En Esur

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En Esur
עין אֵסוּר
Tel-Esur-from-sky.jpg
Aerial photo of Tel Esur in the foreground with En Esur to the left, Highway 65 in the middleground, and Barkai in the background
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Archaeological site icon (red).svg
En Esur
Shown in Israel
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En Esur
En Esur (Eastern Mediterranean)
Alternative nameEin Asawir
Location Menashe, Haifa, Israel
Region Canaan, Southern Levant
Coordinates 32°28′55″N35°1′10″E / 32.48194°N 35.01944°E / 32.48194; 35.01944 Coordinates: 32°28′55″N35°1′10″E / 32.48194°N 35.01944°E / 32.48194; 35.01944
Type Proto-city
Area50 ha (120 acres)
History
Foundedtemple c. 5000 BCE; most of city c. 3000 BCE
Abandoned Early Bronze Age I [1]
Periods Pottery NeolithicEarly Bronze Age I [1]
Cultures Canaanites
Associated with6,000 occupants
Site notes
Archaeologists
  • Itai Elad
  • Yitzhak Paz

En Esur (Hebrew : עין אֵסוּר; [ ʕ e n   ʔ s u ʁ ] eh-N eh-s-oor) or Ein Asawir (Arabic : عين الأساور, lit.  'Spring of the Braceletes') is an ancient site located in the northern Sharon Plain in the Israeli Coastal Plain. The site includes an archaeological mound (tell), called Tel Esur or Tell el-Asawir, another unnamed mound, and two springs, one of which gives the site its name. During the Early Bronze Age, around 3000 BCE, a massive fortified proto-city with an estimated population of 5,000 to 6,000 inhabitants existed there. It was the largest city in the region, larger than other significant sites such as Tel Megiddo and Tel Jericho, but smaller than other distant sites. The city was discovered in 1977 during a salvage excavation in the site of a future water reservoir, but its massive extent was realized only during excavations in 1993. A major excavation was conducted between 2017 and 2019 ahead of the construction of a new highway interchange for the new town of Harish exposed the city's houses, streets and public structures, as well as countless pottery, tools and artifacts. An even earlier settlement with a 7,000 year-old temple was discovered below the ruins of the Bronze Age city.

Hebrew language Semitic language native to Israel

Hebrew is a Northwest Semitic language native to Israel, the modern version of which is spoken by over nine million people worldwide. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name "Hebrew" in the Tanakh itself. The earliest examples of written Paleo-Hebrew date from the 10th century BCE. Hebrew belongs to the West Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family. Hebrew is the only Canaanite language still spoken, and the only truly successful example of a revived dead language.

Literal translation, direct translation, or word-for-word translation is a translation of a text done by translating each word separately, without looking at how the words are used together in a phrase or sentence.

Contents

Archaeologists Itai Elad and Yitzhak Paz announced the discovery of the city in 2019, calling it the "New York City of the early Bronze Age". [2]

New York City Largest city in the United States

The City of New York, usually called either New York City (NYC) or simply New York (NY), is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2018 population of 8,398,748 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles (784 km2), New York is also the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 19,979,477 people in its 2018 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 22,679,948 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural, financial, and media capital of the world, and exerts a significant impact upon commerce, entertainment, research, technology, education, politics, tourism, art, fashion, and sports. The city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.

Discovery

A 1692 depiction of Canaan, by Philip Lea. A map of Canaan (8343807206).jpg
A 1692 depiction of Canaan, by Philip Lea.

Tel Esur was known locally as a Tell el-Asawir. It appears in a map drawn by French geographer Pierre Jacotin from 1799. [3] American archaeologist and biblical scholar William F. Albright visited the site during his 1923 trip to Mandatory Palestine. He recalled the opinion of German scholar Albrecht Alt that Tel Esur is the site of an ancient city called "Yaham", mentioned in the sources of the 15th century BCE Egyptian pharaoh Thutmose III, who campaigned against a coalition of Canaanite city-states, led by the king of Megiddo, located just north of the Menashe Heights. According to the Egyptian account, Thutmose III camped in Yaham before he marched on Megiddo to fight the Battle of Megiddo. Albright stated that the location of the site corresponds with the geographic descriptions of the Egyptian sources, and his discovery of Bronze Age pottery while surveying the mound further confirmed this identification in his opinion. [4] Today however, Yaham is identified with a site located in Kafr Yama in Zemer, some 10 kilometers south of Tel Esur. [5]

Pierre Jacotin French geographer

Pierre Jacotin (1765–1827) was named director of all the surveyors and geographers working in the Nile Valley in 1799 during the campaign in Egypt of Napoleon. Later on, he also prepared maps of Palestine during Napoleon's campaign there.

William F. Albright Orientalist, biblical scholar and archaeologist

William Foxwell Albright was an American archaeologist, biblical scholar, philologist, and expert on ceramics.

