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|Equestrian at the Summer Olympics|
Equestrianism made its Summer Olympics debut at the 1900 Summer Olympics in Paris, France. It disappeared until 1912, but has appeared at every Summer Olympic Games since. The current Olympic equestrian disciplines are Dressage, Eventing, and Jumping. In each discipline, both individual and team medals are awarded. Women and men compete together on equal terms.
Equestrian disciplines and the equestrian component of Modern Pentathlon are also the only Olympic events that involve animals. The horse is considered as much an athlete as the rider.
The International Governing Body for equestrian sports is the Fédération Équestre Internationale (FEI).The 1924 Olympics were the first at which equestrian competitions were held under the authority of the FEI.
Paris Games (1900)
Equestrian events were first held at the 1900 Paris Olympic Games, although it did not include any of the disciplines seen today. There were 4 different equestrian events.
The polo competition consisted of 4 teams made up of players from Britain, France, Mexico, Spain, and the United States.
Grand Prix Jumping, which was similar to today's show jumping event, for which 45 competitors entered, though only 37 competed.The first and second place was taken by riders from Belgium (1. Aimé Haageman on Benton II, 2. Georges van der Poële riding Winsor Squire), while a French rider, Louis de Champsavin, on his mount Terpsichore, got the third place.
The High Jump competition resulted in a tie between French rider Dominique Gardere on Canela and Italian Gian Giorgio Trissino on Oreste, with both of their horses clearing 1.85 meters, and the bronze was given to Constant van Langendonck of Belgium, whose mount, Extra Dry, cleared 1.70 meters. However, Constant van Langendonck and Extra Dry were able to clinch the gold in the Long Jump competition, clearing a distance of 6.10 meters. Trissino and Oreste won the silver, clearing 5.70 meters, and M. de Bellegarde of France won the bronze with the 5.30 meter jump by his mount Tolla.
Equestrian competition was dropped from the 1904 Olympic Games, and owed its return to Count Clarence von Rosen, Master of the Horse to the King of Sweden, for bringing it back.The 1906 IOC Congress agreed to his proposal to add dressage, eventing, and show jumping to the program of the upcoming 1908 Olympic Games in London. However, due to problems with the newly formed International Horse Show Committee, they were not introduced until the 1912 Games in Stockholm and only a polo event was held in 1908. These three disciplines would be held at every Summer Olympic Games through to the present day.
Until the 1952 Summer Olympics, only commissioned military officers and "gentlemen" were permitted to compete in the Olympic equestrian disciplines,which had the effect of excluding all women and all men serving in the military but not holding officers' commissions.
In 1952, however, all men were permitted to compete in all equestrian disciplines, and women were permitted to compete in Dressage.Women were later permitted to compete in Jumping in 1956 and in Eventing in 1964. Since then, equestrianism has been one of the very few Olympic sports in which men and women compete with and directly against one another. In team competition, teams may have any blend of male and female competitors, and are not required to have minimum numbers of either gender; countries are free to choose the best riders, irrespective of gender.
Following the 1900 Olympic Games, polo would be held an additional 4 times: at the 1908 London Games, the 1920 Antwerp Games, the 1924 Paris Games, and the 1936 Berlin Games. The 1908 Olympics had just 3 polo teams, all representing Great Britain. The 1920 Games included a team from Belgium, Great Britain, Spain, and the United States, with Great Britain again winning the gold medal. It was not until 1924, after Argentina sent a team to Paris, that the gold changed hands. Argentina also won gold at the 1936 Olympic Games.
Vaulting was only held once, at the 1920 Antwerp Games. Vaulting included both a team and an individual competition, with the entrants having to perform movements at the canter and at the halt, both with a saddle and bareback. Three nations sent teams: the gold medal-winning Belgium, France, and Sweden. The individual competition was again made up of competitors from only Belgium, France, and Sweden, with Belgium's M. Bouckaert winning gold medal, and the silver and bronze medals going respectively to France's M. Fields and M. Finet.
Dressage has changed dramatically since the 1912 Olympics. The dressage horse no longer has to jump, but the test on the flat has become increasingly difficult, emphasizing the piaffe and the passage. Today's horses are specifically bred for dressage and have movement far more extravagant when compared to the horses of the early 20th century.
