Emperor.

Daijō Tennō or Dajō Tennō (太上天皇) is the title for a Japanese emperor who abdicates the Chrysanthemum Throne in favour of a successor. The term is often shortened to Jōkō (上皇). The official translation of the title, as designated by the Imperial Household Agency, is 'Emperor Emeritus'. The title is currently held by Akihito, who abdicated on 30 April 2019.

Empress Go-Sakuramachi empress regnant of Japan

Empress Go-Sakuramachi was the 117th Emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. She was named after her father Emperor Sakuramachi, the word go- (後) before her name translates in this context as "later" or "second one". Her reign spanned the years from 1762 through to her abdication in 1771. The only significant event during her reign was an unsuccessful outside plot, that intended to displace the shogunate with restored Imperial powers.

As Emperor

Coinage of Emperor Kokaku Tenpo-tsuho-kokaku.jpg
Coinage of Emperor Kōkaku

During his reign, Kōkaku attempted to re-assert some of the Imperial authority over the Shōgun (or bakufu). He undertook this by first implementing a relief program during the Great Tenmei famine, which not only undermined the effectiveness of the bakufu to look after their subjects, but also focused the subjects' attention back to the Imperial household. He also took an active interest in foreign affairs; keeping himself informed about the border dispute with Russia to the north, as well as keeping himself abreast of knowledge regarding foreign currency, both Chinese and European. The new era name of Tenmei (meaning "Dawn") was created to mark the enthronement of new Emperor. The previous era ended and the new one commenced in An'ei 11, on the 2nd day of the 4th month. In his first year of reign, Kōkaku was instrumental in reviving old ceremonies involving the old Imperial Court, as well as those performed at the Iwashimizu and Kamono shrines.

The Great Tenmei famine was a famine which affected Japan during the Edo period. It is considered to have begun in 1782, and lasted until 1788. It was named after the Tenmei era (1781–1789), during the reign of Emperor Kōkaku. The ruling shoguns during the famine were Tokugawa Ieharu and Tokugawa Ienari. The famine was the deadliest one during the early modern period in Japan.

An analysis of silver currency in China and Japan "Sin sen sen pou (Sin tchuan phou)" was presented to the Emperor in 1782 by Kutsuki Masatsuna (1750–1802), also known as Kutsuki Oki-no kami Minamoto-no Masatsuna, hereditary daimyōs of Oki and Ōmi with holdings in Tanba and Fukuchiyama. [3] Masatsuna published Seiyō senpu (Notes on Western Coinage) five years later, with plates showing European and colonial currency. [4] Countrywide currency reforms later came after the Meiji Restoration when a new system was adopted around the Japanese yen. In 1786, former Empress Go-Sakuramachi engaged Go-Momozono's only child (Princess Yoshiko) to the new Emperor. Yoshiko formally became Empress consort to Emperor Kōkaku at age 15.

Kutsuki Masatsuna daimyo

Kutsuki Masatsuna, also known as Kutsuki Oki-no kami Minamoto-no Masatsuna, was a hereditary Japanese daimyō of Oki and Ōmi with holdings in Tanba and Fukuchiyama. His warrior clan was amongst the hereditary vassals of the Tokugawa family in the Edo period. His childhood name was Tomojiro (斧次郎).

<i>Daimyō</i> powerful territorial lord in pre-modern Japan

The daimyō were powerful Japanese feudal lords who, until their decline in the early Meiji period, ruled most of Japan from their vast, hereditary land holdings. In the term, dai (大) means "large", and myō stands for myōden(名田), meaning private land.

