|Alternative name||Ein Asawir|
|Location||Menashe, Haifa, Israel|
|Region||Canaan, Southern Levant|
|Area||50 ha (120 acres)|
|Founded||temple c. 5000 BCE; most of city c. 3000 BCE|
|Abandoned||Early Bronze Age I|
|Periods||Pottery Neolithic–Early Bronze Age I|
|Associated with||6,000 occupants|
En Esur (Hebrew : עין אֵסוּר; [ ʕ e n ʔ s u ʁ ] eh-N eh-s-oor) or Ein Asawir (Arabic : عين الأساور, lit. 'Spring of the Braceletes') is an ancient site located in the northern Sharon Plain in the Israeli Coastal Plain. The site includes an archaeological mound (tell), called Tel Esur or Tell el-Asawir, another unnamed mound, and two springs, one of which gives the site its name. During the Early Bronze Age, around 3000 BCE, a massive fortified proto-city with an estimated population of 5,000 to 6,000 inhabitants existed there. It was the largest city in the region, larger than other significant sites such as Tel Megiddo and Tel Jericho, but smaller than other distant sites. The city was discovered in 1977 during a salvage excavation in the site of a future water reservoir, but its massive extent was realized only during excavations in 1993. A major excavation was conducted between 2017 and 2019 ahead of the construction of a new highway interchange for the new town of Harish exposed the city's houses, streets and public structures, as well as countless pottery, tools and artifacts. An even earlier settlement with a 7,000 year-old temple was discovered below the ruins of the Bronze Age city.
Hebrew is a Northwest Semitic language native to Israel, the modern version of which is spoken by over nine million people worldwide. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name "Hebrew" in the Tanakh itself. The earliest examples of written Paleo-Hebrew date from the 10th century BCE. Hebrew belongs to the West Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family. Hebrew is the only Canaanite language still spoken, and the only truly successful example of a revived dead language.
Literal translation, direct translation, or word-for-word translation is a translation of a text done by translating each word separately, without looking at how the words are used together in a phrase or sentence.
Archaeologists Itai Elad and Yitzhak Paz announced the discovery of the city in 2019, calling it the "New York City of the early Bronze Age".
The City of New York, usually called either New York City (NYC) or simply New York (NY), is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2018 population of 8,398,748 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles (784 km2), New York is also the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 19,979,477 people in its 2018 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 22,679,948 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural, financial, and media capital of the world, and exerts a significant impact upon commerce, entertainment, research, technology, education, politics, tourism, art, fashion, and sports. The city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Tel Esur was known locally as a Tell el-Asawir. It appears in a map drawn by French geographer Pierre Jacotin from 1799.American archaeologist and biblical scholar William F. Albright visited the site during his 1923 trip to Mandatory Palestine. He recalled the opinion of German scholar Albrecht Alt that Tel Esur is the site of an ancient city called "Yaham", mentioned in the sources of the 15th century BCE Egyptian pharaoh Thutmose III, who campaigned against a coalition of Canaanite city-states, led by the king of Megiddo, located just north of the Menashe Heights. According to the Egyptian account, Thutmose III camped in Yaham before he marched on Megiddo to fight the Battle of Megiddo. Albright stated that the location of the site corresponds with the geographic descriptions of the Egyptian sources, and his discovery of Bronze Age pottery while surveying the mound further confirmed this identification in his opinion. Today however, Yaham is identified with a site located in Kafr Yama in Zemer, some 10 kilometers south of Tel Esur.
Pierre Jacotin (1765–1827) was named director of all the surveyors and geographers working in the Nile Valley in 1799 during the campaign in Egypt of Napoleon. Later on, he also prepared maps of Palestine during Napoleon's campaign there.
William Foxwell Albright was an American archaeologist, biblical scholar, philologist, and expert on ceramics.
Mandatory Palestine was a geopolitical entity established between 1920 and 1923 in the region of Palestine under the terms of the "Mandate for Palestine".
The discovery of the larger site around Tel Esur and its springs occured in 1977, when during the digging of a water reservoir south of the mound. A salvage excavation was conducted by archaeologists Azriel Zigelman and Ram Gofna of the Tel Aviv University. They discovered two settlement layers, one from the Chalcolithic period (the last period of the Stone Age) and the Early Bronze Age. The former included the foundations of structures made of rough stones and some installations. These are dated to the early Chalcolithic (c. 6000 years ago). The latter included the foundations of massive structures made of large stones. The widest wall measured 1.7 meters wide. The pottery there is dated to the Early Bronze Age I period (3300–3000 BCE).
Tel Aviv University (TAU) is a public research university in Tel Aviv, Israel. With over 30,000 students, it is the largest university in the country. Located in northwest Tel Aviv, the university is the center of teaching and research of the city, comprising 9 faculties, 17 teaching hospitals, 18 performing arts centers, 27 schools, 106 departments, 340 research centers, and 400 laboratories.
