The Engelbrekt rebellion (Engelbrektsupproret) was an uprising during 1434–1436 led by Swedish miner and nobleman Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson and directed against Eric of Pomerania, the king of the Kalmar Union. The uprising, with its center in Dalarna and Bergslagen, spread throughout Svealand and Götaland. The rebellion caused erosion within the unity of the Kalmar Union, leading to the temporary expulsion of Danish forces from Sweden.
In 1434, Sweden was part of the Kalmar Union, a personal union that united Sweden with Denmark and Norway under a single monarch, Eric of Pomerania. The Swedes were not happy with the Danes' frequent warfare on Schleswig, Holstein, Mecklenburg, and Pomerania, which disturbed Swedish exports (notably iron) to the Continent. During the Danish-Holstein-Hanseatic war, while the exports were brought to a halt, the collection of taxes continued, enraging Swedish peasants. Furthermore, the centralization of government in Denmark raised suspicions. The Swedish Privy Council wanted to retain a fair degree of self-government.
Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson, with interests in the mining region of Bergslagen, stood out as the leader. In 1431 or 1432, Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson had been appointed spokesman for the people of Bergslagen to persuade King Erik to dismiss the local bailiff in Västerås, Jens Eriksen. Negotiations with Eric took place in Vadstena in August 1434, but were unsuccessful. In the summer of 1434, enraged miners and peasants burned Borganäs castle near Borlänge. The tension spread, causing several assaults on castles across the country.Jens Eriksen fled to Denmark and was replaced by the count Hans av Eberstein. However, Engelbrekt and his followers were not happy as their demand that Jens Eriksen should face legal prosecution where not followed up on. The ombudsman of King Erik had found Jens Eriksen's actions to be illegal prior to the uprisings, which were in large reactions to the failure of the government to take action against the bailiff.
In January 1435 Engelbrekt summoned representatives from the four Estates to a Diet in Arboga, which later has been called the first Riksdag of the Estates (although it is uncertain whether the peasants really participated). Engelbrekt was elected Captain (Rikshövitsman) of the Swedish realm. The antagonism abated when Eric promised changes for the better. However, as before, people felt these promises were not being fulfilled, hence the rebels picked up their axes once more. On April 27, 1436, a rebel army unit was sent marching towards Stockholm, where people still supported Eric due to the strong and influential Danish presence in the city.
A certain degree of inner tension among the rebelling forces occurred because the Nobility and Clergy decided to support Karl Knutsson Bonde, who in 1436 had risen to the position of Rikshövitsman. Neither dared remove Engelbrekt completely because of his strong support among the burghers and peasants. However, Engelbrekt fell sick and became less active. In a twist of fate highly beneficial to Knutsson, Engelbrekt was assassinated on May 4 by Måns Bengtsson (Natt och Dag), the cause being an unrelated personal conflict. Karl Knutsson Bonde gave Jens Eriksen a letter of safe passage (lejdebrev) and the bailiff returned to Sweden to visit Vadstena Abbey in December 1436. However, as word got out of his presence, the peasantry of the nearby village of Aska broke into the monastery and brought Jens Eriksen to a local court in Motala. The judge found Jens Eriksen guilty and he was beheaded by sword.
Consequently, Knutsson won the power struggle and would become King Charles VIII of Sweden in 1448. Riksråd Erik Puke attempted to rally Engelbrekt's old supporters in the Pukefejden , but it was too late. Erik Puke was apprehended and executed in Stockholm in 1437.
The Engelbrekt rebellion caused the unity of the Kalmar Union to erode, leading to the temporary expulsion of Danish forces from Sweden. Although later Danish kings regained influence over Sweden, the rebellion had set a precedent for Swedish claims to sovereignty. It also set a precedent for peasants to engage actively in Swedish politics. While it is uncertain whether all four Estates participated in the Diet ( Riksdag ) in Arboga, this was in fact the case in 1436, when a Diet was held in Uppsala following the death of Engelbrekt. Thus, the Engelbrekt rebellion marked the start of a democratic institution, which, to a certain extent, included the peasants.
Year 1436 (MCDXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.
The 1430s decade ran from January 1, 1430, to December 31, 1439.
Norberg Municipality is a municipality in Västmanland County in central Sweden. Its seat is located in the town of Norberg.
Eric of Pomerania KG was the ruler of the Kalmar Union from 1396 until 1439, succeeding his grandaunt, Queen Margaret I. He is numbered Eric III as King of Norway (1389–1442), Eric VII as King of Denmark (1396–1439) and Eric XIII as King of Sweden. Later, in all three countries he became more commonly known as Erik av Pommern, a pejorative intended to point out that he belonged elsewhere. Pomerania is a historic region on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea in Central Europe. Eric was ultimately deposed from all three kingdoms of the union, but in 1449 he inherited one of the partitions of the Duchy of Pomerania and ruled it as duke until his death.
Sten Sture the Elder was a Swedish statesman and regent of Sweden 1470–1497 and 1501–1503. As the leader of the victorious Swedish separatist forces against the royal unionist forces during the Battle of Brunkeberg in 1471, he weakened the Kalmar Union considerably and became the effective ruler of Sweden as Lord Regent for most of his remaining life.
Charles VIII, contemporaneously known as Charles II and called Charles I in Norwegian context, was king of Sweden and king of Norway (1449–1450).
Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson was a Swedish nobleman and nationalist rebel leader and statesman. He was the leader of the Engelbrekt rebellion in 1434 against Eric of Pomerania, king of the Kalmar Union. Engelbrekt Parish and Engelbrekt Church (Engelbrektskyrkan) in the Church of Sweden Diocese of Stockholm were both named in his honor.
Eric "X" was the King of Sweden between 1208 and 1216. Also known as Eric the Survivor, he was, at his accession to the throne, the only remaining son of King Canute I of Sweden and his queen. The name of his mother is not known, but may have been Cecilia.
Olaus Laurentii was a Swedish ecclesiastic and archbishop of Uppsala.
Hallvard Graatop was a Norwegian rebel leader who fought against Erik of Pomerania. The name "Graatop", meaning "Gray-top" is probably a nom de guerre, possibly referring to gray hair or a gray hood. Graatop's true identity is unknown. Popular stories in the Telemark area claim him to be "Lord" Hallvard Torbjørnsen of Roaldstad farm, grandfather of Aslaug Torbjørnsdatter Vrålstad, but this is disputed.
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The Westrogothian rebellion, also known as Västgötabullret or Västgötaherrarnas uppror was a Swedish rebellion which took place in the provinces of Småland and Westregothia in Sweden during the spring of 1529. The rebellion was led by members of the nobility, and the purpose was to depose the Swedish monarch King Gustavus Vasa in an attempt to stop the recently initiated Swedish Reformation.
The Dano-Hanseatic War from 1426–1435 was an armed trade conflict between the Danish-dominated Kalmar Union and the German Hanseatic League (Hansa) led by the Free City of Lübeck.
Pukefejden was a feud between the followers of riksråd Erik Puke and the followers of the later Charles VIII of Sweden in 1436–1437.
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