Mandatory Palestine A geopolitical entity formed from territory ceded by Turkey following WW1

Mandatory Palestine was a geopolitical entity established between 1920 and 1923 in the region of Palestine under the terms of the "Mandate for Palestine".

The discovery of the larger site around Tel Esur and its springs occured in 1977, when during the digging of a water reservoir south of the mound. A salvage excavation was conducted by archaeologists Azriel Zigelman and Ram Gofna of the Tel Aviv University. They discovered two settlement layers, one from the Chalcolithic period (the last period of the Stone Age) and the Early Bronze Age. The former included the foundations of structures made of rough stones and some installations. These are dated to the early Chalcolithic (c. 6000 years ago). The latter included the foundations of massive structures made of large stones. The widest wall measured 1.7 meters wide. The pottery there is dated to the Early Bronze Age I period (3300–3000 BCE). [6]

Tel Aviv University public university located in Ramat Aviv, Tel Aviv, Israel

Tel Aviv University (TAU) is a public research university in Tel Aviv, Israel. With over 30,000 students, it is the largest university in the country. Located in northwest Tel Aviv, the university is the center of teaching and research of the city, comprising 9 faculties, 17 teaching hospitals, 18 performing arts centers, 27 schools, 106 departments, 340 research centers, and 400 laboratories.

The Chalcolithic, a name derived from the Greek: χαλκός khalkós, "copper" and from λίθος líthos, "stone" or Copper Age, also known as the Eneolithic or Aeneolithic is an archaeological period which researchers usually regard as part of the broader Neolithic. In the context of Eastern Europe, archaeologists often prefer the term "Eneolithic" to "Chalcolithic" or other alternatives.

Stone Age Hominin events for the last 10 million years

The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric period during which stone was widely used to make implements with an edge, a point, or a percussion surface. The period lasted roughly 3.4 million years and ended between 8700 BCE and 2000 BCE with the advent of metalworking.

A survey and an excavation was conducted in 1993 by Eli Yanai of the Israel Antiquities Authority. It revealed the massive extent of the site during the Early Bronze Age, as well as settlement remains from the Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods, and sherds from the Byzantine and Ottoman periods. [7]

En Esur was excavated by professional and volunteer archaeologists over two and a half years beginning in January 2017, with the research overseen by archaeologists Itai Elad and Yitzhak Paz. [1] [8] The work was organized in part by the Israel Antiquities Authority and financed by Netivei Israel, Israel's national transportation infrastructure company. [1] [8] During the process of excavation, archaeologists found a temple within the city that was built approximately 2,000 years before the rest of the site. [8]

Israel Antiquities Authority Organization

The Israel Antiquities Authority is an independent Israeli governmental authority responsible for enforcing the 1978 Law of Antiquities. The IAA regulates excavation and conservation, and promotes research. The director-general is Shuka Dorfmann and its offices are housed in the Rockefeller Museum.

In an announcement of their discovery, researchers called En Esur "cosmopolitan" and the "New York City of the early Bronze Age". [2]

Site

Plan of En Esur showing its immediate surroundings and the areas excavated as of 2019. The site encompasses two tells (including Tel Esur) and two springs (including En Esur) on either side of Highway 65. In addition to the road, the site has been disturbed by modern developments including several buildings and a reservoir.
Extent of the site
Excavated areas
Rivers/reservoir
Springs/streams
Roads/tracks
Modern buildings Plan of En Esur.svg
Plan of En Esur showing its immediate surroundings and the areas excavated as of 2019. The site encompasses two tells (including Tel Esur) and two springs (including En Esur) on either side of Highway 65. In addition to the road, the site has been disturbed by modern developments including several buildings and a reservoir.
  Extent of the site
  Excavated areas
  Rivers/reservoir
  Springs/streams
  Roads/tracks
  Modern buildings

The site of En Esur is made of three elements: Tel Esur, which is a mound of accumulated human settlement layers, a smaller mound south of the tel, and an open field the surrounds the mounds, where during the Early Bronze Age, a massive city lied. The site is supporterd by two water abundant water springs. The first gives the site its name, En Esur, which is also called En Arubot. The other is unnamed. [7] The springs receive their water an outlet of the 'Iron stream (Wadi Ara) which flows from the modern city of Umm al-Fahm into the Hadera Stream and from there to the Mediterranean Sea. [1]

En Esur occupied a space of around 0.65 square kilometers (160 acres) and may have had 5,000 to 6,000 inhabitants. [11] This would have made the settlement much larger than Tel Megiddo in Israel and Jericho in the West Bank, and therefore the largest settlement in the Southern Levant during this period, but smaller than more distant cities in Egypt and Mesopotamia. [8] [12] [13] Archaeologist Itai Elad stated that En Esur is double the size of other large settlements known in the area. [14]