Only individual medals were awarded at the 1912, 1920, and 1924 Games, with team medals awarded at all Olympics following that point.
The 1912 Stockholm Olympics held the first Olympic dressage competition, featuring 21 riders from 8 countries (Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Norway, Russia, Sweden, and the United States). Dressage horses were required to perform 3 tests: a test on the flat, a jumping test, and an obedience test.
The test on the flat could only be a maximum of ten minutes in length and was ridden in what is now called the "small arena," a 20 meter by 40 meter space. The difficulty was much less than it is today, similar to the USDF Fourth Level. The test, as it is today, scored each movement on a 0–10 scale. Required gaits included the "free" and "easy" walk, the "slow" and "extended" trot, and the "slow" and "extended" canter, all of which were to be performed on both reins. The horse also had to demonstrate "ordinary turns," small circles at the slow trot, 8-meter circles at the canter, figure-eights at the canter (both performing a flying change in the center, as well as without a flying change, the second circle being at counter canter), four or more flying changes on a straight line, turn on the haunches, and reinback. At this time, piaffe, passage, and all other haute ecole movements were not allowed (including the airs above the ground and the Spanish Walk). Extra points could be earned if the rider rode with both reins in one hand, especially if this were performed at the canter.
Additionally, all dressage horses were required to jump 4 obstacles which were a maximum of 1.1 meters high, and another fence with a 3-meter spread. They were then asked to perform an "obedience test," riding the horse near spooky objects.
Riders were required to wear informal uniform if they were military officers, or black or pink coats with silk hats if they were civilians. Horses had to be ridden in a double bridle, and martingales and bearing reins were prohibited.
17 riders from 5 countries participated in the dressage competition at the 1920 Antwerp Olympic Games. The test was now ridden required to be ridden from memory, and was held in a slightly larger arena (50m by 20m).
"Slow" was changed to "Collected" on the test sheet. Collected walk, trot, and canter were required, as was extended trot posting followed by collected trot sitting. A 5-loop serpentine was introduced, to be ridden at the canter, both with flying lead changes and with counter-canter loops. The counter change of hand with flying changes was also introduced, as was 4-, 3-, 2-, and 1-tempi changes. The halt was performed through the walk, and followed by a salute.
The Paris Games had 24 riders competing from 9 countries. The test was similar to that used for the 1920 Games.
The 1928 Olympics saw an increase in the time allowed for the test, from 10 up to 13 minutes. Riders lost 2 points per second over the time.
The most significant change at the 1932 Los Angeles Games was the introduction of the piaffe and passage.
29 riders from 11 countries participated. The test length increased again to 17 minutes.
The test included an 8-second halt, half-turns on the haunches at the walk, riding with reins in one hand at the trot, "ordinary" and extended trot while posting, a 5-loop canter serpentine with each loop 8-meters in diameter, the canter pirouette, four-, three-, two-, and one-tempi changes, and the piaffe and passage. The highest coefficient for the test was bending on two-tracks at the collected trot and collected canter.
19 riders from 9 countries competed. Due to World War II, there was not sufficient time to prepare the dressage horses for the 1948 Games. Therefore, piaffe and passage were not placed on the tests. However, half-pass, renvers, canter pirouettes, and tempi changes were included, with the highest coefficient on the one-tempis.
Today, the format for the dressage competition begins with a Grand Prix test to determine the winners of the team competition. The top 25 competitors in the Grand Prix then perform a second test, the Grand Prix Special, which is shortened and emphasizes the piaffe and passage. The top 13 of this group then goes onto the Grand Prix Freestyle (first introduced at the 1996 Olympics), which is written by each individual rider according to strict guidelines, and set to music. These scores help determine the individual medalists.
The test has remained relatively unchanged, except for the fact that renvers is no longer included in the Grand Prix and Grand Prix Special Classes.
Introduced in 1912, three-day eventing originally only allowed active military officers to compete, and only on mounts either owned by themselves or by their military branch.
