Equestrian at the Summer Olympics

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Equestrian at the Summer Olympics
Equestrian pictogram.svg
Governing body FEI
Events6 (mixed)
Games

Equestrianism made its Summer Olympics debut at the 1900 Summer Olympics in Paris, France. It disappeared until 1912, but has appeared at every Summer Olympic Games since. The current Olympic equestrian disciplines are Dressage, Eventing, and Jumping. In each discipline, both individual and team medals are awarded. Women and men compete together on equal terms.

Equestrianism The use of horses for sport or work

Equestrianism, more often known as horse riding or horseback riding, refers to the skill and sport of riding, driving, steeplechasing or vaulting with horses. This broad description includes the use of horses for practical working purposes, transportation, recreational activities, artistic or cultural exercises, and competitive sport.

At the 1900 Summer Olympics, five equestrian events were contested. Three of these had been considered "Olympic" by the International Olympic Committee in the past. The IOC website currently has affirmed a total of 95 medal events, after accepting, as it appears, the recommendation of Olympic historian Bill Mallon for events that should be considered "Olympic". These additional events include the other two equestrian events. It is not certain how many competitors there were, but it is likely that there were between 37 and 64. Calculation of number of competitors is complicated by the fact that a rider might enter an event multiple times on different horses. Five nations competed in the Olympic jumping events, with three more in the other two competitions. There were two female riders: Elvira Guerra, who competed in the hacks and hunter combined event, as well as a Frenchwoman "Moulin", whose first name is not known.

Paris Capital of France

Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, diplomacy, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts.

Contents

Equestrian disciplines and the equestrian component of Modern Pentathlon are also the only Olympic events that involve animals. The horse is considered as much an athlete as the rider.

The International Governing Body for equestrian sports is the Fédération Équestre Internationale (FEI). [1] The 1924 Olympics were the first at which equestrian competitions were held under the authority of the FEI.

The International Federation for Equestrian Sports is the international governing body of equestrian sports.

History

1900 Paris Games

Equestrian events were first held at the 1900 Paris Olympic Games, although it did not include any of the disciplines seen today. There were 4 different equestrian events.

The polo competition consisted of 4 teams made up of players from Britain, France, Mexico, Spain, and the United States.

Polo equestrian team sport

Polo is a horseback mounted team sport. It is one of the world's oldest known team sports.

United Kingdom Country in Europe

The United Kingdom (UK), officially the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres (93,600 sq mi), the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world. It is also the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017.

France Republic with mainland in Europe and numerous oversea territories

France, officially the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.

Grand Prix Jumping, which was similar to today's show jumping event, for which 45 competitors entered, though only 37 competed. [2] The first and second place was taken by riders from Belgium (1. Aimé Haageman on Benton II, 2. Georges van der Poële riding Winsor Squire), while a French rider, Louis de Champsavin, on his mount Terpsichore, got the third place.

Show jumping part of a group of English riding equestrian events

Show jumping, also known as "stadium jumping", "open jumping", or simply "jumping", is a part of a group of English riding equestrian events that also includes dressage, eventing, hunters, and equitation. Jumping classes are commonly seen at horse shows throughout the world, including the Olympics. Sometimes shows are limited exclusively to jumpers, sometimes jumper classes are offered in conjunction with other English-style events, and sometimes show jumping is but one division of very large, all-breed competitions that include a very wide variety of disciplines. Jumping classes may be governed by various national horse show sanctioning organizations, such as the United States Equestrian Federation in the USA or the British Showjumping Association in Great Britain. International competitions are governed by the rules of the International Federation for Equestrian Sports.

The High Jump competition resulted in a tie between French rider Dominique Gardere on Canela and Italian Gian Giorgio Trissino on Oreste, with both of their horses clearing 1.85 meters, and the bronze was given to Constant van Langendonck of Belgium, whose mount, Extra Dry, cleared 1.70 meters. However, Constant van Langendonck and Extra Dry were able to clinch the gold in the Long Jump competition, clearing a distance of 6.10 meters. Trissino and Oreste won the silver, clearing 5.70 meters, and M. de Bellegarde of France won the bronze with the 5.30 meter jump by his mount Tolla.

Return of Equestrian Competition

Equestrian competition was dropped from the 1904 Olympic Games, and owed its return to Count Clarence von Rosen, Master of the Horse to the King of Sweden, for bringing it back. [3] The 1906 IOC Congress agreed to his proposal to add dressage, eventing, and show jumping to the program of the upcoming 1908 Olympic Games in London. However, due to problems with the newly formed International Horse Show Committee, they were not introduced until the 1912 Games in Stockholm and only a polo event was held in 1908. These three disciplines would be held at every Summer Olympic Games through to the present day.

Participation of Non-Officers and Women

Until the 1952 Summer Olympics, only commissioned military officers and "gentlemen" were permitted to compete in the Olympic equestrian disciplines, [4] which had the effect of excluding all women and all men serving in the military but not holding officers' commissions.

In 1952, however, all men were permitted to compete in all equestrian disciplines, and women were permitted to compete in Dressage. [5] Women were later permitted to compete in Jumping in 1956 and in Eventing in 1964. Since then, equestrianism has been one of the very few Olympic sports in which men and women compete with and directly against one another. In team competition, teams may have any blend of male and female competitors, and are not required to have minimum numbers of either gender; countries are free to choose the best riders, irrespective of gender.