The Chalcolithic, a name derived from the Greek: χαλκός khalkós, "copper" and from λίθος líthos, "stone" or Copper Age, also known as the Eneolithic or Aeneolithic is an archaeological period which researchers usually regard as part of the broader Neolithic. In the context of Eastern Europe, archaeologists often prefer the term "Eneolithic" to "Chalcolithic" or other alternatives.
The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric period during which stone was widely used to make implements with an edge, a point, or a percussion surface. The period lasted roughly 3.4 million years and ended between 8700 BCE and 2000 BCE with the advent of metalworking.
A survey and an excavation was conducted in 1993 by Eli Yanai of the Israel Antiquities Authority. It revealed the massive extent of the site during the Early Bronze Age, as well as settlement remains from the Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods, and sherds from the Byzantine and Ottoman periods.
En Esur was excavated by professional and volunteer archaeologists over two and a half years beginning in January 2017, with the research overseen by archaeologists Itai Elad and Yitzhak Paz.The work was organized in part by the Israel Antiquities Authority and financed by Netivei Israel, Israel's national transportation infrastructure company. During the process of excavation, archaeologists found a temple within the city that was built approximately 2,000 years before the rest of the site.
The Israel Antiquities Authority is an independent Israeli governmental authority responsible for enforcing the 1978 Law of Antiquities. The IAA regulates excavation and conservation, and promotes research. The director-general is Shuka Dorfmann and its offices are housed in the Rockefeller Museum.
In an announcement of their discovery, researchers called En Esur "cosmopolitan" and the "New York City of the early Bronze Age".
The site of En Esur is made of three elements: Tel Esur, which is a mound of accumulated human settlement layers, a smaller mound south of the tel, and an open field the surrounds the mounds, where during the Early Bronze Age, a massive city lied. The site is supporterd by two water abundant water springs. The first gives the site its name, En Esur, which is also called En Arubot. The other is unnamed.The springs receive their water an outlet of the 'Iron stream (Wadi Ara) which flows from the modern city of Umm al-Fahm into the Hadera Stream and from there to the Mediterranean Sea.
En Esur occupied a space of around 0.65 square kilometers (160 acres) and may have had 5,000 to 6,000 inhabitants.This would have made the settlement much larger than Tel Megiddo in Israel and Jericho in the West Bank, and therefore the largest settlement in the Southern Levant during this period, but smaller than more distant cities in Egypt and Mesopotamia. Archaeologist Itai Elad stated that En Esur is double the size of other large settlements known in the area.
The settlement is believed to have existed at the crossroads of two important trading routes. 2 metres (6.6 feet) high. Its discoverers have called the city a "megalopolis".Archaeologists excavating the site believe that the city was planned, and included not only streets, alleys and squares, but also facilities for storage and drainage, and a cemetery. En Esur was surrounded by fortified walls that were
The site includes about four million artefacts overall, with millions of potsherds and flint tools, and some basalt stone vessels.The inhabitants of En Esur are thought to have been an agricultural people. They would have traded with other regions and kingdoms. Sealed imprints on tools demonstrate that these were brought to the city from Egypt.
The temple found within the city is estimated to be 7,000 years old, dating from the Chalcolithic period.The temple, which is located in a public area of the city, includes a courtyard with a huge stone basin for rituals, and figurines including a human head and a person next to an animal. Burned animal bones were found inside the temple, providing evidence of possible ritual sacrifices.
Researchers excavating the site have said that it demonstrates early processes of urbanization within Canaanite civilization, [ when? ] abandoned.and that the city would have probably possessed a substantial "administrative mechanism." Haaretz described the site as "vastly bigger than anything thought possible in the Southern Levant 5,000 years ago." The settlement was later
According to Haaretz, En Esur is currently slated to be paved over by a planned road junction,while the Agence France-Presse has reported that the road plans have been modified in order to protect the archaeological site.
The Sharon plain is the central section of the Coastal Plain of Israel.
Afula is a city in the Northern District of Israel, often known as the "Capital of the Valley" due to its strategic location in the Jezreel Valley. In 2018, the city had a population of 51,737.
Kiryat Ata is a city in the Haifa District of Israel. Also still known by its former name of Kfar Ata, in 2018 it had a population of 58,267.
Tel Megiddo is the site of the ancient city of Megiddo whose remains form a tell, situated in northern Israel near Kibbutz Megiddo, about 30 km south-east of Haifa. Megiddo is known for its historical, geographical, and theological importance, especially under its Greek name Armageddon. During the Bronze Age, Megiddo was an important Canaanite city-state and during the Iron Age, a royal city in the Kingdom of Israel. Megiddo drew much of its importance from its strategic location at the northern end of the Wadi Ara defile, which acts as a pass through the Carmel Ridge, and from its position overlooking the rich Jezreel Valley from the west. Excavations have unearthed 26 layers of ruins, indicating a long period of settlement.
