The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition (1910–11) is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica . It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication. Some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, and many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia.However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic. Some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries.
The Encyclopædia Britannica, formerly published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia. It was written by about 100 full-time editors and more than 4,000 contributors. The 2010 version of the 15th edition, which spans 32 volumes and 32,640 pages, was the last printed edition.
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have expired, been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable.
Wikipedia is a multilingual online encyclopedia with exclusively free content and no ads, based on open collaboration through a model of content edit by web-based applications like web browsers, called wiki. It is the largest and most popular general reference work on the World Wide Web, and is one of the most popular websites by Alexa rank as of April 2019. It is owned and supported by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization that operates on money it receives from donors to remain ad free.
The 1911 eleventh edition was assembled with the management of American publisher Horace Everett Hooper. Hugh Chisholm, who had edited the previous edition, was appointed editor in chief, with Walter Alison Phillips as his principal assistant editor.
Horace Everett Hooper was the publisher of Encyclopædia Britannica from 1897 until his death.
Hugh Chisholm was a British journalist, and editor of the 10th, 11th and 12th editions of the Encyclopædia Britannica.
Walter Alison Phillips was an English historian, a specialist in the history of Europe in the 19th century. From 1914 to 1939 he was the first holder of the Lecky chair of History in Trinity College, Dublin. Most of his writing is in the name of W. Alison Phillips, and he was sometimes referred to as Alison Phillips.
Originally, Hooper bought the rights to the 25-volume 9th edition and persuaded the British newspaper The Times to issue its reprint, with eleven additional volumes (35 volumes total) as the tenth edition, which was published in 1902. Hooper's association with The Times ceased in 1909, and he negotiated with the Cambridge University Press to publish the 29-volume eleventh edition. Though it is generally perceived as a quintessentially British work, the eleventh edition had substantial American influences, not only in the increased amount of American and Canadian content, but also in the efforts made to make it more popular.[ citation needed ] American marketing methods also assisted sales. Some 14% of the contributors (214 of 1507) were from North America, and a New York office was established to coordinate their work.
The Times is a British daily national newspaper based in London. It began in 1785 under the title The Daily Universal Register, adopting its current name on 1 January 1788. The Times and its sister paper The Sunday Times are published by Times Newspapers, since 1981 a subsidiary of News UK, itself wholly owned by News Corp. The Times and The Sunday Times do not share editorial staff, were founded independently, and have only had common ownership since 1967.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by King Henry VIII in 1534, it is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world. It also holds letters patent as the Queen's Printer.
The initials of the encyclopedia's contributors appear at the end of selected articles or at the end of a section in the case of longer articles, such as that on China, and a key is given in each volume to these initials. Some articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time, such as Edmund Gosse, J. B. Bury, Algernon Charles Swinburne, John Muir, Peter Kropotkin, T. H. Huxley, James Hopwood Jeans and William Michael Rossetti. Among the then lesser-known contributors were some who would later become distinguished, such as Ernest Rutherford and Bertrand Russell. Many articles were carried over from the 9th edition, some with minimal updating. Some of the book-length articles were divided into smaller parts for easier reference, yet others much abridged. The best-known authors generally contributed only a single article or part of an article. Most of the work was done by journalists, British Museum scholars and other scholars. The 1911 edition was the first edition of the encyclopædia to include more than just a handful of female contributors, with 34 women contributing articles to the edition.
Sir Edmund William Gosse CB was an English poet, author and critic. He was strictly brought up in a small Protestant sect, the Plymouth Brethren, but broke away sharply from that faith. His account of his childhood in the book Father and Son has been described as the first psychological biography.
John Bagnell Bury, was an Irish historian, classical scholar, Medieval Roman historian and philologist. He objected to the label "Byzantinist" explicitly in the preface to the 1889 edition of his Later Roman Empire. He was Erasmus Smith's Professor of Modern History at Trinity College Dublin (1893–1902), before being Regius Professor of Modern History at the University of Cambridge from 1902 until his death.
Algernon Charles Swinburne was an English poet, playwright, novelist, and critic. He wrote several novels and collections of poetry such as Poems and Ballads, and contributed to the famous Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica.
