Encirclement campaigns

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Encirclement campaigns were the campaigns launched by forces of the Chinese Nationalist Government against forces of the Communist Party of China during the early stage of the Chinese Civil War.

Communist Party of China Political party of the Peoples Republic of China

The Communist Party of China (CPC) is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China. The Communist Party is the sole governing party within mainland China, permitting only eight other, subordinated parties to co-exist, those making up the United Front. It was founded in 1921, chiefly by Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao. The party grew quickly, and by 1949 it had driven the nationalist Kuomintang (KMT) government from mainland China after the Chinese Civil War, leading to the establishment of the People's Republic of China. It also controls the world's largest armed forces, the People's Liberation Army.

Chinese Civil War Series of conflicts within China, 1927 – circa 1950

The Chinese Civil War was a civil war in China fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led government of the Republic of China (ROC) and the Communist Party of China (CPC) lasting intermittently between 1927 and 1949. Although particular attention is paid to the four years of fighting from 1945 to 1949, the war actually started in August 1927, after the KMT-CPC Alliance collapsed during the Northern Expedition. The conflict took place in two stages, the first between 1927 and 1937, and the second from 1946 to 1950; the Second Sino-Japanese War from 1937 to 1945 was an interlude in which the two sides were united against the forces of Japan. The Civil War resulted in a major revolution in China, with the Communists gaining control of mainland China and establishing the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1949, forcing the Republic of China to retreat to Taiwan. A lasting political and military standoff between the two sides of the Taiwan Strait ensued, with the ROC in Taiwan and the PRC in mainland China both officially claiming to be the legitimate government of all China.

Contents

Formulated by German advisors Hans von Seeckt and Alexander von Falkenhausen, the campaigns were launched between the late 1920s to the mid-1930s with the goal of isolating and destroying the developing Chinese Red Army. The Nationalist forces launched encirclement campaigns against Communist bases in several separate locations across China. [1]

Hans von Seeckt German general

Johannes "Hans" Friedrich Leopold von Seeckt was a German military officer who served as Chief of Staff to August von Mackensen and was a central figure in planning the victories Mackensen achieved for Germany in the east during the First World War.

Alexander von Falkenhausen German general

Alexander Ernst Alfred Hermann Freiherr von Falkenhausen was a German General and military advisor to Chiang Kai-shek. He was an important figure during the Sino-German cooperation to reform the Chinese Army. In 1938 Germany, under pressure from Japan, ended its support for China and Falkenhausen was forced to withdraw from China. Back in Europe, he later became the head of the military government of Belgium from 1940–44 during its German occupation.

Chinese Red Army Army of the Chinese Soviet Republic

The Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army or Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Revolutionary Army, renamed Chinese People's Red Army in 1936, commonly known as the Chinese Red Army or simply the Red Army, was the armed forces of the Communist Party of China from 1928 to 1937. The Red Army was incorporated into the National Revolutionary Army as part of the Second United Front with the Kuomintang to fight against the Japanese during the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937. In the later stages of the Chinese Civil War, they were renamed the People's Liberation Army.

Encirclement campaigns by location

Encirclement campaign against the Hunan-Western Hubei Soviet

The encirclement campaign against the Hunan-Western Hubei Soviet was an encirclement campaign launched by the Chinese Nationalist Government that was intended to destroy the communist Hunan-Western Hubei Soviet and its Chinese Red Army in the local region. The Communists' responded by launching the Counter-encirclement campaign at Hunan-Western Hubei Soviet, also called by the communists as the Counter-encirclement campaign at Hunan – western Hubei Revolutionary Base, in which the Nationalist force defeated the local Chinese Red Army and overran the communist base in the southern Hubei and Hunan provinces from November 1930 to January 1931. Since the bulk of the fighting was fought at the second stage of the campaign, concentrated at the heart of the communist base, the Honghu region of Jingzhou, the campaign is therefore also frequently referred as the Fourth encirclement campaign against Honghu Soviet and the Fourth Counter-encirclement campaign at Honghu Revolutionary Base by the communists, or Fourth Counter-encirclement campaign at Honghu Soviet for short.

