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Map of Texas in 1833 showing several of the land grants Map of Coahuila and Texas in 1833.jpg
Map of Texas in 1833 showing several of the land grants

An empresario [em.pɾe.ˈsaɾ.jo] was a person who had been granted the right to settle on land in exchange for recruiting and taking responsibility for settling the eastern areas of Coahuila y Tejas in the early nineteenth century. The word is Spanish for entrepreneur (from empresa, "company"). [1]


By empresarios attracting immigrants mostly from the southern United States to Texas, they as a consequence encouraged the spread of slavery into this territory. Although Mexico banned slavery in 1836, Texas gained independence that year, and continued to develop an economy dominated by slavery in the eastern part of the territory.


Colorado & Red River Land Co. map of empresario grants, circa 1835 Konen Colorado & Red River Land Co. c. 1835 UTA (map).jpg
Colorado & Red River Land Co. map of empresario grants, circa 1835

In 1829, Mexico abolished slavery, which affected the Anglo-American settlers’ quest for wealth in building colonizations worked by enslaved Africans. They lobbied the Mexican government for a reversal of the ban and gained only a one-year extension to settle their affairs and free their bonded workers - the government refused to legalize slavery. The settlers decided to secede from Mexico, initiating the famous and mythologized Battle of the Alamo in 1836. [2]

In the late 18th century, Spain stopped allocating new lands in much of Spanish Texas, stunting the growth of the province. [3] It changed this policy in 1820, and made it more flexible, allowing colonists of any religion to settle in Texas (formerly settlers were required to be Catholic, the established religion of the Spanish Empire). [4] Moses Austin, a British colonist, was the only man granted an empresarial contract in Texas under Spanish law. But Moses Austin died before he could begin his colony, and Mexico achieved its independence from Spain in September 1821. At this time, about 3500 colonists lived in Texas, mostly congregated at San Antonio and La Bahia. [5]

The Mexican government continued the generous immigration policies in order to develop east Texas. [6] Even as the government debated a new colonization law, Stephen F. Austin, son of Moses Austin, was given permission to take over his father's colonization contract. Steven F. Austin is probably the best known and most successful empresario in Texas. The first group of colonists, known as the Old Three Hundred, arrived in 1822 and settled along the Brazos River, ranging from the Gulf of Mexico to near present-day Dallas. [7]

In 1823, Mexico’s authoritarian ruler Agustín de Iturbide enacted a colonization law authorizing the national government to enter into a contract granting land to an “empresario,” or promoter, who was required to recruit a minimum of two hundred families to settle the grant. [8]

Mexico approved immigration on a wider basis in 1824 with passage of the General Colonization Law. This law authorized all heads of household who were citizens of or immigrants to Mexico as eligible to claim land. [6] After the law passed, the state government of Coahuila y Tejas was inundated with requests by foreign speculators to establish colonies within the state. [9] There was no shortage of people willing to come to Texas. The United States was still struggling with the aftermath of the Panic of 1819, and soaring land prices within the United States made the Mexican land policy seem very generous. [9]

Most successful empresarios recruited colonists primarily in the United States. Only two of the groups that attempted to recruit in Europe built lasting colonies, Refugio and San Patricio. [10] [11] These colonies were successful in part because the empresarios spoke Spanish, were Catholic and generally familiar with Mexican ways, and allowed local Mexican families to join their colonies. [11]

Rules for settlers

Unlike its predecessor, the Mexican law required immigrants to practice Catholicism and stressed that foreigners needed to learn Spanish. [12] Settlers were supposed to own property or have a craft or useful profession, and all people wishing to live in Texas were expected to report to the nearest Mexican authority for permission to settle. The rules were widely disregarded and many families became squatters. [13]

Under the new laws, people who did not already possess property in Texas could claim 4438 acres of irrigable land, with an additional 4438 available to those who owned cattle. Empresarios and individuals with large families were exempt from the limit. [14]

Notable empresarios

EmpresarioColony locationCapitalNotes

Empresido of Mexico in New Madrid, Spanish Louisiana Territory,

Philip Alston (counterfeiter) New Madrid, Spanish Louisiana Territory New Orleans sold land grants
Stephen F. Austin Austin's Colony between Brazos and Colorado riversSan Felipe De Austintook over his father Moses Austin's empresario contract
David G. Burnet East Texas, northwest of Nacogdochessold his land grant to the Galveston Bay and Texas Land Company
Martín De León De León's Colony Victoria The only colony that was primarily Mexican and not Anglo-American [15]
Green DeWitt DeWitt Colony Gonzales
Haden Harrison Edwards East Texas from the Navasota River to 20 leagues west of the Sabine River, and from 20 leagues north of the Gulf of Mexico to 15 leagues north of the town of Nacogdoches. [16] Nacogdoches Expelled from Texas after launching the Fredonia Rebellion in 1827
Benjamin Drake Lovell and John PurnellAttempted to establish a socialist colony; Purnell died and Lovell abandoned the colony in 1826; land was later given to McMullen and McGloin. [17]
John McMullen and James McGloin San Patricio, TX of Irish descent, these men recruited primarily European settlers [11] [18]
James Power and James Hewetson Land between Guadalupe and Lavaca rivers. [19] San Patricio and Refugio Half of settlers were to come from Ireland, the other half from Mexico. [20]
Sterling C. Robertson An area along the Brazos River about 100 miles wide and 200 miles long, centered on Waco, comprising all or some of thirty present-day counties in Central Texas. [21] SarahvilleAt various times also called Robertson's Colony, the Texas Association, Leftwich's Grant, the Nashville colony, or the upper colony. [21]
Lorenzo de Zavala southeastern Texas in the Galveston Bay Area transferred ownership to the Galveston Bay and Texas Land Company
Henri Castro southwestern Texas on the Medina River Castroville

After the Republic of Texas won its independence from Mexico, the young nation continued its own version of the empresario program, offering grants to French diplomat Henri Castro and abolitionist Charles Fenton Mercer, among others.

See also

Related Research Articles

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  1. Compare "impresario".
  2. Dunbar-Ortiz, Roxanne (2014). An Indigenous People’s History of the United States. Boston: Beacon Press. p. 127. ISBN   978-0-8070-5783-4.
  3. Manchaca (2001), p. 194.
  4. Vazquez (1997), p. 48.
  5. Edmondson (2000), p. 75.
  6. 1 2 Manchaca (2001), p. 187.
  7. Manchaca (2001), p. 198.
  8. Dunbar-Ortiz, Roxanne (2014). An Indigenous People’s History of the United States. Boston: Beacon Press. p. 123. ISBN   978-0-8070-5783-4.
  9. 1 2 Vazquez (1997), p. 53.
  10. Davis (2002), p. 72.
  11. 1 2 3 Davis (2002), p. 75.
  12. Vazquez (1997), p. 50.
  13. de la Teja (1997), p. 88.
  14. Manchaca (2001), p. 196.
  15. Henderson, p.5
  16. Ericson (2000), p. 37.
  17. Davis (2002), p. 76.
  18. Davis (2002), p. 73.
  19. Davis (2002), p. 78.
  20. Davis (2002), p. 79.
  21. 1 2 Texas State Historical Association