The competition was held over 5 days. Day 1 was the Endurance Test, consisting of 55 km (34 mi) on roads (with a time allowed of 4 hours, giving a speed of approx. 230 meters per minute), immediately followed by a 5 km cross-country course at a speed of 333 meters per minute. Time penalties were given for exceeding the time allowed, but no bonus points were given for being fast.
Day 2 was a rest day, before the horses set off on the Speed Test on Day 3, over a steeplechase course that was 3.5 km with 10 plain obstacles, at 600 mpm.
Day 4 was the Jumping Test ("Prize Jumping"), which consisted of 15 obstacles, maximum 1.3 meters high and 3.0 meters wide.
Day 5 was the Dressage Test ("Prize Riding"), which was similar to the individual dressage test that year, except the horses were not required to do figure-eights, flying changes, or the jumping and obedience tests that were required of the dressage horses.
Horses had to carry at least 80 kg and had to be wearing a double bridle. Riders were required to be attired in informal uniform.
There were significant changes in the format for the 1920 Olympics, most notable was the removal of the dressage test. 25 riders from 8 nations competed.
Horses began on Day 1 with a 45 km roads and tracks test to be completed in 3.5 hours. This was followed by a 5 km cross-country test, with 18 obstacles between 1.1–1.15 meters high, with a time limit of 12.5 minutes.
Day 2 consisted of a second roads and tracks test that was 20 km, with a time limit of 1 hour. The horse was then examined by a vet, and eliminated if lame or too exhausted to continue. The horse then went on to do a 4,000 meter steeplechase at 550 mpm. Unlike the previous year, speed was rewarded, with riders earning 1/2-point if they rode it at 600 mpm and 1 point if it was ridden at 650 mpm (this system of bonus points was eliminated in 1971). They were penalized 1 point for every second under the time. A new rule was also instituted which eliminated riders after three refusals, run-outs, or falls.
The jumping test consisted of 18 obstacles, a maximum of 1.25 meters high, on a 1,150 meter course. There was a 3-minute time limit, again rewarding speed with an extra 1/2-point for every second under the time, adding 1/4-point for every second over. Unlike today's show jumping tests, some obstacles had to be cleared multiple times during the test, at a different part of the fence each time. Riders gained points for refusals, run-outs, falls, and going off-course.
The required weight was reduced to 75 kg, where it would remain for several decades. Riders could also wear dark or "pink" coats instead of informal uniform attire. All riders had to wear cream breeches and silk hats.
The 1924 Games again changed the format to what would be seen today. 44 competitors from 13 countries took part.
Dressage was held over two days due to the large number of entries. The test was now required to be held in a 20x60 meter arena, and a time limit was instituted (10-minute 30 seconds maximum). Riders had to demonstrate the walk, the "ordinary" (working) trot both rising and sitting, the "slow" (collected) trot, the extended trot, the "ordinary" and extended canter. They also had to show small circles, the halt, reinback, and counter-canter. There was new rule this year that required a double bridle but would not allow martingales, bandages, or bearing reins. Riders could now wear hunt caps in addition to silk hats.
The cross-country test on Day 3 was similar to what is now called the "long format" test, and was a true endurance test, taking 2 hours, 1 minute, and 47 seconds. It consisted of 5 phases. Phase A was a 7 km roads and tracks test at 240 mpm, followed by Phase B, a 4 km steeplechase at 550–600 mpm, then Phase C, a second roads and tracks at 240 mpm that was 15 km long. The horse then went on the 8 km cross-country test (Phase D) at a speed of only 450 mpm. Unlike today, the rider then had to complete a 2 km canter on the flat at 333 mpm (Phase E, which was abolished in 1967).
The 4th day held the jumping test.
This Olympic Games was similar to the 1924 Olympics. A few changes were made, however. In dressage, the time limit was raised to 11 minutes, and competitors lost 2 points for every second over this limit. Endurance day saw an increase in the steeplechase speed from 550 to 600 mpm. Stadium jumping rules changed to specify the course- 12 obstacles to be ridden at 375 mpm, with the competitor losing 1/2-point for every second over time.
The format and rules remained relatively unchanged through the 1932 Olympic Games.