Oki Province province of Japan

Oki Province was a province of Japan consisted of the Oki Islands in the Sea of Japan, located off the coast of the provinces of Izumo and Hōki. The area is now Oki District in modern Shimane Prefecture. Its abbreviated form name was Onshū or Inshū (隠州),

The Emperor and his court were forced to flee from a fire that consumed the city of Kyoto in 1788, the Imperial Palace was destroyed as a result. No other re-construction was permitted until a new palace was completed. The Dutch VOC Opperhoofd in Dejima noted in his official record book that "people are considering it to be a great and extraordinary heavenly portent." [5] The new era name of Kansei (meaning "Tolerant Government" or "Broad-minded Government") was created in 1789 to mark a number of calamities including the devastating fire at the Imperial Palace. The previous era ended and a new one commenced in Tenmei 9, on the 25th day of the 1st month. During the same year, the Emperor came into dispute with the Tokugawa shogunate about his intention to give the title of Abdicated Emperor ((Daijō Tennō , 太上天皇) to his father, Prince Sukehito. This dispute was later called the "Songo incident" (the "respectful title incident"), and was resolved when the Bakufu gave his father the honorary title of "Retired Emperor". [6]

Kyoto Designated city in Kansai, Japan

Kyoto, officially Kyoto City, is the capital city of Kyoto Prefecture, located in the Kansai region of Japan. It is best known in Japanese history for being the former Imperial capital of Japan for more than one thousand years, as well as a major part of the Kyoto-Osaka-Kobe metropolitan area.

The Dutch East India Company was an early megacorporation founded by a government-directed amalgamation of several rival Dutch trading companies (voorcompagnieën) in the early 17th century. It was established on March 20, 1602 as a chartered company to trade with India and Indianised Southeast Asian countries when the Dutch government granted it a 21-year monopoly on the Dutch spice trade. It has been often labelled a trading company or sometimes a shipping company. However, VOC was in fact a proto-conglomerate company, diversifying into multiple commercial and industrial activities such as international trade, shipbuilding, and both production and trade of East Indian spices, Formosan sugarcane, and South African wine.. The Company was a transcontinental employer and an early pioneer of outward foreign direct investment. The Company's investment projects helped raise the commercial and industrial potential of many underdeveloped or undeveloped regions of the world in the early modern period. In the early 1600s, by widely issuing bonds and shares of stock to the general public, VOC became the world's first formally-listed public company. In other words, it was the first corporation to be listed on an official stock exchange. It was influential in the rise of corporate-led globalisation in the early modern period.

Opperhoofd is a Dutch word that literally translates to "upper-head", meaning 'supreme headman'. The Danish equivalent Overhoved, which is derived from a Danish pronunciation of the Dutch word, is also treated here.

Two more eras would follow during Kōkaku's reign, on 5 February 1801 a new era name (Kyōwa) was created because of the belief that the 58th year of every cycle of the Chinese zodiac brings great changes. Three years later the new era name of Bunka (meaning "Culture" or "Civilization") was created to mark the start of a new 60-year cycle of the Heavenly Stem and Earthly Branch system of the Chinese calendar which was on New Year's Day. During this year, Daigaku-no-kami Hayashi Jussai (1768–1841) explained the shogunate foreign policy to Emperor Kōkaku in Kyoto. [7] The rest of Kōkaku's reign was quiet aside from two 6.6m earthquakes which struck Honshū in the years 1810 and 1812. [8] The effects on the population from these earthquakes (if any) is unknown.

Kansei Reforms

The Kansei Reforms(寛政の改革,Kansei no kaikaku) were a series of reactionary policy changes and edicts which were intended to cure a range of perceived problems which had developed in mid-18th-century Tokugawa Japan. Kansei refers to the nengō (or Japanese era name) that spanned the years from 1789 through 1801 (after " Tenmei " and before " Kyōwa "); the reforms occurred during Kansei. In the end, the shogunate's interventions were only partly successful. Intervening factors like famine, floods and other disasters exacerbated some of the conditions which the shōgun intended to ameliorate.

Matsudaira Sadanobu (1759–1829) was named the shōgun's chief councilor ( rōjū ) in the summer of 1787; and early in the next year, he became the regent for the 11th shōgun, Tokugawa Ienari. [9] As the chief administrative decision-maker in the bakufu hierarchy, he was in a position to effect radical change; and his initial actions represented an aggressive break with the recent past. Sadanobu's efforts were focused on strengthening the government by reversing many of the policies and practices which had become commonplace under the regime of the previous shōgun, Tokugawa Ieharu.