The eleventh edition introduced a number of changes of the format of the Britannica. It was the first to be published complete, instead of the previous method of volumes being released as they were ready. The print type was kept in galley proofs and subject to continual updating until publication. It was the first edition of Britannica to be issued with a comprehensive index volume in which was added a categorical index, where like topics were listed. It was the first not to include long treatise-length articles. Even though the overall length of the work was about the same as that of its predecessor, the number of articles had increased from 17,000 to 40,000. It was also the first edition of Britannica to include biographies of living people. Sixteen maps of the famous 9th edition of Stielers Handatlas were exclusively translated to English, converted to Imperial units, printed in Gotha, Germany by Justus Perthes and became part this edition. Later editions only included Perthes' great maps as low quality reproductions.
Letterpress printing is a technique of relief printing using a printing press, a process by which many copies are produced by repeated direct impression of an inked, raised surface against sheets or a continuous roll of paper. A worker composes and locks movable type into the "bed" or "chase" of a press, inks it, and presses paper against it to transfer the ink from the type which creates an impression on the paper.
In printing and publishing, proofs are the preliminary versions of publications meant for review by authors, editors, and proofreaders, often with extra-wide margins. Galley proofs may be uncut and unbound, or in some cases electronically transmitted. They are created for proofreading and copyediting purposes, but may also be used for promotional and review purposes.
Stielers Handatlas, formally titled Hand-Atlas über alle Theile der Erde und über das Weltgebäude, was the leading German world atlas of the last three decades of the 19th and the first half of the 20th century. Published by Justus Perthes of Gotha it went through ten editions from 1816 to 1945. As with many 19th century publications, an edition was issued in parts; for example, the eighth edition was issued in 32 monthly parts.
According to Coleman and Simmons,the content of the encyclopedia was distributed as follows:
|Pure and applied science||17%|
Hooper sold the rights to Sears Roebuck of Chicago in 1920, completing the Britannica's transition to becoming a substantially American publication.In 1922, an additional three volumes (also edited by Hugh Chisholm), were published, covering the events of the intervening years, including World War I. These, together with a reprint of the eleventh edition, formed the twelfth edition of the work. A similar thirteenth edition, consisting of three volumes plus a reprint of the twelfth edition, was published in 1926, so the twelfth and thirteenth editions were closely related to the eleventh edition and shared much of the same content. However, it became increasingly apparent that a more thorough update of the work was required.
The fourteenth edition, published in 1929, was considerably revised, with much text eliminated or abridged to make room for new topics. Nevertheless, the eleventh edition was the basis of every later version of the Encyclopædia Britannica until the completely new fifteenth edition was published in 1974, using modern information presentation.
The eleventh edition's articles are still of value and interest to modern readers and scholars, especially as a cultural artifact: the British Empire was at its maximum, imperialism was largely unchallenged, much of the world was still ruled by monarchs, and the tragedy of the modern world wars was still in the future. They are an invaluable resource for topics omitted from modern encyclopedias, particularly for biography and the history of science and technology. As a literary text, the encyclopedia has value as an example of early 20th-century prose. For example, it employs literary devices, such as pathetic fallacy (attribution of human-like traits to impersonal forces or inanimate objects), which are not as common in modern reference texts.
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In 1917, using the pseudonym of S. S. Van Dine, the US art critic and author Willard Huntington Wright published Misinforming a Nation , a 200+ page criticism of inaccuracies and biases of the Encyclopædia Britannica eleventh edition. Wright claimed that Britannica was "characterized by misstatement, inexcusable omissions, rabid and patriotic prejudices, personal animosities, blatant errors of fact, scholastic ignorance, gross neglect of non-British culture, an astounding egotism, and an undisguised contempt for American progress".
Amos Urban Shirk, known for having read the eleventh and fourteenth editions in their entirety, said he found the fourteenth edition to be a "big improvement" over the eleventh, stating that "most of the material had been completely rewritten".
Robert Collison, in Encyclopaedias: Their History Throughout The Ages (1966), wrote of the eleventh edition that it "was probably the finest edition of the Britannica ever issued, and it ranks with the Enciclopedia Italiana and the Espasa as one of the three greatest encyclopaedias. It was the last edition to be produced almost in its entirety in Britain, and its position in time as a summary of the world's knowledge just before the outbreak of World War I is particularly valuable".