The Berlin Games saw new rules designed to help protect the horse, mostly regarding the use of performance-altering drugs, especially stimulants and sedatives. Additionally, horses that were exhausted or lame following the endurance test were to be eliminated.
The weight requirement of at least 165 lbs, previously required for all rides, was dropped for the dressage phase, although it remained for stadium jumping and the endurance test. Scoring of the Stadium phase was weighed to make it significantly less-important than the Endurance test.
50 riders competed in the eventing competition, but only 27 finished, mostly due to one particular fence on cross-country (see Equestrian at the 1936 Summer Olympics).
The 1948 Games had 46 entrants, including competitors from Argentina, Portugal, and Brazil. Dressages tests now included half-pass at the trot. The endurance test was reduced to 22 km of roads and tracks, a 3.5 km steeplechase, and 8 km on cross-country (a total of 33.5 km).
Olympic Games from 1952 to 1996 saw few changes in format or rules. Dressage introduced the single flying change.
The Endurance test also saw some changes. Steeplechase speed increased to 690 mpm. Cross-country was shortened by 2 km and required 32–34 fences that were a maximum of 1.2 meters in height, and was to be ridden at the heightened speed of 570 mpm. Additionally, the 75 kg required for jumping was reduced to 70 kg for the 1996 Games, and abolished 2 years later.
Women were allowed to ride in equestrian events in 1952. However, it was not until Helena du Pont competed for the United States at the 1964 Tokyo Olympics that eventing saw its first woman representing her country.
The 1996 Games also provided a testing grounds for new methods of cooling the horses after cross-country, including misting fans, and added an additional hold during Phase C to ensure the horses were cooling properly. Also during this time was an extensive study performed on the event horses at the Games to study the effects of heat and different methods of cooling. These studies provided a great deal of valuable information, debunking several myths, and the results have been useful to horsemen outside of eventing as well. This was the first time where an extensive veterinary study was conducted in conjunction with the Games.
The traditional Endurance test, known as the "classic format," included roads and tracks (Phase A and C), steeplechase (Phase B), and cross-country (Phase D). At the 2004 Olympics, the "short format" was introduced, removing phases A, B, and C from the endurance day. This was intended to reduce the amount of space needed to hold an Olympic-level competition, thereby helping to ensure that the sport was not ousted by the IOC from the Olympics. This format has drawn criticism from various members of the sport, but is now considered to be the "standard" competition format at all levels.
In 1900, show jumping allowed both military and non-military riders (and their mounts) to compete, excluding military school horses. Today, it is open to both sexes on any horse.
Courses have also changed considerably. Early fences were built more naturally, rather than the brightly colored poles that are today's standard. Fences were smaller, and courses were not as technical.
31 riders from 8 countries competed. Each team could have a team of 4 riders with 2 alternates (with the team scoring using only the top 3 riders), and enter 6 riders in the individual competition with 3 alternates.
The course consisted of 15 obstacles and 29 jumping efforts- as many of these obstacles were jumped more than once, which is no longer allowed today. The maximum height was 1.4 meters (4.7 feet), water could be 4 meters (7.3 feet) max in width. The course also included a ditch, stone wall, post-and-rail, brush, and triple-bars, and was ridden at a speed of 400 mpm.
Scoring was very different from today, with the riders trying to gain points. Each jump was worth 10-point, and riders could lose points for various disobediences and mistakes:
Like eventing, all horses had to carry at least 165 lbs in weight. Riders were required to wear informal uniform if the rider was an officer, a black or "pink" coat with silk hat or hunt cap if a civilian.
The course at the 1920 Games was 800 meters in length with 14 obstacles, all of which were 1.3–1.4 meters high. The water was a maximum of 4 meters in width. 25 riders from 6 countries competed.
Changes in scoring included:
The 1924 Paris Olympics was similar to the Antwerp Olympics, except the course consisted of 15 obstacles. 43 competitors from 11 countries competed.
46 riders from 16 nations competed over a 16-obstacle course.
Changes in scoring included:
Only 11 riders from 4 nations competed (United States, Mexico, Japan, and Sweden), due to the state of the world economy, a continued shortage of quality horses, and the cost of transporting European horses to the United States. The 18-obstacle course consisted of 20 jumping efforts. Maximum height increased from 1.4 to 1.6 meters (5.3 feet). Maximum width of the water increased from 4 to 5 meters (16.5 feet).
