|Emperor Taizu of Jin|
|Emperor of the Jin dynasty|
|Reign||28 January 1115 – 19 September 1123|
|Successor||Emperor Taizong of Jin|
|Born||1 August 1068|
|Died||19 September 1123 55)(aged|
Princess of Bi
Pucha Shijianu's wife
|Emperor Taizu of Jin|
Emperor Taizu of Jin (August 1, 1068 – September 19, 1123), personal name Aguda, sinicised name Min (Chinese :旻; pinyin :Mín), was the founder and first emperor of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty, which ruled northern China between the 12th and 13th centuries. He was initially the chieftain of the Wanyan tribe, the most dominant among the Jurchen tribes which were subjects of the Khitan-led Liao dynasty. Starting in 1114, Aguda united the Jurchen tribes under his rule and rebelled against the Liao dynasty. A year later, he declared himself emperor and established the Jin dynasty. By the time of his death, the Jin dynasty had conquered most of the Liao dynasty's territories and emerged as a major power in northern China. In 1145, he was posthumously honoured with the temple name Taizu by his descendant, Emperor Xizong.
The name [Wanyan] Aguda is transcribed [Wan-yen] A-ku-ta in Wade-Giles;the alternative spelling Akutta (possibly from reconstruction of Jurchen language) appears in a very small number of books as well.
Aguda was the second son of Helibo, the chieftain of the Wanyan tribe. His mother was a daughter of the chieftain of the Nalan (拏懶) tribe. He was born in 1068 near the Ashi River within present-day Harbin, Heilongjiang Province. He was well-known within his tribe for his bravery, and had participated in numerous campaigns against rival Jurchen tribes at the command of the Khitan-led Liao dynasty. In 1109, during the height of a widespread famine, Aguda assisted his father in absorbing famished warriors from other Jurchen tribes to strengthen his own tribe. Later, he fought wars against other Jurchen tribes and succeeded in unifying all Jurchens under the Wanyan tribe's leadership. In 1113, Aguda succeeded his elder brother, Wuyashu, as the leader of his tribe. Like other Jurchens, Aguda loathed what he considered the exploitation of his tribesmen by corrupt Liao officials. In 1112, when the Liao ruler, Emperor Tianzuo, went on a fishing expedition in Jurchen territory, he ordered all the chieftains to dance for him. Aguda became famous among the Jurchens when he was the only person who defied the order.
In early 1114, Aguda sent spies into Liao territory and prepared to revolt against the Khitan regime, which he considered decadent. His chief advisors were Wanyan Zonghan and Wanyan Xiyin. 收國). In August, his army conquered Huanglong Prefecture (黄龍府; present-day Nong'an County, Jilin Province) and defeated 700,000 Liao troops with only 20,000 horsemen at the Battle of Hubudagang. By 1116, Aguda had completed the conquest of the entire Liaodong Peninsula. Between 1119 and 1122, his army repeatedly defeated Liao forces and captured all of the Liao dynasty's five capitals.In September, Aguda rallied his tribesmen (around 2,500 men) at Liushui (流水; near present-day Lalin River in Fuyu, Jilin Province) and openly rebelled against the Liao dynasty. His cavalry captured Ningjiangzhou (寧江州; present-day Fuyu, Jilin Province) and defeated a 7,000-strong Liao army at the Battle of Chuhedian in November. In January 1115, following a series of military successes, Aguda proclaimed himself emperor, established the Jin dynasty, and adopted the regnal name "Shouguo" (
Since the Jin dynasty was an enemy of the Liao dynasty, the Han Chinese-led Northern Song dynasty considered the Jin dynasty to be their natural allies. In 1117, the Song dynasty sent emissaries to the Jin dynasty, ostensibly to buy horses, but in reality to negotiate an alliance against the Liao dynasty.Between 1117 and 1123, seven Song delegations visited the Jurchens, and six Jin embassies went to the Song capital, Bianjing (present-day Kaifeng, Henan Province). Between 1115 and 1123, the Jin and Song dynasties negotiated and formed the Alliance Conducted at Sea against the Liao dynasty. Under the conditions of the alliance, the Song dynasty would attack the Liao dynasty from the south, while in return, the Jin dynasty would hand over control of the Liao dynasty's Sixteen Prefectures to the Song dynasty.