These reform policies could be interpreted as a reactionary response to the excesses of his rōjū predecessor, Tanuma Okitsugu (1719–1788). [10] The result was that the Tanuma-initiated, liberalizing reforms within the bakufu and the relaxation of sakoku (Japan's "closed-door" policy of strict control of foreign merchants) were reversed or blocked. [11] Education policy was changed through the Kansei Edict (寛政異学の禁 kansei igaku no kin) of 1790 which enforced teaching of the Neo-Confucianism of Zhu Xi as the official Confucian philosophy of Japan. [12] The decree banned certain publications and enjoined strict observance of Neo-Confucian doctrine, especially with regard to the curriculum of the official Hayashi school. [13]

This reform movement was accompanied by three others during the Edo period: the Kyōhō reforms (1716–1736), the Tenpō reforms of the 1830s and the Keiō Reforms (1866–1867). [14]

Abdication and death

Emperor Kokaku leaving for Sento Imperial Palace after abdicating in 1817 Sakura-den Gyoko Zu 2 Horen.png
Emperor Kōkaku leaving for Sentō Imperial Palace after abdicating in 1817

In 1817, Kōkaku abdicated in favor of his son, Emperor Ninkō. In the two centuries before Kōkaku's reign most Emperors died young or were forced to abdicate. Kōkaku was the first Japanese monarch to remain on the throne past the age of 40 since the abdication of Emperor Ōgimachi in 1586.[ citation needed ] Until the abdication of Emperor Akihito in 2019, he was the last Emperor to rule as a Jōkō (上皇), an Emperor who abdicated in favor of a successor. Kōkaku travelled in procession to Sento Imperial Palace, a palace of an abdicated Emperor. The Sento Palace at that time was called Sakura Machi Palace. It had been built by the Tokugawa shogunate for former-Emperor Go-Mizunoo. [15]

After Kōkaku's death in 1840, he was enshrined in the Imperial mausoleum, Nochi no Tsukinowa no Higashiyama no misasagi(後月輪東山陵), which is at Sennyū-ji in Higashiyama-ku, Kyoto. Also enshrined in Tsuki no wa no misasagi , at Sennyū-ji are this Emperor's immediate Imperial predecessors since Emperor Go-MizunooMeishō, Go-Kōmyō, Go-Sai, Reigen, Higashiyama, Nakamikado, Sakuramachi, Momozono, Go-Sakuramachi and Go-Momozono. This mausoleum complex also includes misasagi for Kōkaku's immediate successors – Ninkō and Kōmei. [16] Empress Dowager Yoshikō is also entombed at this Imperial mausoleum complex. [17]

Eras and Kugyō

The following years of Kōkaku's reign are more specifically identified by more than one era name or nengō . [3]

Kugyō (公卿) is a collective term for the very few most powerful men attached to the court of the Emperor of Japan in pre-Meiji eras. Even during those years in which the court's actual influence outside the palace walls was minimal, the hierarchic organization persisted. In general, this elite group included only three to four men at a time. These were hereditary courtiers whose experience and background would have brought them to the pinnacle of a life's career. During Kōkaku's reign, this apex of the Daijō-kan included:

Genealogy

Spouse

PositionNameBirthDeathFatherIssue
ChūgūImperial Princess Yoshiko (欣子内親王)11 March 177911 August 1846 Emperor Go-Momozono  Third Son: Imperial Prince Masuhito
 Seventh Son: Imperial Prince Toshihito

Yoshiko was the only child of former Emperor Go-Momozono. She formally became Empress consort (chūgū) to Emperor Kōkaku at age 15 after she was engaged to the new Emperor by former empress Go-Sakuramachi. The couple had two sons but both died before reaching adulthood. Yoshiko eventually functioned as an official mother to the heir who would become Emperor Ninkō. [18] In 1816, Emperor Ninkō granted Empress Yoshiko the title of Empress Dowager after Emperor Kōkaku abdicated. [19] She later became a Buddhist nun after her husband died, and changed her name to Shin-Seiwa-In(新清和院,Shin-seiwa-in) in 1841. [19]