18 nations competed over a 17-obstacle course at the 1936 Games, and the gold and bronze medals were determined using a jump-off. The course had 20 efforts, including a narrow gate, open ditch, double oxer, and a wall.
All rules stayed the same except for:
The 1948 London Olympics had 44 riders from 15 nations competing, including for the first time Brazil, Ireland, Denmark, and Finland.
The format of today's Olympic Show Jumping competition is over 5 rounds.
The maximum height allowed on today's course has remained at 1.6 meters (5.3 feet), width is a maximum of 2 meters (6.7 feet) for oxers and 2.2 meters (7.2 feet) for triple bars. Water has increased in width to a maximum of 4.5 meters (14.9 feet). The total length is only 500–600 meters, shorter than the earlier years.
Scoring is simpler and has changed to a penalty system, with each rider incurring "faults." 4 faults are assessed for a knockdown or if the horse lands in the water or on its edge. The first disobedience incurs 3 faults, the second 6 faults, and the third results in elimination. Fall of horse or rider also results in elimination.
Occasionally, the equestrian competitions have been held away from the main Games. This has occurred at the:
Riders are required by the FEI to be a minimum of 16 years old to participate in dressage classes and 18 for show jumping and eventing due to the increased risk posed to both rider and mount. All horses must be at least 9. There is no maximum age.
Number of horses and riders
Quotas of horse/rider pairs vary between Games and between each discipline. Currently, each National Federation may enter a team of 4 riders on the jumping team (one of which is a reserve), 5 on the event team (no reserves), and 3 riders on the dressage team.
Due to a great deal of drug abuse, drug rules for horses were instituted at the 1972 Munich Olympics (although there was no testing at that Games). Currently, there are very strict rules regarding what drugs may be used on the equine athletes of equestrian competition.
All horses at the Olympics must undergo a veterinary inspection before the Games to ensure they are in good health and not carrying any disease. Veterinary inspections may also occur throughout the Games.
|4||United States (USA)||11||21||20||52|
|5||Great Britain (GBR)||11||11||13||35|
|6||West Germany (FRG)||11||5||9||25|
|9||Soviet Union (URS)||6||5||4||15|
|12||United Team of Germany (EUA)||5||5||4||14|
|14||New Zealand (NZL)||3||2||4||9|
|30||Saudi Arabia (KSA)||0||0||2||2|
|Totals (32 nations)||145||143||142||430|
|United Team of Germany (EUA)||6||2||6||14|
|Great Britain (GBR)||3||–||–||1||1||1||3||1||1||4||3||–||3||3||–||–||1||3||2||30|
|New Zealand (NZL)||–||–||1||2||2||3||1||–||–||9|
|Saudi Arabia (KSA)||1||–||–||1|
|Soviet Union (URS)||–||–||1||2||2||2||–||8||–||15|
|United States (USA)||–||1||–||1||–||5||1||3||2||–||1||1||3||3||4||5||2||2||4||3||5||3||49|
|West Germany (FRG)||4||5||7||4||5||25|
Note: Dark gray squares represent years in which the NOC either did not exist or did not compete in the equestrian portion of the Olympic Games.
