Enemies (Russian : Враги, romanized: Vragi) is a 1906 Russian-language play by Maxim Gorky. It was published in 1906 in the collection Znaniye (Knowledge, book 14), in Saint Petersburg, at a time when Gorky was actively involved with the Russian revolutionary underground, which served as the impetus for the play. It is a recognized as an early work of socialist realism.
The action takes place in 1905 at the factory of the landowners Bardiny and Skrobotov. Skrobotov is dissatisfied with the liberal policy of his partner Bardiny and complains that the workers are given too much voice – "They don't dare squeak at me!" says Skrobotov, sincerely believing that the working class should not be allowed entertainment, education, or voting rights.
The factory has a social democratic worker's organization, and its activists demand the removal of a cruel manager, Dichkov. Skrobotov categorically refuses, believing that even if Dichkov deserves removal in this case, doing so in response to worker demands would be a fatal step.
Discussions between the workers lead nowhere, the situation spirals out of control, Skrobotov summons the militia, and blood is shed. One of the enraged workers mortally wounds Skrobotov, who before he dies identifies the worker as a communist. A murder investigation ensues, the militia arresting masses of workers. But the workers do not break, and display iron calm, coolness and courage.
A worker, Akimov, comes to Bardiny and confesses to the murder. But other workers come, and stand behind Akimov. Skrobotov's widow Cleopatra advises Akimov to flee into exile, to which Akimov responds:
We will not be thrown out, no! We will do the throwing! We have lived in the dark of lawlessness long enough! Now we ourselves are aflame with light – a light you cannot put out. No fear can extinguish us now.
Enemies was produced at the Moscow Art Theater beginning October 10, 1935, directed by Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko and Mikhail Nikolayevich Kedrov.
Ann Pennington directed a multi-national production of 'Enemies' in association with Internationalist Theatre , in London March 1985 One critic saw a parallel between the workers uprising in Enemies and the Miners Strike that had been running in the UK since 1984 " it is about the miners strike " UK miners' strike (1984–85). Gorky`s "pseudo-populism" is done away with in this production by the actors speaking "without distinctive accents and consequently without populist sentiment" .Designed by Paul Brown , the cast included Madlena Nedeva, Nick Ellsworth, Angelique Rockas and Marilyn Flynn
A production was mounted at the Omsk Academic Drama Theater, beginning May 20, 2014, directed by Georgy Zurabovich Tskhvirava.
Enemies was adapted into an English-language television film, broadcast under the auspices of Great Performances on January 23, 1974. Ellis Rabb wrote the adaption and shared directing credit with Kirk Browning, and also appeared as an actor, as did Frances Sternhagen, Peter Donat, Kate Reid, and Josef Sommer.
Alexei Maximovich Peshkov, primarily known as Maxim Gorky, was a Russian and Soviet writer, a founder of the socialist realism literary method, and a political activist. He was also a five-time nominee for the Nobel Prize in Literature. Prior to his renown as an author, he frequently changed jobs and roamed across the Russian Empire; these experiences would later influence his writing. Gorky's most famous works were The Lower Depths (1902), Twenty-six Men and a Girl (1899), The Song of the Stormy Petrel (1901), My Childhood (1913–1914), Mother (1906), Summerfolk (1904) and Children of the Sun (1905). He had associations with fellow Russian writers Leo Tolstoy and Anton Chekhov; Gorky would later mention them in his memoirs.
"The Song of the Stormy Petrel" is a short piece of revolutionary literature written by the Russian writer Maxim Gorky in 1901. The poem is written in a variation of unrhymed trochaic tetrameter with occasional Pyrrhic substitutions.
Gorky Central Park of Culture and Leisure is a central park in Moscow, named after Maxim Gorky. In August 2018, the Park's 90th anniversary was celebrated.
Gorky Film Studio is a film studio in Moscow, Russian Federation. By the end of the Soviet Union, Gorky Film Studio had produced more than 1,000 films. Many film classics were filmed at the Gorky Film Studio throughout its history and some of these were granted international awards at various film festivals.
Tatiana (Tatyana) Vasilyevna Doronina is a popular Soviet/Russian actress who has performed in movies and the theater. She is generally regarded as one of the most talented actresses of her generation and was named a People's Artist of the USSR in 1981.
The Maxim Gorky Literature Institute is an institution of higher education in Moscow. It is located at 25 Tverskoy Boulevard in central Moscow.
Oleg Nikolayevich Yefremov was a Soviet/Russian actor and Moscow Art Theatre producer. He was a People's Artist of the USSR (1976) and a Hero of Socialist Labour (1987).
Alexander Isaakovich Gelman, original given name Shunya, is a Bessarabian-born Soviet and Russian playwright, writer, and screenwriter.
Savva Timofeyevich Morozov was a Russian textile magnate and philanthropist. Established by Savva Vasilievich Morozov, the Morozov family was the fifth-richest in Russia at the beginning of the 20th century.
The year 1952 was marked by many events that left an imprint on the history of Soviet and Russian Fine Arts.
The year 1968 was marked by many events that left an imprint on the history of Soviet and Russian Fine Arts.
The year 1985 was marked by many events that left an imprint on the history of Soviet and Russian Fine Arts.
Lev Grigorevich Levin, real name Usher Gershevich Leib Levin ; 1870, Odessa — March 15, 1938, Moscow) was a physician, the doctor of medical sciences, professor, consultant medical and sanitary control of the Kremlin.
Mark Isaakovich Prudkin was a Soviet and Russian actor of theater and cinema. People's Artist of the USSR (1961). Hero of Socialist Labor (1989). Laureate of three Stalin Prizes.
Nikolai Grigoryevich Shklyar was a Russian, Soviet children's writer and playwright.
The Last Ones is a 1908 four-act drama by Maxim Gorky.
Palace of Culture named after Maxim Gorky is a building in Kalininsky City District of Novosibirsk, Russia. It was built in 1957. Architect: A. S. Mikhailov, V. S. Vnukov. The building is located on Bohdan Khmelnytsky Street.
"Old Izergil" is a 1895 short story by Maxim Gorky, written in the autumn of 1894 and first published by Samarskaya Gazeta, issues 80, 86 and 89, on 16, 23 and 27 April respectively.
Ada Artemyevna Chumachenko was a Russian Empire poet, playwright and writer.
Pavel Valeryevich Basinsky is a Russian writer, literary critic and literary critic. Member of the Union of Russian Writers (1993), academician of the Academy of Russian Literature (1997). Member of the permanent jury of the Solzhenitsyn Prize (1997). The author of the most complete uncensored biography of Maxim Gorky, published in 2005. Laureate of the State Prize of the Russian Federation (2018).