The settlement is believed to have existed at the crossroads of two important trading routes. [15] Archaeologists excavating the site believe that the city was planned, and included not only streets, alleys and squares, but also facilities for storage and drainage, and a cemetery. [16] [14] En Esur was surrounded by fortified walls that were 2 metres (6.6 feet) high. [17] [14] Its discoverers have called the city a "megalopolis". [17]

The site includes about four million artefacts overall, with millions of potsherds and flint tools, and some basalt stone vessels. [8] [17] [13] The inhabitants of En Esur are thought to have been an agricultural people. They would have traded with other regions and kingdoms. [16] Sealed imprints on tools demonstrate that these were brought to the city from Egypt. [17]

The temple found within the city is estimated to be 7,000 years old, dating from the Chalcolithic period. [14] The temple, which is located in a public area of the city, includes a courtyard with a huge stone basin for rituals, and figurines including a human head and a person next to an animal. [17] Burned animal bones were found inside the temple, providing evidence of possible ritual sacrifices. [17]

Researchers excavating the site have said that it demonstrates early processes of urbanization within Canaanite civilization, [14] and that the city would have probably possessed a substantial "administrative mechanism." [2] Haaretz described the site as "vastly bigger than anything thought possible in the Southern Levant 5,000 years ago." [12] The settlement was later[ when? ] abandoned. [14] [15]

Preservation

According to Haaretz, En Esur is currently slated to be paved over by a planned road junction, [8] [12] while the Agence France-Presse has reported that the road plans have been modified in order to protect the archaeological site. [14]

See also

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 Itai, Elad; Paz, Yitzak (2018). "En Esur (Asawir): Preliminary Report". Hadashot Arkheologiyot: Excavations and Surveys in Israel. 130. JSTOR   26691671.
  2. 1 2 3 "Bronze Age 'New York' discovered, Israeli archaeologists say". Deutsche Welle. KNA/AP. 7 October 2019. Archived from the original on 6 October 2019. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
  3. Yehuda Karmon (1960). "An Analysis of Jacotin's Map of Palestine". Israel Exploration Journal. Israel Exploration Society. 10 (4): 249 via JSTOR.
  4. "Some Archaeological and Topographical Results of a Trip through Palestine". Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research. The University of Chicago Press on behalf of The American Schools of Oriental Research. 11: 3–14. October 1923 via JSTOR.
  5. Durar Masarwa (2013). "Yaham". Hadashot Arkheologiyot: Excavations and Surveys in Israel. Israel Antiquities Authority via JSTOR.
  6. "Tel Esur (Asawir)". Hadashot Arkheologiyot. 65-66: 14–15. 1978 via JSTOR.
  7. 1 2 Eli Yanai (1995). "Tel Esur". Hadashot Arkheologiyot. Israel Antiquities Authority. 104: 67–69 via JSTOR.
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Moyler, Hunter (6 October 2019). "Archaeologists uncover an 'early bronze age New York' in northern Israel". Newsweek . Archived from the original on 6 October 2019. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
  9. Eli Yanay and Yossi Nagar (2016). שרידים מתרבות ואדי רבה ומתקופת הברונזה הקדומה בשטח I בעין אסור (עין אסאוויר). 'Atiqot (in Hebrew). Israel Antiquities Authority. 85 via JSTOR.
  10. Yitzhak Paz and Itai Elad (2018). "'En Esur (Asawir): Preliminary Report". Hadashot Arkheologiyot: Excavations and Surveys in Israel. Israel Antiquities Authority. 130 via JSTOR.
  11. "Israel unveils remains of 5,000-year-old city". RTL Today. RTL Télé Lëtzebuerg. AFP. 7 October 2019. Archived from the original on 10 October 2019. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
  12. 1 2 3 David, Ariel (6 October 2019). "Gigantic Prehistoric City Found in Israel During Roadworks". Haaretz . Archived from the original on 6 October 2019. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
  13. 1 2 "Ancient 'New York': 5,000-year-old city discovered in Israel". BBC News. 7 October 2019. Archived from the original on 10 October 2019. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
  14. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 "Israelis unearth the remains of an ancient metropolis" . The Australian . Agence France-Presse. 7 October 2019. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
  15. 1 2 Liebermann, Oren (7 October 2019). "Archaeologists find 5,000-year-old 'New York' in Israel". CNN . Retrieved 7 October 2019.
  16. 1 2 "Remains of 5,000-year-old ancient city unearthed by Israeli archaeologists". Jewish News . 7 October 2019. Archived from the original on 10 October 2019. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
  17. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Xiaoxia, ed. (7 October 2019). "Israel discovers 5,000-year-old Canaanite city with ritual temple". Xinhuanet.com . Xinhua News Agency. Archived from the original on 6 October 2019. Retrieved 7 October 2019.

Further reading