|Show jumping, individual ( )||-||X||-||-||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||26|
|Show jumping, team||-||-||-||-||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||25|
|Hacks and hunter||-||X||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||1|
|Czech Republic (CZE)||1||1||5||3|
|Dominican Republic (DOM)||1||2||2|
|East Germany (GDR)||7||7||2|
|Great Britain (GBR)||3||4||6||6||6||6||8||10||8||10||11||11||11||12||12||15||14||11||12||13||12||9||22|
|Hong Kong (HKG)||3||1||2|
|Netherlands Antilles (AHO)||1||1||2|
|New Zealand (NZL)||1||3||1||5||8||6||6||7||10||9||6||5||7||13|
|Puerto Rico (PUR)||1||2||1||1||1||1||1||7|
|Saudi Arabia (KSA)||3||4||2||4||4||5|
|South Africa (RSA)||3||1||1||2||4|
|South Korea (KOR)||1||2||7||10||5||4||1||1||1||9|
|Soviet Union (URS)||9||9||10||10||10||11||7||11||8||9|
|Sri Lanka (SRI)||1||1|
|Chinese Taipei (TPE)||1||1||2|
|Unified Team (EUN)||8||1|
|United Team of Germany (EUA)||9||9||10||3|
|United Arab Emirates (UAE)||1||1|
|United Arab Republic (UAR)||3||1|
|United States (USA)||X||4||8||5||5||8||8||7||9||8||10||10||11||11||12||11||12||12||14||14||13||12||13||12||9||25|
|Virgin Islands (ISV)||1||1||1||1||4|
|West Germany (FRG)||11||11||11||11||13||5|
Dressage is a form of riding performed in exhibition and competition, as well as an art sometimes pursued solely for the sake of mastery. As an equestrian sport defined by the International Equestrian Federation, dressage is described as "the highest expression of horse training" where "horse and rider are expected to perform from memory a series of predetermined movements."
Eventing is an equestrian event where a single horse and rider combine and compete against other competitors across the three disciplines of dressage, cross-country, and show jumping. This event has its roots in a comprehensive cavalry test that required mastery of several types of riding. The competition may be run as a one-day event (ODE), where all three events are completed in one day or a three-day event (3DE), which is more commonly now run over four days, with dressage on the first two days, followed by cross-country the next day and then show jumping in reverse order on the final day. Eventing was previously known as Combined Training, and the name persists in many smaller organizations. The term "Combined Training" is sometimes confused with the term "Combined Test", which refers to a combination of just two of the phases, most commonly dressage and show jumping.
Equestrianism, commonly known as horse riding or horseback riding, includes the disciplines of riding, driving, and vaulting. This broad description includes the use of horses for practical working purposes, transportation, recreational activities, artistic or cultural exercises, and competitive sport.
Equitation is the art or practice of horse riding or horsemanship.
Equestrian competitions at the 1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico City, Mexico featured team and individual competitions in show jumping, eventing, and dressage. Mexico City proved a challenging site since it was 2,300 meters above sea level, resulting in 30% less oxygen in the air. The horses at the 1955 Pan American Games, which was also held in Mexico City, arrived a few weeks before the Games to adjust, but had difficulty in the competition. However, racehorses that competed at the same location and who were shipped in the day before, and left the day after the race, performed fine. It was discovered that although horses would adjust immediately to the high altitude during the first few days after arrival, they showed weakness and decreased performance around Day 10, which continued to Day 20. Therefore, nations were advised to ship in horses 3–4 weeks before the competition, which would allow them time to recover from the long travel, as well as adjust to the difference in altitude. Argentina, Ireland, and the USSR were the first to ship horses over, who arrived mid-September. France and Germany were the last countries to send their horses, who arrived 28 September 20 days before the competition was to start.
The equestrian program at the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm, included five medal events. There were individual competitions in dressage, eventing, and show jumping. Team scores were also gathered and medals awarded for teams in the eventing and jumping competitions. Equestrian had been absent from the Olympic program since the 1900 Summer Olympics, making the 1912 Games the second time the sport was featured. Ten nations competed: Belgium, Chile, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Norway, Russia, Sweden, and the USA. Only Sweden and Germany were able to supply a full team for all three disciplines, with several countries having several riders and horses used in two or even all three disciplines. A total of 88 entries ran in the three events, with 62 riders and 70 horses.
The equestrian events at the 1924 Paris Olympics included eventing, show jumping and dressage. Vaulting was not included this year. The competitions were held from 21 to 27 July 1924. 17 nations fielded teams: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Finland, France, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, USA, and Yugoslavia, with Germany not being invited. Of those 17 countries, only 5 fielded teams in all 3 disciplines: France, Sweden, Belgium, Switzerland and Czechoslovakia. A total of 97 entries and 126 horses competed. Horses in both the jumping and eventing competitions were required to carry at least 75 kilograms (165 lb).