During the war against the Liao dynasty, Aguda also took time to establish the new feudal governmental system based on Jurchen tribal customs. He also organised the national agriculture with a collectivist system known as the Meng'an-Mouke (猛安謀克). Furthermore, Aguda absorbed elements of Han Chinese culture and ordered his chancellor Wanyan Xiyin to develop a unique Jurchen writing system.
Aguda died in August 1123, at the age of 56. His death came a few months after the Jin and Song dynasties signed a treaty which recognised each other as equals and required the Song to pay the Jin an annual tribute of 200,000 taels of silver and 300,000 bolts of silk. 睿陵) at Dafangshan (大房山) outside Zhongdu (中都; present-day Beijing).Aguda was succeeded by his younger brother, Wuqimai (Emperor Taizong). Wuqimai continued the campaign against the Liao dynasty and captured the Liao emperor, Emperor Tianzuo in 1125, thereby ending the Liao dynasty's existence. Soon after conquering the Liao dynasty, the Jin dynasty waged war against the Northern Song dynasty. Aguda was buried in the Rui Mausoleum (
Mounted statues of Aguda and his chief commander, Wanyan Zonghan, have been erected on the grounds of the Jin Dynasty History Museum (金上京歷史博物馆) at the former location of the old Jin capital, Shangjing (上京), which is near present-day Acheng District, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province.
Emperor Huizong of Song, personal name Zhao Ji, was the eighth emperor of the Song dynasty in China. He was also a very well-known calligrapher. Born as the 11th son of Emperor Shenzong, he ascended the throne in 1100 upon the death of his elder brother and predecessor, Emperor Zhezong, because Emperor Zhezong's only son died prematurely. He lived in luxury, sophistication and art in the first half of his life. In 1126, when the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty invaded the Song dynasty during the Jin–Song Wars, Emperor Huizong abdicated and passed on his throne to his eldest son, Zhao Huan who assumed the title Emperor Qinzong while Huizong assumed the honorary title of Taishang Huang. The following year, the Song capital, Bianjing, was conquered by Jin forces in an event historically known as the Jingkang Incident. Emperor Huizong, along with Emperor Qinzong and the rest of their family, were taken captive by the Jurchens and brought back to the Jin capital, Huining Prefecture in 1128. The Jurchen ruler, Emperor Taizong of Jin, gave the former Emperor Huizong a title, Duke Hunde, to humiliate him. After his surviving son, Zhao Gou, declared himself as the dynasty's tenth emperor as Emperor Gaozong, the Jurchens used him, Qinzong, and other imperial family members to put pressure on Gaozong and his court to surrender. Emperor Huizong died in Wuguo after spending about nine years in captivity.
Emperor Shizong of Jin, personal name Wulu, sinicised name Wanyan Yong, was the fifth emperor of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty, which ruled northern China between the 12th and 13th centuries. Ruling from 1161 to 1189 under the regnal name "Dading", Emperor Shizong's reign was the longest and most stable among the Jin dynasty emperors.
Gushen, also known as Wushi or Hushe, and better known by his sinicised name Wanyan Xiyin, was a Jurchen noble and civil minister who lived in the founding and early years of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty (1115–1234), which ruled northern China between the 12th and 13th centuries. He was a chief adviser to Aguda, the founder and first emperor of the Jin dynasty. Described by modern writers as the "Chief Shaman" of the pre-Jin Jurchen state, he became deeply interested in Han Chinese culture, and is particularly known as the creator of the first writing system for the Jurchen language.
Emperor Zhangzong of Jin, personal name Madage, sinicised name Wanyan Jing, was the sixth emperor of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty, which ruled northern China between the 12th and 13th centuries. He reigned from 20 January 1189 to 29 December 1208.
