Enzio Rafael Reuter (30 March 1867, Turku – 11 February 1951, Helsinki) was a Finnish entomologist who specialised in Lepidoptera.
Finland, officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east. Finland is a Nordic country and is situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandia. The capital and largest city is Helsinki. Other major cities are Espoo, Vantaa, Tampere, Oulu and Turku.
Lepidoptera is an order of insects that includes butterflies and moths. About 180,000 species of the Lepidoptera are described, in 126 families and 46 superfamilies, 10 per cent of the total described species of living organisms. It is one of the most widespread and widely recognizable insect orders in the world. The Lepidoptera show many variations of the basic body structure that have evolved to gain advantages in lifestyle and distribution. Recent estimates suggest the order may have more species than earlier thought, and is among the four most speciose orders, along with the Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Coleoptera.
He wrote Über die Palpen der Rhopalocera: Ein Beitrag zur Erkenntnis der verwandtschaftlichen Beziehungen unter den Tagfaltern, an important work on the classification of lepidoptera in which some higher level taxa are erected.
Reuter was a cytologist and student of phylogenetics. His collection is conserved in the Natural History Museum of Helsinki.
Cell biology is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, which is the basic unit of life. Cell biology is concerned with the physiological properties, metabolic processes, signaling pathways, life cycle, chemical composition and interactions of the cell with their environment. This is done both on a microscopic and molecular level as it encompasses prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. Knowing the components of cells and how cells work is fundamental to all biological sciences; it is also essential for research in bio-medical fields such as cancer, and other diseases. Research in cell biology is closely related to genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, immunology and cytochemistry.
In biology, phylogenetics is the study of the evolutionary history and relationships among individuals or groups of organisms. These relationships are discovered through phylogenetic inference methods that evaluate observed heritable traits, such as DNA sequences or morphology under a model of evolution of these traits. The result of these analyses is a phylogeny – a diagrammatic hypothesis about the history of the evolutionary relationships of a group of organisms. The tips of a phylogenetic tree can be living organisms or fossils, and represent the "end", or the present, in an evolutionary lineage. Phylogenetic analyses have become central to understanding biodiversity, evolution, ecology, and genomes.
The Natural History Museum is one of the museums under the directorship of the Finnish Museum of Natural History, part of the University of Helsinki, in Helsinki, Finland.
Reuter was a correspondent with and admirer of the German Darwinist Ernst Haeckel:
Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel was a German zoologist, naturalist, philosopher, physician, professor, marine biologist, and artist who discovered, described and named thousands of new species, mapped a genealogical tree relating all life forms, and coined many terms in biology, including ecology, phylum, phylogeny, and Protista. Haeckel promoted and popularised Charles Darwin's work in Germany and developed the influential but no longer widely held recapitulation theory claiming that an individual organism's biological development, or ontogeny, parallels and summarises its species' evolutionary development, or phylogeny.
"In 1868 Haeckel had given his first edition of the natural history of creation and this work, more than any other, made Darwinism to a generally accepted world view… Reuter’s dissertation carries a label of its time. It is a typical phylogenetic handling, inspired by Haeckel’s spirit that at the close of the century totally dominated the biological research."
Georg Henrik von Wright was a Finnish philosopher.
Philipp Christoph Zeller was a German entomologist.
Carl Reinhold Sahlberg was a Finnish naturalist, primarily an entomologist specializing in beetles.
Brigadier William Harry Evans CSI CIE DSO was a lepidopterist and British Army officer who served in India. He documented the butterfly fauna of India, Burma and Ceylon in a series of articles in the Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. Brigadier Evans was especially interested in the taxonomy and systematics of the butterfly families Lycaenidae and Hesperiidae an example being his A revision of the Arhopala group of Oriental Lycaenidae Bull. British Mus. , Ent., vol. 5: pp. 85–141 (1957).
Edmund Reitter was an Austrian entomologist, writer and a collector.
Adolf Naef was a Swiss zoologist and palaeontologist who worked on cephalopods and systematics. Although he struggled with academic politics throughout his career and difficult conditions during World War I and II, his work had lasting influences on the fields of phylogenetics, morphology, and embryology.
The Kanin Peninsula is a large peninsula in Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Russia. Latitude: 68° longitude: 45°
Alvar Palmgren was a Finnish botanist and plant ecologist.
Kaarlo Linkola was a Finnish botanist and phytogeographer.
Herbert Huntingdon Smith or Herbert Huntington Smith was an American naturalist and amateur conchologist who worked on the flora and fauna of Brazil. He wrote Brazil, the Amazons and the coast and Do Rio de Janeiro á Cuyabá: Notas de um naturalista (1922).
Viktor Ferdinand Brotherus, Finnish botanist who studied the mosses (Bryophyta), best known for authoring the treatment of 'Musci' in Engler and Prantl's Die Naturlichen Pflanzenfamilien.
František Antonín Nickerl was a Czech entomologist who specialised in Lepidoptera, especially those of the Riesengebirges.
Pentti Aalto was a Finnish linguist who was the University of Helsinki Docent of Comparative Linguistics 1958–1980. Aalto was a student of G. J. Ramstedt. He defended his doctoral dissertation in 1949 in Helsinki.
Ernst Evald Bergroth was a Finnish physician and amateur entomologist.
August Busck was a Danish entomologist who became an American citizen. Busck was an employee of the Bureau of Entomology within USDA. He is best known for his work with microlepidoptera, of which he described over 600 species. His collections of Lepidoptera from North America and the Panama Canal Zone are held by the National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C.
Johan Reinhold Sahlberg was a Finnish entomologist.
Johan Martin Jakob von Tengström was a Finnish entomologist.
Orthotylus is a genus of bugs from the Miridae family. There are more than 300 described species worldwide. The sheer number of species has led to the recognition of subgenera and groups, some of which may be promoted to genus level. Yamsunaga recognized the genus as non-monophyletic, and without consistent diagnositic characteristics.
Odo Morannal Reuter (1850–1913) was a Swedo-Finnish zoologist and poet.
Carl August Lundström was a Finnish entomologist who specialised in Diptera especially Nematocera. He was a Professor in Helsinki. His insect collection is held by the Finnish Museum of Natural History.