Concubines

NameBirthDeathFatherIssue
UnknownUnknownUnknownUnknown Daughter: Kaijin’in-miya
Hamuro Yoriko(葉室頼子)17731846Hamuro Yorihiro First Son: Imperial Prince Ayahito
 First Daughter: Princess Noto
 Second Son: Prince Toshi
Kajyūji Tadako(勧修寺婧子)17801843Kajyūji Tsunehaya Fourth Son: Imperial Prince Ayahito
(later Emperor Ninkō)
 Second Daughter: Princess Tashi
 Fourth Daughter: Princess Nori
Takano Masako(高野正子)17741846Takano Yasuka Sixth Son: Prince Ishi
Anekouji Toshiko(姉小路聡子)17941888Anekouji Kōsō Fifth Daughter: Princess Eijun
 Eighth Daughter: Princess Seisho
 Eighth Son: Prince Kana
Higashiboujo Kazuko(東坊城和子)17821811Higashiboujo Masunaga Fifth Son: Imperial Prince Katsura-no-miya Takehito
 Third Daughter: Princess Reimyoshin'in
Tominokōji Akiko(富小路明子)Unknown1828Tominokōji Sadanao Sixth Daughter: Princess Haru
 Seventh Daughter: Imperial Princess Shinko
 Ninth Daughter: Princess Katsu
Nagahashi-no-tsubone (Title)UnknownUnknownUnknown Daughter: Princess Juraku'in-

Issue

Emperor Kōkaku fathered a total of 16 children (8 sons and 8 daughters) but only one of them survived into adulthood. The sole surviving child (Prince Ayahito) later became Emperor Ninkō when Kōkaku abdicated the throne.

StatusNameBirthDeathMotherMarriageIssue
DaughterPrincess Kaijin'in(開示院宮)(stillborn daughter)17891789UnknownN/AN/A
First SonImperial Prince Ayahito(礼仁親王)17901791Hamuro YorikoN/AN/A
DaughterPrincess Juraku'in(受楽院宮)(stillborn daughter)17921792Nagahashi-no-tsuboneN/AN/A
First DaughterPrincess Noto(能布宮)17921793Hamuro YorikoN/AN/A
Second SonPrince Toshi(俊宮)17931794Hamuro YorikoN/AN/A
Third SonImperial Prince Masuhito(温仁親王)(stillborn son)18001800 Imperial Princess Yoshiko N/AN/A
Fourth Son Imperial Prince Ayahito (2nd) (恵仁親王), the future Emperor Ninko 18001846Kajyūji TadakoFujiwara no Tsunako Princess Sumiko
Emperor Kōmei
Princess Kazu
Second DaughterPrincess Tashi(多祉宮)(stillborn daughter)18081808Kajyūji TadakoN/AN/A
Fifth SonImperial Prince Katsura-no-Miya Takehito(桂宮盛仁親王)18101811Higashiboujo KazukoN/AN/A
Third DaughterPrincess Reimyoshin'in(霊妙心院宮)(stillborn daughter)18111811Higashiboujo KazukoN/AN/A
Sixth SonPrince Ishi(猗宮)18151819Takano MasakoN/AN/A
Seventh SonImperial Prince Toshihito(悦仁親王)18161821 Imperial Princess Yoshiko N/AN/A
Fourth DaughterPrincess Nori(娍宮)18171819Kajyūji TadakoN/AN/A
Fifth DaughterPrincess Eijun(永潤女王)18201830Anekouji ToshikoN/AN/A
Sixth DaughterPrincess Haru(治宮)18221822Tominokōji AkikoN/AN/A
Seventh DaughterImperial Princess Shinko(蓁子内親王)18241842Tominokōji AkikoN/AN/A
Eighth DaughterPrincess Seisho(聖清女王)18261827Anekouji ToshikoN/AN/A
Ninth DaughterPrincess Katsu(勝宮)18261827Tominokōji AkikoN/AN/A
Eighth SonPrince Kana(嘉糯宮)18331835Anekouji ToshikoN/AN/A