Sir Kenneth Clark, in Another Part of the Wood (1974), wrote of the eleventh edition, "One leaps from one subject to another, fascinated as much by the play of mind and the idiosyncrasies of their authors as by the facts and dates. It must be the last encyclopaedia in the tradition of Diderot which assumes that information can be made memorable only when it is slightly coloured by prejudice. When T. S. Eliot wrote 'Soul curled up on the window seat reading the Encyclopædia Britannica,' he was certainly thinking of the eleventh edition." (Clark refers to Eliot's 1929 poem "Animula".) It was one of Jorge Luis Borges's favorite works, and was a source of information and enjoyment for his entire working life.
In 1912, mathematician L. C. Karpinski criticised the eleventh edition for inaccuracies in articles on the history of mathematics, none of which had been written by specialists.
English writer and former priest Joseph McCabe claimed in Lies and Fallacies of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1947) that Britannica was censored under pressure from the Roman Catholic Church after the 11th edition.
Authorities ranging from Virginia Woolf to professors criticised the 11th edition for having bourgeois and old-fashioned opinions on art, literature, and social sciences. ... are not adapted to the requirements of the intelligent reader".A contemporary Cornell professor, Edward B. Titchener, wrote in 1912, "the new Britannica does not reproduce the psychological atmosphere of its day and generation... Despite the halo of authority, and despite the scrutiny of the staff, the great bulk of the secondary articles in general psychology
Critics have charged several editions with racism and sexism. ... which to-day constitute so threatening an obstacle to racial progress". The eleventh edition has no biography of Marie Curie, despite her winning of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1903 and the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1911, although she is mentioned briefly under the biography of her husband Pierre Curie. The Britannica employed a large female editorial staff that wrote hundreds of articles for which they were not given credit.The eleventh edition characterises the Ku Klux Klan as protecting the white race and restoring order to the American South after the American Civil War, citing the need to "control the negro", and "the frequent occurrence of the crime of rape by negro men upon white women". Similarly, the "Civilization" article argues for eugenics, stating that it is irrational to "propagate low orders of intelligence, to feed the ranks of paupers, defectives and criminals
The 1911 edition is no longer restricted by copyright, and it is therefore available in several more modern forms. While it may once have been a reliable description of the consensus of its time, many modern readers find fault with the Encyclopedia for several major errors, ethnocentric remarks, and other issues:
The eleventh edition of Encyclopædia Britannica has become a commonly quoted source, both because of the reputation of the Britannica and because it is now in the public domain and has been made available on the Internet. It has been used as a source by many modern projects, including Wikipedia and the Project Gutenberg Encyclopedia.
The Project Gutenberg Encyclopedia is the eleventh edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica, renamed to address Britannica's trademark concerns. Project Gutenberg's offerings are summarized below in the External links section and include text and graphics. As of 2018 [update] , Distributed Proofreaders are working on producing a complete electronic edition of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica.
Jacob Abbott was an American writer of children's books.
Wilhelm Siegmund Teuffel, German classical scholar, was born at Ludwigsburg in the Kingdom of Württemberg. In 1849 he was appointed extraordinary, in 1857 ordinary professor in the university of Tübingen, which post he held till his death.
Thomas Kelly Cheyne, was an English divine and Biblical critic.
Lewis Campbell was a Scottish classical scholar.
Sir Sidney Lee was an English biographer, writer and critic.
An online encyclopedia, also called a digital encyclopedia is an encyclopedia accessible through the internet, such as Wikipedia. The idea to build a free encyclopedia using the Internet can be traced at least to the 1994 Interpedia proposal; it was planned as an encyclopedia on the Internet to which everyone could contribute materials. The project never left the planning stage and was overtaken by a key branch of old printed encyclopedias.
André Dacier, Latin Andreas Dacerius, was a French classical scholar and editor of texts. He began his career with an edition and commentary of Festus' De verborum significatione, and was the first to produce a "readable" text of the 20-book work. His wife was the influential classical scholar and translator, Anne Dacier.
The Brockhaus Enzyklopädie is a German-language encyclopedia which until 2009 was published by the F. A. Brockhaus printing house.
Cyclopædia: or, An Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences was an encyclopedia published by Ephraim Chambers in London in 1728, and reprinted in numerous editions in the eighteenth century. The Cyclopaedia was one of the first general encyclopedias to be produced in English. The 1728 subtitle gives a summary of the aims of the author:
George Long was an English classical scholar.
