|Alternative name||Ein Asawir|
|Location||Menashe, Haifa, Israel|
|Region||Canaan, Southern Levant|
|Area||50 ha (120 acres)|
|Founded||temple c. 5000 BCE; most of city c. 3000 BCE|
|Abandoned||Early Bronze Age I|
|Periods||Pottery Neolithic–Early Bronze Age I|
|Associated with||6,000 occupants|
En Esur (Hebrew : עין אֵסוּר; [ ʕ e n ʔ s u ʁ ] eh-N eh-s-oor) or Ein Asawir (Arabic : عين الأساور, lit. 'Spring of the Braceletes') is an ancient site located in the northern Sharon Plain in the Israeli Coastal Plain. The site includes an archaeological mound (tell), called Tel Esur or Tell el-Asawir, another unnamed mound, and two springs, one of which gives the site its name. During the Early Bronze Age, around 3000 BCE, a massive fortified proto-city with an estimated population of 5,000 to 6,000 inhabitants existed there. It was the largest city in the region, larger than other significant sites such as Tel Megiddo and Tel Jericho, but smaller than other distant sites. The city was discovered in 1977 during a salvage excavation in the site of a future water reservoir, but its massive extent was realized only during excavations in 1993. A major excavation was conducted between 2017 and 2019 ahead of the construction of a new highway interchange for the new town of Harish exposed the city's houses, streets and public structures, as well as countless pottery, tools and artifacts. An even earlier settlement with a 7,000 year-old temple was discovered below the ruins of the Bronze Age city.
Archaeologists Itai Elad and Yitzhak Paz announced the discovery of the city in 2019, calling it the "New York City of the early Bronze Age".
Tel Esur was known locally as a Tell el-Asawir. It appears in a map drawn by French geographer Pierre Jacotin from 1799.American archaeologist and biblical scholar William F. Albright visited the site during his 1923 trip to Mandatory Palestine. He recalled the opinion of German scholar Albrecht Alt that Tel Esur is the site of an ancient city called "Yaham", mentioned in the sources of the 15th century BCE Egyptian pharaoh Thutmose III, who campaigned against a coalition of Canaanite city-states, led by the king of Kadesh in Megiddo, located just north of the Menashe Heights. According to the Egyptian account, Thutmose III camped in Yaham before he marched on Megiddo to fight the Battle of Megiddo. Albright stated that the location of the site corresponds with the geographic descriptions of the Egyptian sources, and his discovery of Bronze Age pottery while surveying the mound further confirmed this identification in his opinion. Today however, Yaham is identified with a site located in Kafr Yama in Zemer, some 10 kilometers south of Tel Esur.
The discovery of the larger site around Tel Esur and its springs occurred in 1977, when during the digging of a water reservoir south of the mound. A salvage excavation was conducted by archaeologists Azriel Zigelman and Ram Gofna of the Tel Aviv University. They discovered two settlement layers, one from the Chalcolithic period (the last period of the Stone Age) and the Early Bronze Age. The former included the foundations of structures made of rough stones and some installations. These are dated to the early Chalcolithic (c. 6000 years ago). The latter included the foundations of massive structures made of large stones. The widest wall measured 1.7 meters wide. The pottery there is dated to the Early Bronze Age I period (3300–3000 BCE).
A survey and an excavation was conducted in 1993 by Eli Yanai of the Israel Antiquities Authority. It revealed the massive extent of the site during the Early Bronze Age, as well as settlement remains from the Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods, and sherds from the Byzantine and Ottoman periods.
En Esur was excavated by professional and volunteer archaeologists over two and a half years beginning in January 2017, with the research overseen by archaeologists Itai Elad and Yitzhak Paz.The work was organized in part by the Israel Antiquities Authority and financed by Netivei Israel, Israel's national transportation infrastructure company. During the process of excavation, archaeologists found a temple within the city that was built approximately 2,000 years before the rest of the site.