The Jingkang Incident, also known as the Humiliation of Jingkang and the Disorders of the Jingkang Period took place in 1127 during the Jin–Song Wars when the forces of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty besieged and sacked Bianjing, the capital of the Han Chinese-led Song dynasty. The Jin forces captured the Song ruler, Emperor Qinzong, along with his father, Emperor Huizong, and many members of the imperial family and officials of the Song imperial court.
Emperor Taizong of Jin, personal name Wuqimai, sinicised name Wanyan Sheng, was the second emperor of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty, which ruled northern China between the 12th and 13th centuries. His regnal name was "Tianhui" (天會). During his reign, the Jin dynasty conquered the Khitan-led Liao dynasty. He then led the Jurchens in their campaigns against the Song dynasty, captured the Song capital in 1127 and went on to occupy most of northern China. After his death, he was posthumously honoured with the temple name Taizong by his successor, Emperor Xizong.
Emperor Xizong of Jin, personal name Hela, sinicised name Wanyan Dan, was the third emperor of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty, which ruled northern China between the 12th and 13th centuries. He reigned for about 15 years from 1135 to 1150. During his reign, the Jin dynasty launched several military campaigns against the Han Chinese-led Southern Song dynasty in southern China.
Digunai, also known by his sinicised name Wanyan Liang and his formal title Prince of Hailing, was the fourth emperor of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty, which ruled northern China between the 12th and 13th centuries. He was the second son of Wanyan Zonggan (完顏宗幹), the eldest son of Aguda. He came to power in 1150 after overthrowing and murdering his predecessor, Emperor Xizong, in a coup d'état. During his reign, he moved the Jin capital from Shangjing to Yanjing, and introduced a policy of sinicisation. In 1161, after the Jin dynasty lost the Battle of Caishi against the Southern Song dynasty, Digunai's subordinates rebelled against him and assassinated him. After his death, even though he ruled as an emperor during his lifetime, he was posthumously demoted to the status of a prince – "Prince Yang of Hailing" – in 1162 by his successor, Emperor Shizong. However, in 1181, Emperor Shizong further posthumously demoted him to the status of a commoner, hence he is also known as the "Commoner of Hailing".
Hanpu or Hambo, later Wanyan Hanpu, was a leader of the Jurchen Wanyan clan in the early tenth century. According to the ancestral story of the Wanyan clan, Hanpu came from Goryeo (Korea) when he was sixty years old, reformed Jurchen customary law, and then married a sixty-year-old local woman who bore him three children. His descendants eventually united Jurchen tribes into a federation and established the Jin dynasty in 1115. In 1136 or 1137, Hanpu was retrospectively given the temple name Jin Shizu (金始祖), or "first ancestor of Jin."
Wulu was a chieftain of the Wanyan tribe, the most dominant among the Jurchen tribes which later founded the Jin dynasty (1115–1234). He was the eldest son of Hanpu, who is regarded as the ancestor of the Wanyan clan. Wulu was given the posthumous name Emperor De (德皇帝) by his descendant, Emperor Xizong.
Shilu was a chieftain of the Wanyan tribe, the most dominant among the Jurchen tribes which later founded the Jin dynasty (1115–1234). He was the eldest son of Suike. He was appointed chieftain of the Wanyan tribe by the Khitan-led Liao dynasty, which ruled northern China between the 10th and 11th centuries.
Wugunai (1021–1074) was a chieftain of the Wanyan tribe, the most dominant among the Jurchen tribes which later founded the Jin dynasty (1115–1234). He was the eldest son of Shilu. Like his father, Wugunai was appointed chieftain of the Wanyan tribe by the Khitan-led Liao dynasty, which ruled northern China between the 10th and 11th centuries. Historical sources describe Wugunai as a brave warrior, great eater and hard drinker, and a lover of women.