Alexander Johnston was an American historian.
Catherine of Austria was Queen of Portugal as wife of King John III, and regent during the minority of her grandson, King Sebastian, from 1557 until 1562.
Sir Thomas Clifford Allbutt was an English physician best known for his role as commissioner for lunacy in England and Wales 1889-1892, president of the British Medical Association 1920, inventing the clinical thermometer, and supporting Sir William Osler in founding the History of Medicine Society.
Alexandros Rizos Rangavis or Alexander Rizos Rakgabis, was a Greek man of letters, poet and statesman.
The Conversations-Lexikon mit vorzüglicher Rücksicht auf die gegenwärtigen Zeiten, was a German language encyclopedia published in Leipzig, Germany between 1796 and 1808.
The Encyclopædia Britannica has been published continuously since 1768, appearing in fifteen official editions. Several editions have been amended with multi-volume "supplements", consisted of previous editions with added supplements or undergone drastic re-organizations (15th). In recent years, digital versions of the Britannica have been developed, both online and on optical media. Since the early 1930s, the Britannica has developed several "spin-off" products to leverage its reputation as a reliable reference work and educational tool.
Dennis de Coetlogon was a French doctor who moved to England around 1727. He is best known as the author of An Universal History of Arts and Sciences, the name for encyclopedias in Great Britain. Its plan was followed by Encyclopædia Britannica, keeping important subjects together, but on the other facilitating reference by numerous and short separate articles arranged in alphabetical order. Coetlogon's work "endeavours to render each treatise as complete as possible, avoiding above all things needless repetitions, and never puzzling the reader with the least reference."
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| Internet Archive – Text Archives |
|Volume 2||Andros, Sir Edmund||Austria|
|Volume 3||Austria, Lower||Bisectrix|
|Volume 5||Calhoun, John Caldwell||Chatelaine|
|Volume 7||Constantine Pavlovich||Demidov|
|Volume 8||Demijohn||Edward the Black Prince|
|Volume 9||Edwardes, Sir Herbert Benjamin||Evangelical Association|
|Volume 10||Evangelical Church Conference||Francis Joseph I|
|Volume 11||Franciscans||Gibson, William Hamilton|
|Volume 12||Gichtel, Johann Georg||Harmonium|
|Volume 16||L||Lord Advocate|
|Volume 17||Lord Chamberlain||Mecklenburg|
|Volume 19||Mun, Adrien Albert Marie de||Oddfellows, Order of|
|Volume 20||Ode||Payment of members|
|Volume 21||Payn, James||Polka|
|Volume 22||Poll||Reeves, John Sims|
|Volume 23||Refectory||Sainte-Beuve, Charles Augustin|
|Volume 24||Sainte-Claire Deville, Étienne Henri||Shuttle|
|Volume 25||Shuválov, Peter Andreivich||Subliminal self|
|Volume 26||Submarine mines||Tom-Tom|
|Volume 28||Vetch||Zymotic diseases|
|Volume 29||Index||List of contributors|
|Volume 1 of 1922 supp||Abbe||English History|
|Volume 2 of 1922 supp||English Literature||Oyama, Iwao|
|Volume 3 of 1922 supp||Pacific Ocean Islands||Zuloaga|
|Reader's Guide – 1913|
|Project Gutenberg Encyclopedia|
As of 16 December 2014 [update]
|Volume 2.1:||Andros, Sir Edmund||–||Anise|
|Volume 2.4:||Aram, Eugene||–||Arcueil|
|Volume 2.5:||Arculf||–||Armour, Philip|
