Emperor Suzaku

Last updated
Suzaku
Emperor of Japan
ReignOctober 16, 930 – May 23, 946
Coronation December 14, 930
Predecessor Daigo
Successor Murakami
BornSeptember 1, 923
Heian Kyō (Kyōto)
DiedSeptember 6, 952(952-09-06) (aged 29)
Heian Kyō (Kyōto)
Burial
Daigo no misasagi (Kyōto)
Spouse
  • Princess Hiroko
  • Fujiwara no Yoshiko
Issue Princess Masako
House Yamato
Father Emperor Daigo
Mother Fujiwara no Onshi

Emperor Suzaku(朱雀天皇すざくてんのう,Suzaku-tennō , September 7, 923 – September 6, 952) was the 61st emperor of Japan, [1] according to the traditional order of succession. [2]

An emperor is a monarch, and usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress, the female equivalent, may indicate an emperor's wife, mother, or a woman who rules in her own right. Emperors are generally recognized to be of a higher honour and rank than kings. In Europe, the title of Emperor has been used since the Middle Ages, considered in those times equal or almost equal in dignity to that of Pope due to the latter's position as visible head of the Church and spiritual leader of the Catholic part of Western Europe. The Emperor of Japan is the only currently reigning monarch whose title is translated into English as Emperor.

Japan Constitutional monarchy in East Asia

Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south.

Contents

Suzaku's reign spanned the years from 930 through 946. [3]

Traditional narrative

Before his ascension of the Chrysanthemum Throne, his personal name ( imina ) [4] was Hiroakira-shinnō. [5] He was also known as Yutaakira-shinnō(寛明親王ゆたあきらしんのう). [6]

Chrysanthemum Throne

The Chrysanthemum Throne is the throne of the Emperor of Japan. The term also can refer to very specific seating, such as the takamikura (高御座) throne in the Shishin-den at Kyoto Imperial Palace.

Hiroakira-shinnō was the 11th son of Emperor Daigo and Empress Consort Onshi, a daughter of the regent and great minister of the council of state, Fujiwara no Mototsune. [7]

Emperor Daigo Emperor of Japan

Emperor Daigo was the 60th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.

Fujiwara no Mototsune Japanese politician

Fujiwara no Mototsune, also known as Horikawa Daijin (堀川大臣), was a Japanese statesman, courtier and politician of the early Heian period.

Suzaku had two Empresses or consorts and one Imperial daughter. [8]

Events of Suzaku's life

Suzaku's older brother died unexpectedly young, as did his brother's son. These untimely deaths opened the way for Suzaku to accede to the throne.

Enchō Japanese era

Enchō (延長) was a Japanese era name after Engi and before Jōhei. This period spanned the years from April 923 through April 931. The reigning emperors were Emperor Daigo-tennō (醍醐天皇) and Emperor Suzaku-tennō (朱雀天皇).

Jōhei Japanese era

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Emperor Uda Japanese emperor

Emperor Uda was the 59th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.

The actual site of Suzaku's grave is known. [1] This emperor is traditionally venerated at a memorial Shinto shrine (misasagi) at Kyoto.

The Imperial Household Agency designates this location as Suzaku's mausoleum. It is formally named Daigo no misasagi [16] in Fushimi-ku, Kyoto near the Buddhist temple, Daigo-ji.

Kugyō

Kugyō (公卿) is a collective term for the very few most powerful men attached to the court of the Emperor of Japan in pre-Meiji eras. [17]

In general, this elite group included only three to four men at a time. These were hereditary courtiers whose experience and background have brought them to the pinnacle of a life's career. During Suzaku's reign, this apex of the Daijō-kan included:

Eras of Suzaku's reign

Japanese Imperial kamon -- a stylised chrysanthemum blossom Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Japanese Imperial kamon — a stylised chrysanthemum blossom

The years of Suzaku's reign are more specifically identified by more than one era name or nengō . [19]

Consorts and children

Consort (Nyōgo): Princess Hiroko/Kishi (熙子女王; d. 950), Imperial crown Prince Yasuakira's daughter (Emperor Daigo’s son)

Consort (Nyōgo): Fujiwara no Yoshiko (藤原慶子; d. 951), Fujiwara no Saneyori's daughter

Ancestry

[20]

Notes

  1. 1 2 Imperial Household Agency (Kunaichō): 朱雀天皇 (61)
  2. Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1959). The Imperial House of Japan, pp. 69–70.
  3. Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du japon, pp. 134–139; Brown, Delmer. (1879). Gukanshō, pp. 294–295; Varley, H. Paul (1980) Jinnō Shōtōki, pp. 181–183.
  4. Brown, p. 264; prior to Emperor Jomei, the personal names of the emperors were very long and people did not generally use them. The number of characters in each name diminished after Jomei's reign.
  5. 1 2 3 Titsingh, p. 134; Varley, p. 181.
  6. 1 2 3 4 Brown, p. 294.
  7. Varley, p. 181.
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 Brown, p. 295
  9. Brown, p. 295, Varley, p. 44; a distinct act of senso is unrecognized prior to Emperor Tenji; and all sovereigns except Jitō, Yōzei, Go-Toba, and Fushimi have senso and sokui in the same year until the reign of Emperor Go-Murakami.
  10. Brown, p. 295; Varley, p. 181-182.
  11. Titsingh, p. 135; Brown, p. 295.
  12. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Titsingh, p. 135.
  13. 1 2 Titsingh, p. 135; Brown, p. 294.
  14. Titsingh, p. 136.
  15. 1 2 Brown, p. 295; Varley, p. 130.
  16. Ponsonby-Fane, p. 420.
  17. Furugosho: Kugyō of Suzaku-tennō.
  18. Brown, p. 291.
  19. Titsingh, p. 134.
  20. "Genealogy". Reichsarchiv. Retrieved 14 February 2018.(in Japanese)

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References

See also

Regnal titles
Preceded by
Emperor Daigo
Emperor of Japan:
Suzaku

930–946
Succeeded by
Emperor Murakami