Helibo (1039—1092) was a chieftain of the Wanyan tribe, the most dominant among the Jurchen tribes which later founded the Jin dynasty (1115–1234). He was the second son of Wugunai. Like his grandfather, Shilu, Helibo was appointed chieftain of the Wanyan tribe by the Khitan-led Liao dynasty, which ruled northern China between the 10th and 11th centuries.
Wanyan Yongji, courtesy name Xingsheng, was the seventh emperor of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty, which ruled northern China between the 12th and 13th centuries. He reigned for about five years from 1208 until 1213, when he was assassinated by the general Heshilie Zhizhong. Despite having ruled as an emperor, Wanyan Yongji was not posthumously honoured as an emperor. Instead, in 1216, his successor, Emperor Xuanzong, reverted his status back to "Prince of Wei" (衛王) – the title Wanyan Yongji held before he became emperor – and gave him the posthumous name "Shao" (紹), hence Wanyan Yongji is historically referred to as "Prince Shao of Wei".
Emperor Xuanzong of Jin, personal name Wudubu, sinicized names Wanyan Xun and Wanyan Congjia, was the eighth emperor of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty, which ruled northern China between the 12th and 13th centuries. He was the first Jin emperor to be defeated by the Mongols after they crossed the Great Wall in 1211 during their conquest of the Jin dynasty.
Emperor Aizong of Jin, personal name Ningjiasu, sinicized names Wanyan Shouxu and Wanyan Shouli, was the ninth emperor of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty, which ruled most of northern China between the 12th and 13th centuries. He was considered an able emperor who made several reforms beneficial to the Jin dynasty, such as the removal of corrupt officials and introduction of more lenient tax laws. He also ended the wars against the Southern Song dynasty, and canceled the Treaty of Shaoxing free of obligation, instead focusing the Jin dynasty's military resources on resisting the Mongol invasion. Despite his efforts, the Jin dynasty, already weakened by the flawed policies of his predecessors, eventually fell to the Mongol Empire. He escaped to Caizhou when the Mongols besieged Bianjing, the Jin capital, in 1232. When Caizhou also came under Mongol attack in 1234, he passed the throne to his army marshal Wanyan Chenglin and then died by suicide by hanging himself.
Nianhan (1080–1136), also known by his sinicised name Wanyan Zonghan, was a Jurchen noble and military general who lived in the founding and early years of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty (1115-1234), which ruled northern China between the 12th and 13th centuries.
Wuzhu, also known by his sinicised name Wanyan Zongbi, or Jin Wuzhu, was a prince, military general and civil minister of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty, which ruled northern China from 1115 to 1234. He was the fourth son of Aguda, the founder and first emperor of the Jin dynasty. Wuzhu started his career in the military in his youth, when he participated in the Jurchen rebellion led by his father against the Khitan-led Liao dynasty. Between the late 1120s and 1130s, he fought for the Jin dynasty in a series of wars against the Han Chinese-led Northern Song dynasty and its successor state, the Southern Song dynasty. In 1137, in recognition of his contributions in battle, he was appointed as Right Vice-Marshal (右副元帥) and enfeoffed as the "Prince of Shen" (沈王). In the final decade of his life, he was appointed to several high-ranking positions in the Jin imperial court, including Left Chancellor (左丞相), Palace Attendant (侍中), Taibao (太保), Marshal of the Capital (都元帥), Taifu (太傅), and Taishi (太師). He died of illness in 1148. Throughout his life, he had served under three Jin emperors – Emperor Taizu, Emperor Taizong, and Emperor Xizong.
The History of Jin is a Chinese historical text, one of the Twenty Four Histories, which details the history of the Jin dynasty founded by the Jurchens in northern China. It was compiled by the Yuan dynasty historian and minister Toqto'a.
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Emperor Taizu of Jin
House of Wanyan (1115–1234)Born: 1068 Died: 1123
| Emperor of Jin dynasty |
Emperor Taizong of Jin
Emperor Tianzuo of Liao
| Emperor of China (Manchuria)|