First encirclement campaigns

First encirclement campaign against the Honghu Soviet

The first encirclement campaign against the Honghu Soviet was an encirclement campaign launched by the Chinese Nationalist Government that was intended to destroy the communist Honghu Soviet and its Chinese Red Army in the local region. It was responded by the Communists' first counter-encirclement campaign at Honghu Soviet, also called by the communists as the first counter-encirclement campaign at Honghu Revolutionary Base, in which the local Chinese Red Army successfully defended their soviet republic in the southern Hubei and northern Hunan provinces against the Nationalist attacks from early December 1930 to the end of January 1931.

Second encirclement campaigns

The second encirclement campaign against the Honghu Soviet was a series of battles launched by the Chinese Nationalist Government that was intended to destroy communist Honghu Soviet and its Chinese Red Army in the local region. It was responded by the Communists' second counter-encirclement campaign at Honghu Soviet, also called by the communists as the second counter-encirclement campaign at Honghu Revolutionary Base, in which the local Chinese Red Army successfully defended their soviet republic in the Honghu region against the Nationalist attacks from 1 March 1931, to early June, 1931.

Third encirclement campaigns

Third encirclement campaign against the Honghu Soviet

The third encirclement campaign against the Honghu Soviet was an encirclement campaign launched by the Chinese Nationalist Government that was intended to destroy the communist Honghu Soviet and its Chinese Red Army in the local region. It was responded by the Communists' third counter-encirclement campaign at Honghu Soviet, also called by the communists as the third counter-encirclement campaign at Honghu Revolutionary Base, in which the local Chinese Red Army successfully defended their soviet republic in the southern Hubei and northern Hunan provinces against the Nationalist attacks from early September 1931 to 30 May 1932.

Third encirclement campaign against the Jiangxi Soviet Military campaign during the Chinese Civil War

The third encirclement campaignagainst Jiangxi Soviet was the third campaign launched by the Chinese Nationalist Government in the hope of destroying the Red Army in Jiangxi. It was launched less than a month after the previous campaign failed. However, this encirclement was repelled by the Red Army's third counter-encirclement campaign at the Central Soviet, also called as the third counter-encirclement campaign at the Central Revolutionary Base.

Fourth encirclement campaigns

Fifth encirclement campaigns

Consequences

The first four Encirclement campaigns of the Chinese Nationalists military were unsuccessful. However, with the rise of Adolf Hitler in Germany in 1933, and the subsequent close cooperation between Nazi Germany and the Republic of China, the nationalists succeeded in the final 5th campaign which led directly to the famous Long March of the Communist Red Armies.

See also

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Encirclement campaign against the Hunan-Hubei-Sichuan-Guizhou Soviet

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  2. Mosla cavalerieiH.Lév.- Vietnam, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang
  3. Mosla chinensisMaxim. - Vietnam, Korea, Japan, Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shandong, Sichuan, Taiwan, Zhejiang
  4. Mosla coreanaH.Lév. - Korea
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  6. Mosla exfoliata(C.Y.Wu) C.Y.Wu & H.W.Li - Sichuan
  7. Mosla hangchouensisMatsuda - Zhejiang
  8. Mosla japonica(Benth. ex Oliv.) Maxim. - Japan, Korea, Ryukyu Islands
  9. Mosla longibracteata(C.Y.Wu & S.J.Hsuan) C.Y.Wu & H.W.Li - Guangxi, Zhejiang
  10. Mosla longispica(C.Y.Wu) C.Y.Wu & H.W.Li - Jiangxi
  11. Mosla pauciflora(C.Y.Wu) C.Y.Wu & H.W.Li - Guizhou, Hubei, Sichuan
  12. Mosla punctulataNakai - Korea, Taiwan, Japan, China
  13. Mosla scabra(Thunb.) C.Y.Wu & H.W.Li - Vietnam, Korea, Japan, Ryukyu Islands, Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Liaoning, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Zhejiang
  14. Mosla soochouensisMatsuda - Anhui, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Zhejiang
  15. Mosla tamdaoensisPhuong - Vietnam

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References

  1. Military History Research Department (2000). "Overview of Campaigns and Battles Fought by the People's Liberation Army (中国人民解放军战役战斗总览)". 中国人民解放军全史 [The Complete History of the People's Liberation Army]. Beijing: Military Science Publishing House. ISBN   7801373154.