In an announcement of their discovery, researchers called En Esur "cosmopolitan" and the "New York City of the early Bronze Age".
The site of En Esur is made of three elements: Tel Esur, which is a mound of accumulated human settlement layers, a smaller mound south of the tel, and an open field the surrounds the mounds, where during the Early Bronze Age, a massive city lied. The site is supported by two water abundant water springs. The first gives the site its name, En Esur, which is also called En Arubot. The other is unnamed.The springs receive their water an outlet of the 'Iron stream (Wadi Ara) which flows from the modern city of Umm al-Fahm into the Hadera Stream and from there to the Mediterranean Sea.
En Esur occupied a space of around 0.65 square kilometers (160 acres) and may have had 5,000 to 6,000 inhabitants.This would have made the settlement much larger than Tel Megiddo in Israel and Jericho in the West Bank, and therefore the largest settlement in the Southern Levant during this period, but smaller than more distant cities in Egypt and Mesopotamia. Archaeologist Itai Elad stated that En Esur is double the size of other large settlements known in the area.
The settlement is believed to have existed at the crossroads of two important trading routes. 2 metres (6.6 feet) high. Its discoverers have called the city a "megalopolis".Archaeologists excavating the site believe that the city was planned, and included not only streets, alleys and squares, but also facilities for storage and drainage, and a cemetery. En Esur was surrounded by fortified walls that were
The site includes about four million artefacts overall, with millions of potsherds and flint tools, and some basalt stone vessels.The inhabitants of En Esur are thought to have been an agricultural people. They would have traded with other regions and kingdoms. Sealed imprints on tools demonstrate that these were brought to the city from Egypt.
The temple found within the city is estimated to be 7,000 years old, dating from the Chalcolithic period.The temple, which is located in a public area of the city, includes a courtyard with a huge stone basin for rituals, and figurines including a human head and a person next to an animal. Burned animal bones were found inside the temple, providing evidence of possible ritual sacrifices.
Researchers excavating the site have said that it demonstrates early processes of urbanization within Canaanite civilization, [ when? ] abandoned.and that the city would have probably possessed a substantial "administrative mechanism." Haaretz described the site as "vastly bigger than anything thought possible in the Southern Levant 5,000 years ago." The settlement was later
Potsherds and stone tools found in the lowest levels excavated in the area south of Tel Esur (Area A) show that the site was occupied during the Pottery Neolithic period.Little is known about this phase; no traces of structures were found, and only a few artefacts. Both the pottery and the stone tools resemble those of the Jericho IX culture.
According to Haaretz, En Esur is currently slated to be paved over by a planned road junction,while the Agence France-Presse has reported that the road plans have been modified in order to protect the archaeological site.
Afula is a city in the Northern District of Israel, often known as the "Capital of the Valley" due to its strategic location in the Jezreel Valley. In 2018, the city had a population of 51,737.
Kiryat Ata is a city in the Haifa District of Israel. Also still known by its former name of Kfar Ata, in 2018 it had a population of 58,267.
Tel Megiddo is the site of the ancient city of Megiddo whose remains form a tell, situated in northern Israel near Kibbutz Megiddo, about 30 km south-east of Haifa. Megiddo is known for its historical, geographical, and theological importance, especially under its Greek name Armageddon. During the Bronze Age, Megiddo was an important Canaanite city-state and during the Iron Age, a royal city in the Kingdom of Israel. Megiddo drew much of its importance from its strategic location at the northern end of the Wadi Ara defile, which acts as a pass through the Carmel Ridge, and from its position overlooking the rich Jezreel Valley from the west. Excavations have unearthed 26 layers of ruins since the Chalcolithic phase, indicating a long period of settlement. The site is now protected as Megiddo National Park and is a World Heritage Site.
Rehov, meaning "broad", "wide place", was an important Bronze and Iron Age city located at Tel Rehov or تل الصارم Tell es-Sarem, an archaeological site in the Bet She'an Valley, a segment of the Jordan Valley, Israel, approximately 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) south of Beit She'an and 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) west of the Jordan River.