Rehov, meaning "broad", "wide place", was an important Bronze and Iron Age city located at Tel Rehov or Tell es-Sarem, an archaeological site in the Bet She'an Valley, a segment of the Jordan Valley, Israel, approximately 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) south of Beit She'an and 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) west of the Jordan River.
Israel Finkelstein is an Israeli archaeologist. He is the Jacob M. Alkow Professor of the Archaeology of Israel in the Bronze and Iron Ages at Tel Aviv University. Finkelstein is active in the archaeology of the Levant and an applicant of archaeological data in reconstructing biblical history. He is also known for applying the exact and life sciences in archaeological and historical reconstruction. Finkelstein is the current excavator of Megiddo, a site for the study of the Bronze and Iron Ages in the Levant.
Tell Qasile is an archaeological site in Tel Aviv, Israel. Over 3,000 years old, the site contains the remains of a port city founded by the Philistines in the 12th century BC. It is located near the Yarkon River, on the grounds of the Eretz Israel Museum.
Tel Hazor, also Hatzor and Tell el-Qedah, is an archaeological tell at the site of ancient Hazor, located in Israel, Upper Galilee, north of the Sea of Galilee, in the northern Korazim Plateau. In the Middle Bronze Age and the Israelite period, Hazor was the largest fortified city in the country and one of the most important in the Fertile Crescent. It maintained commercial ties with Babylon and Syria, and imported large quantities of tin for the bronze industry. In the Book of Joshua, Hazor is described as “the head of all those kingdoms”.
Tel Afek,, also spelled Aphek and Afeq, is an archaeological site located in the coastal hinterland of the Ein Afek Nature Reserve, east of Kiryat Bialik, Israel. It is also known as Tel Kurdani.
David Ussishkin is an Israeli archaeologist and professor emeritus of archaeology.
Legio was a Roman military camp south of Tel Megiddo in the Roman province of Galilee.
Farwana, was a Palestinian village, located 4.5 kilometers (2.8 mi) south of Bisan, depopulated in 1948.
Eshtaol was a biblical location mentioned in the books of Joshua and Judges and in the first book of Chronicles, and is now a moshav in central Israel. Located 6 km north of Beit Shemesh, it falls under the jurisdiction of Mateh Yehuda Regional Council. In 2018 it had a population of 1,252.
The ancient Megiddo church near Tel Megiddo, Israel is an archaeological site which preserves the foundations of one of the oldest church buildings ever discovered by archaeologists, dating to the 3rd century AD.
Jatt is an Arab local council in the Triangle area of Haifa District in Israel. In 2018 it had a population of 11,798.
Tel Yokneam, also spelled Yoqne'am or Jokneam is an archaeological site located between the modern city of Yokneam Illit and the town of Yokneam Moshava. In Arabic the place was known as a variation of the name Tell Qamun, which is believed to be a corruption of the Hebrew name. The site is an elevated mound spanning around 40 dunams, rising steeply to a height of 60 metres (200 ft). With a few short breaks, Yokneam was settled for 4,000 years, from the Middle Bronze Age, to the times of the Ottoman Empire.
Tell Keisan, تل كيسون or Tel Kisson, תל כיסון, is an archaeological site located 8 km from the Mediterranean coast in the Galilee region of Israel between Haifa and Akko. The tell is approximately 15 acres in size and is composed of the accumulated ruins of many large cities dating back to the Chalcolithic period.
Tel Qashish or Tel Kashish is an elevated mound located in the northwestern section of the Jezreel Valley. The mound is situated on the right bank of the Kishon River. The ancient settlement at Tel Qashish is considered a daughter of the city of Ancient Yokneam some 2 kilometers south. Yohanan Aharoni Identified the site with "Helkath" from the list of 119 cities conquered by Pharaoh Thutmose III. According to other studies, the site should be identified with "Dabeshet" from the Book of Joshua. Next to the mound is a spring called Ein Qashish, with remains of prehistorian human activity from the Middle Paleolithic period.
Tel Zeton (Hebrew: תל זיתון, also known as Tell Abu Zeitun, is an archaeological site located in the Pardes Katz neighborhood of Bnei Brak, Israel. It lies 800 meters north of the Yarkon River and forms one of the ancient settlements that existed along the river. It is a mound, rising to a height of 9 meters above its surroundings and spans an area of 2–3 dunams. Jacob Kaplan excavated the peak of the mound in 1957 and found two layers of settlement from the Persian period and a layer from the Iron Age II period. An excavation in 2005 on the southern part of the mound discovered three layers dated to the Middle Bronze Age II period.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tell Esur .|