|Volume 2.6:||Armour Plates||–||Arundel, Earls of|
|Volume 2.7:||Arundel, Thomas||–||Athens|
|Volume 3.1:||Austria, Lower||–||Bacon|
|Volume 3.5:||Bedlam||–||Benson, George|
|Volume 3.6:||Bent, James||–||Bibirine|
|Volume 4.2:||Bohemia||–||Borgia, Francis|
|Volume 4.3:||Borgia, Lucrezia||–||Bradford, John|
|Volume 4.4:||Bradford, William||–||Brequigny, Louis|
|Volume 5.2:||Camorra||–||Cape Colony|
|Volume 5.4:||Carnegie, Andrew||–||Casus Belli|
|Volume 5.6:||Celtes, Konrad||–||Ceramics|
|Volume 5.7:||Cerargyrite||–||Charing Cross|
|Volume 6.2:||Chicago, University of||–||Chiton|
|Volume 6.6:||Cockaigne||–||Columbus, Christopher|
|Volume 6.8:||Conduction, Electric||–|
|Volume 7.2:||Constantine Pavlovich||–||Convention|
|Volume 7.8:||Cube||–||Daguerre, Louis|
|Volume 7.10:||David, St||–||Demidov|
|Volume 9.4:||England||–||English Finance|
|Volume 9.5:||English History||–|
|Volume 9.6:||English Language||–||Epsom Salts|
|Volume 9.8:||Ethiopia||–||Evangelical Association|
|Volume 10.1:||Evangelical Church Conference||–||Fairbairn, Sir William|
|Volume 10.2:||Fairbanks, Erastus||–||Fens|
|Volume 10.3:||Fenton, Edward||–||Finistère|
|Volume 10.4:||Finland||–||Fleury, Andre|
|Volume 10.5:||Fleury, Claude||–||Foraker, Joseph Henson|
|Volume 10.6:||Foraminifera||–||Fox, Edward|
|Volume 10.7:||Fox, George||–||France[p.775-p.894]|
|Volume 10.8:||France[p.895-p.929]||–||Francis Joseph I.|
|Volume 11.1:||Franciscians||–||French Language|
|Volume 11.2:||French Literature||–||Frost, William|
|Volume 11.4:||G||–||Gaskell, Elizabeth|
|Volume 11.5:||Gassendi, Pierre||–||Geocentric|
|Volume 11.8:||Germany[p.841-p.901]||–||Gibson, William|
|Volume 12.1:||Gichtel, Johann||–||Glory|
|Volume 12.2:||Gloss||–||Gordon, Charles George|
|Volume 12.3:||Gordon, Lord George||–||Grasses|
|Volume 12.4:||Grasshopper||–||Greek Language|
|Volume 12.5:||Greek Law||–||Ground-Squirrel|
|Volume 12.6:||Groups, Theory of||–||Gwyniad|
|Volume 12.8:||Haller, Albrecht||–||Harmonium|
|Volume 13.3:||Helmont, Jean||–||Hernosand|
|Volume 13.4:||Hero||–||Hindu Chronology|
|Volume 13.5:||Hinduism||–||Home, Earls of|
|Volume 13.6:||Home, Daniel||–||Hortensius, Quintus|
|Volume 13.7:||Horticulture||–||Hudson Bay|
|Volume 13.8:||Hudson River||–||Hurstmonceaux|
|Volume 14.4:||Independence, Declaration of||–||Indo-European Languages|
|Volume 14.6:||Inscriptions||–||Ireland, William Henry|
|Volume 14.7:||Ireland||–||Isabey, Jean Baptiste|
|Volume 14.8:||Isabnormal Lines||–||Italic|
|Volume 15.1:||Italy||–||Jacobite Church|
|Volume 15.2:||Jacobites||–||Japan (part)|
|Volume 15.3:||Japan (part)||–||Jeveros|
|Volume 15.4:||Jevons, Stanley||–||Joint|
|Volume 15.5:||Joints||–||Justinian I.|
|Volume 15.6:||Justinian II.||–||Kells|
|Volume 15.7:||Kelly, Edward||–||Kite|
|Volume 16.2:||Lamennais, Robert de||–||Latini, Brunetto|
|Volume 16.3:||Latin Language||–||Lefebvre, Pierre François Joseph|
|Volume 16.4:||Lefebvre, Tanneguy||–||Letronne, Jean Antoine|
|Volume 16.5:||Letter||–||Lightfoot, John|
|Volume 16.6:||Lightfoot, Joseph Barber||–||Liquidation|
|Volume 16.7:||Liquid Gases||–||Logar|
|Volume 16.8:||Logarithm||–||Lord Advocate|
|Volume 17.1:||Lord Chamberlain||–||Luqmān|
|Volume 17.2:||Luray Cavern||–||Mackinac Island|
|Volume 17.3:||McKinley, William||–||Magnetism, Terrestrial|
|Volume 17.5:||Malta||–||Map, Walter|
The preceding links adopt the spellings used in the target.