Israel Finkelstein is an Israeli archaeologist, professor emeritus at Tel Aviv University. Finkelstein is active in the archaeology of the Levant and an applicant of archaeological data in reconstructing biblical history. He is also known for applying the exact and life sciences in archaeological and historical reconstruction. Finkelstein is the current excavator of Megiddo, a site for the study of the Bronze and Iron Ages in the Levant.
Farwana, was a Palestinian village, located 4.5 kilometers (2.8 mi) south of Bisan, depopulated in 1948.
Eshtaol was a biblical location mentioned in the books of Joshua and Judges and in the first book of Chronicles, and is now a moshav in central Israel. Located 6 km north of Beit Shemesh, it falls under the jurisdiction of Mateh Yehuda Regional Council. In 2018 it had a population of 1,252.
Abu Zurayq is an archaeological site located on the western edge of the Jezreel Valley and its transition to the Menashe Heights. It is located next to Highway 66, between the modern kibbutzim of HaZore'a and Mishmar HaEmek. The site includes tell called Tel Zariq or Tell Abu Zureiq, a spring called Ein Zariq and other sites around it. The site was surveyed by Avner Raban expedition as part of the survey of the Mishmar HaEmek area between 1974 and 1976. Based on the pottery collected by his team, the site was inhabited continuously from the Neolithic to the Ottoman periods. In the 20th century, it was a Palestinian Turkmen village in the Haifa Subdistrict of Mandatory Palestine, situated near Wadi Abu Zurayq. It was depopulated on April 12–13 during and after the Battle of Mishmar HaEmek of the 1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine.
The ancient Megiddo church near Tel Megiddo, Israel is an archaeological site which preserves the foundations of one of the oldest church buildings ever discovered by archaeologists, dating to the 3rd century AD.
Jatt is an Arab local council in the Triangle area of Haifa District in Israel. In 2018 it had a population of 11,798.
Tel Yokneam, also spelled Yoqne'am or Jokneam, is an archaeological site located between the modern city of Yokneam Illit and the town of Yokneam Moshava. It was known in Arabic by a variant name, Tell Qamun, believed to be a corruption of the Hebrew name. The site is an elevated mound, or tel, spanning around 40 dunams and rising steeply to a height of 60 meters (200 ft). With a few brief interruptions, Yokneam was occupied for 4,000 years, from the Middle Bronze Age to the Ottoman Empire.
Tell Keisan, تل كيسون or Tel Kisson, תל כיסון, is an archaeological site located 8 km from the Mediterranean coast in the Galilee region of Israel between Haifa and Akko. The tell is approximately 15 acres in size and is composed of the accumulated ruins of many large cities dating back to the Chalcolithic period.
Tel Qashish, also spelled Tel Kashish or Tell el-Qassis in Arabic, is a tell, or archaeological mound, located in the northwestern section of the Jezreel Valley, on the north bank of the Kishon River. The ancient settlement at Tel Qashish is considered a daughter of the ancient city of Yokneam, some 2 kilometres south of Tel Qashish. Yohanan Aharoni Identified the site with "Helkath" from the list of 119 cities conquered by Pharaoh Thutmose III. According to other studies, the site should be identified with "Dabeshet" from the Book of Joshua. Next to the mound is a spring called Ein Qashish, with remains of prehistorical human activity from the Middle Palaeolithic.
Tell Qudadi, also known as Tell esh-Shuna is an ancient site located near the mouth of the Yarkon River and the Reading Power Station in the city of Tel Aviv, Israel. It was discovered in 1934 by Jacob Ory and was excavated first by P. L. O. Guy in 1937 and then by Eleazar Sukenik, Shmuel Yeivin and Nahman Avigad in 1937-1938. They discovered a fortress dated to the Iron Age. They believed it was an Israelite fortress built in the 10th or 9th centuries BCE and destroyed by the Neo-Assyrian Empire in the 8th century BCE. However, archaeologists Oren Tal and Alexander Fantalkin have reviewed the preliminary reports of the excavation, as well as its finds and concluded that the site was actually constructed in the 8th century during the time of the Assyrian rule and was abandoned ahead of the empire's withdrawal of the country during the late 7th century BCE.