The equestrian events at the 1928 Summer Olympics included dressage, eventing, and show jumping. All three disciplines had both individual and team competitions. The competitions were held from 8 to 12 August 1928. Teams were now fielded by three riders, rather than four, the purpose being to reduce pressure on national federations to find that many riders in order to compete for team medals. Riders had to be considered amateurs, which was defined as either an actively serving professional officer, or as a gentleman rider as defined by the rules of that rider's national governing body. A total of 113 entries were present from 20 nations: Argentina, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the USA. This was the first appearance for Hungary, Japan and Argentina in equestrian events at an Olympics. Additionally, after being shut out from two Olympic competitions, Germany also returned to the Games to win a few medals in the equestrian events.
The equestrian events at the 1932 Los Angeles Summer Games included dressage, eventing, and show jumping. The competitions were held from 10 to 14 August 1932. Due to the Great Depression, only 31 entries from 6 nations competed—which was to be the lowest participation of any Olympic Games.
The equestrian events at the 1936 Berlin Summer Olympics included dressage, eventing, and show jumping. All three disciplines had both individual and team competitions. The host country, Germany, had a stellar year, winning both individual and team gold in every equestrian event, as well as individual silver in dressage. The competitions were held from 12 to 16 August 1936. Moderately priced tickets meant huge crowds at all equestrian events, with 15,000–20,000 spectators at any time during the dressage competition, 60,000 on the endurance day of eventing, and 120,000 for the Nations Cup in jumping.
The equestrian events at the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal included show jumping, dressage and eventing. All three disciplines, except for the Nations Cup, were held at the equestrian stadium in Bromont, which had a capacity of 15,000 spectators, and the cross-country and steeplechase were also nearby. Building this stadium provided some headache for the Organizing Committee after the original estimate of 1 million Canadian dollars increased to CAD 4,425.
The equestrian events at the 1948 London Summer Olympics included dressage, eventing, and show jumping. All three disciplines had both individual and team competitions. The competitions were held from 9 to 14 August 1948, with the first five days held in the military complex at Aldershot, the endurance day on the army grounds of Aldershot at Tweseldown, and the jumping at the Empire Stadium in Wembley. World War II resulted in a greatly reduced number of competitors, including the absence of Germany, although Brazil made its first appearance in the equestrian events. 103 entries from 17 nations competed. The youngest participant was Aëcio Coelho from Brazil at 23 years old, while the oldest rider was the Italian Alessandro, Count Bettoni Cazzago, at 55 years old.
The equestrian events at the 1952 Helsinki Summer Olympics included dressage, eventing, and show jumping. All three disciplines had both individual and team competitions and were held from 28 July to 3 August 1952.
The equestrian events at the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich included show jumping, dressage and eventing. All three disciplines had both individual and team competitions. The equestrian competitions were held at 3 sites: an existing equestrian facility at Riem for the individual show jumping and eventing competitions, the Olympic Stadium in Munich for the Nations Cup, and Nymphenburg, a Baroque palace garden, for the sold-out dressage. 179 entries, including 31 women, competed from 27 countries: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, Bulgaria, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Denmark, German Democratic Republic (GDR), France, Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), Great Britain, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Soviet Union, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the USA. The youngest participant was Kurt Maeder from Switzerland at 19 years old, while the oldest rider was Lorna Johnstone from Great Britain at 70 years old.
The Concours Complet International (CCI) is the competition rating for the equestrian sport of eventing, given by the international governing body for the sport, the FEI. The rating system was recently changed, effective January 1, 2019.
The Equestrian events included three disciplines: dressage, eventing, and show jumping, and were held at the Deodoro Military Club.
The individual eventing in equestrian at the 2012 Olympic Games in London was held at Greenwich Park from 28 to 31 July. Michael Jung of Germany won the gold medal. Sweden's Sara Algotsson Ostholt won silver and Sandra Auffarth, also of Germany, took bronze.
The equestrian events at the 2020 Summer Olympics in Tokyo will feature three disciplines for both individual and team competitions.
The individual eventing at the 1960 Summer Olympics took place between 6 and 10 September. Eventing was open to men only. It was the 10th appearance of the event.
The team eventing at the 1960 Summer Olympics took place between 6 and 10 September. Eventing was open to men only. It was the 10th appearance of the event.