Ancestry

See also

Notes

Japanese Imperial kamon -- a stylized chrysanthemum blossom Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Japanese Imperial kamon — a stylized chrysanthemum blossom
  1. Imperial Household Agency (Kunaichō): 光格天皇 (119)
  2. Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1959). The Imperial House of Japan, pp. 120–122.
  3. 1 2 Titsingh, p. 420.
  4. Screech, T. (2000). Shogun's Painted Culture: Fear and Creativity in the Japanese States, 1760–1829, pp. 123, 125.
  5. Screech, Secret Memoirs, pp. 152–154, 249–250
  6. National Archives of Japan ...Sakuramachiden Gyokozu: see caption text Archived 2008-01-19 at the Wayback Machine
  7. Cullen, L.M. (2003). A History of Japan, 1582–1941: Internal and External Worlds, pp. 117, 163.
  8. NOAA/Japan "Significant Earthquake Database" -- U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC)
  9. Totman, Conrad. Politics in the Tokugawa Bakufu. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988, p. 224
  10. Hall, J. (1955). Tanuma Okitsugu: Forerunner of Modern Japan, 1719–1788. pp. 131–142.
  11. Screech, T. (2006). Secret Memoirs of the Shoguns: Isaac Titsingh and Japan, 1779–1822, pp. 148–151, 163–170, 248.
  12. Nosco, Peter. (1997). Confucianism and Tokugawa Culture, p. 20.
  13. Bodart-Bailey, Beatrice. (2002). "Confucianism in Japan", in Companion Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy , p. 668, at Google Books; excerpt, "Scholars vary in their opinion on how far this heterodoxy was enforced and whether this first official insistence on heterodoxy constituted the high point of Confucianism in government affairs or signalled its decline."
  14. Traugott, Mark. (1995). Repertoires and Cycles of Collective Action, p. 147.
  15. National Ditigial Archives of Japan, ...see caption describing image of scroll Archived 2008-01-19 at the Wayback Machine
  16. Ponsonby-Fane, p. 423.
  17. Ponsonby-Fane, pp. 333–334.
  18. Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1859). The Imperial House of Japan, p. 333.
  19. 1 2 Ponsonby-Fane, p. 334.
  20. "Genealogy". Reichsarchiv. Retrieved 19 January 2018.(in Japanese)

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Hōreki (宝暦), also known as Horyaku, was a Japanese era name after Kan'en and before Meiwa. The period spanned the years from October 1751 through June 1764. The reigning emperor and empress were Momozono-tennō (桃園天皇) and Go-Sakuramachi-tennō (後桜町天皇).

Tokugawa Masako Japanese empress. daughter of Tokugawa Hidetada

Tokugawa Masako, also known as Kazu-ko, was an empress consort of Japan. She was the daughter of Tokugawa Hidetada, who was the second shōgun of the Edo period of the history of Japan.

Princess Yoshiko (Kōkaku) empress consort of Emperor Kōkaku; daughter of emperor Go-Momozono

Princess Yoshiko was the empress consort of Emperor Kōkaku of Japan. She enjoys the distinction of being the last daughter of an emperor who would herself rise to the position of empress. When she was later given the title of Empress Dowager, she became the first person to be honored with that title while still living since 1168.

Sennyū-ji

Sennyū-ji (泉涌寺), formerly written as Sen-yū-ji (仙遊寺), is a Buddhist temple in Higashiyama-ku in Kyoto, Japan. For centuries, Sennyū-ji was a mortuary temple for aristocrats and the imperial house. Located here are the official tombs of Emperor Shijō and many of the emperors who came after him.

Tsuki no wa no misasagi (月輪陵) is the name of a mausoleum in Higashiyama-ku, Kyoto used by successive generations of the Japanese Imperial Family. The tomb is situated in Sennyū-ji, a Buddhist temple founded in the early Heian period, which was the hereditary temple or bodaiji (菩提寺) of the Imperial Family.

References


Regnal titles
Preceded by
Emperor Go-Momozono
Emperor of Japan:
Kōkaku

1780–1817
Succeeded by
Emperor Ninkō