Tel Zeton (Hebrew: תל זיתון, also known as Tell Abu Zeitun, is an archaeological site in the Pardes Katz neighborhood of Bnei Brak, Israel. It lies 800 m south of the Yarkon River. The mound rises to a height of 9 m above its surroundings and spans an area of 2–3 dunams. The site was inhabited in the Middle Bronze Age and later in the Iron and Persian periods. Jacob Kaplan identified the fortified settlement from the Persian period as a Jewish settlement from the time of the Return to Zion in the 5th century BCE, thanks to an ostracon bearing a Hebrew name which appears in the Hebrew Bible from the time of Nehemiah, a Jewish governor appointed by the Achaemenid Empire to govern the autonomous Jewish province. The site was inhabited as late as the 10th century CE, during the Roman, Byzantine, Early Arab, and Mamluk periods.
Tel Hashash or Tell el-Hashash is an archaeological site in the heart of the Bavli neighborhood of Tel Aviv. It is one of the ancient sites along the Yarkon River, located 800 meters south of the river, overlooking Tell Qasile on the northern bank of the river. The site was excavated in the 1960s by Jacob Kaplan on behalf of the Old Jaffa Museum of Antiquities, and in the 1980s by Haya Ritter Kaplan of the Israel Antiquities Authority. The excavations exposed remains of the first century CE and the late Byzantine period.
The Lodian culture or Jericho IX culture is a Pottery Neolithic archaeological culture of the Southern Levant dating from the first half of the 5th millennium BC, existing alongside the Yarmukian and Nizzanim cultures. The Lodian culture appears mainly in areas south of the territory of the Yarmukian culture, in the Shfela and the beginning of the Israeli coastal plain, the Judaean Mountains and in the desert regions around the Dead Sea and south of it.
Abattoir Hill, pronounced in Hebrew as Giv'at Bet Hamitbahayim, is an archaeological site in Tel Aviv, Israel, located near the southern bank of the Yarkon River. The site is a natural hill made of Kurkar, a local type of sandstone. In 1930 ancient burials and tools were discovered upon the construction of an abattoir on top of the hill, hence its name. Between 1950 and 1953, Israeli archaeologist Jacob Kaplan studied the site, ahead of the construction of new residential units and streets on it. He discovered the remains of burials and small settlements spanning from the Chalcolithic period to the Persian period. In 1965 and 1970 Kaplan conducted two more excavations next to the slaughterhouse and discovered settlement remains from the Bronze Age and the Persian period. In February 1992 a salvage excavation was conducted by Yossi Levy after antiquities were damaged by development works. Two burial tombs dated between the Persian period and the Early Arab period were discovered. In June 1998 another salvage excavation was conducted by Kamil Sari after ancient remains were damaged by work of the Electric Corporation. Two kilns were unearthed, similar to two found by Kaplan.
Tel Shor, or Tell Thorah is an archaeological site in the center of the western Jezreel Valley. It contains a small settlement mound (tell) with an area of 3 dunams. It rises to a hegiht of 5–6 metres (16–20 ft) above the alluvial plain. It is situated 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) north of Kishon River. South and west of the mound are springs the form a marsh. The site was surveyed in the past and building stones were found scattered on the mound. Based on the pottery found it was settled as early as the Early Bronze Age and human presence is noted in every period until modern times. A mausoleum from Roman times with a stone sarcophagus was damaged during drainage work in the 1960s along with the mound's western edges. An excavation took place around the site in 2007 and discovered several burials, mostly from the Persian period, as well as one burial dated to either the Late Bronze Age or Iron Age and another one from the Roman period in addition to the mausoleum.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tel EsurKat2 .|