Polo and Vaulting in the Olympics

Polo Polo pictogram.svg
Polo

Following the 1900 Olympic Games, polo would be held an additional 4 times: at the 1908 London Games, the 1920 Antwerp Games, the 1924 Paris Games, and the 1936 Berlin Games. The 1908 Olympics had just 3 polo teams, all representing Great Britain. The 1920 Games included a team from Belgium, Great Britain, Spain, and the United States, with Great Britain again winning the gold medal. It was not until 1924, after Argentina sent a team to Paris, that the gold changed hands. Argentina also won gold at the 1936 Olympic Games.

Vaulting EQ Vaulting pictogram.svg
Vaulting

Vaulting was only held once, at the 1920 Antwerp Games. Vaulting included both a team and an individual competition, with the entrants having to perform movements at the canter and at the halt, both with a saddle and bareback. Three nations sent teams: the gold medal-winning Belgium, France, and Sweden. The individual competition was again made up of competitors from only Belgium, France, and Sweden, with Belgium's M. Bouckaert winning gold medal, and the silver and bronze medals going respectively to France's M. Fields and M. Finet.

Dressage in the Olympic Games

Dressage Equestrian Dressage pictogram.svg
Dressage

Dressage has changed dramatically since the 1912 Olympics. The dressage horse no longer has to jump, but the test on the flat has become increasingly difficult, emphasizing the piaffe and the passage. Today's horses are specifically bred for dressage and have movement far more extravagant when compared to the horses of the early 20th century.

Only individual medals were awarded at the 1912, 1920, and 1924 Games, with team medals awarded at all Olympics following that point.

1912 Stockholm Olympics

The 1912 Stockholm Olympics held the first Olympic dressage competition, featuring 21 riders from 8 countries (Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Norway, Russia, Sweden, and the United States). Dressage horses were required to perform 3 tests: a test on the flat, a jumping test, and an obedience test.

The test on the flat could only be a maximum of ten minutes in length and was ridden in what is now called the "small arena," a 20 meter by 40 meter space. The difficulty was much less than it is today, similar to the USDF Fourth Level. The test, as it is today, scored each movement on a 0–10 scale. Required gaits included the "free" and "easy" walk, the "slow" and "extended" trot, and the "slow" and "extended" canter, all of which were to be performed on both reins. The horse also had to demonstrate "ordinary turns," small circles at the slow trot, 8-meter circles at the canter, figure-eights at the canter (both performing a flying change in the center, as well as without a flying change, the second circle being at counter canter), four or more flying changes on a straight line, turn on the haunches, and reinback. At this time, piaffe, passage, and all other haute ecole movements were not allowed (including the airs above the ground and the Spanish Walk). Extra points could be earned if the rider rode with both reins in one hand, especially if this were performed at the canter.

Additionally, all dressage horses were required to jump 4 obstacles which were a maximum of 1.1 meters high, and another fence with a 3-meter spread. They were then asked to perform an "obedience test," riding the horse near spooky objects.

Riders were required to wear informal uniform if they were military officers, or black or pink coats with silk hats if they were civilians. Horses had to be ridden in a double bridle, and martingales and bearing reins were prohibited.

1920 Antwerp, 1924 Paris, 1928 Amsterdam, and 1932 Los Angeles Olympics

17 riders from 5 countries participated in the dressage competition at the 1920 Antwerp Olympic Games. The test was now ridden required to be ridden from memory, and was held in a slightly larger arena (50m by 20m).

"Slow" was changed to "Collected" on the test sheet. Collected walk, trot, and canter were required, as was extended trot posting followed by collected trot sitting. A 5-loop serpentine was introduced, to be ridden at the canter, both with flying lead changes and with counter-canter loops. The counter change of hand with flying changes was also introduced, as was 4-, 3-, 2-, and 1-tempi changes. The halt was performed through the walk, and followed by a salute.

The Paris Games had 24 riders competing from 9 countries. The test was similar to that used for the 1920 Games.

The 1928 Olympics saw an increase in the time allowed for the test, from 10 up to 13 minutes. Riders lost 2 points per second over the time.

The most significant change at the 1932 Los Angeles Games was the introduction of the piaffe and passage. Only 10 riders from 4 countries competed due to the aftermath of World War I.

1936 Berlin Olympics

29 riders from 11 countries participated. The test length increased again to 17 minutes.

The test included an 8-second halt, half-turns on the haunches at the walk, riding with reins in one hand at the trot, "ordinary" and extended trot while posting, a 5-loop canter serpentine with each loop 8-meters in diameter, the canter pirouette, four-, three-, two-, and one-tempi changes, and the piaffe and passage. The highest coefficient for the test was bending on two-tracks at the collected trot and collected canter.

1948 London Olympics

19 riders from 9 countries competed. Due to World War II, there was not sufficient time to prepare the dressage horses for the 1948 Games. Therefore, piaffe and passage were not placed on the tests. However, half-pass, renvers, canter pirouettes, and tempi changes were included, with the highest coefficient on the one-tempis.

Later Olympic Games

Today, the format for the dressage competition begins with a Grand Prix test to determine the winners of the team competition. The top 25 competitors in the Grand Prix then perform a second test, the Grand Prix Special, which is shortened and emphasizes the piaffe and passage. The top 13 of this group then goes onto the Grand Prix Freestyle (first introduced at the 1996 Olympics), which is written by each individual rider according to strict guidelines, and set to music. These scores help determine the individual medalists.

The test has remained relatively unchanged, except for the fact that renvers is no longer included in the Grand Prix and Grand Prix Special Classes.

Eventing in the Olympic Games

Eventing Equestrian Eventing pictogram.svg
Eventing

Introduced in 1912, three-day eventing originally only allowed active military officers to compete, and only on mounts either owned by themselves or by their military branch.

1912 Stockholm Olympics

The competition was held over 5 days. Day 1 was the Endurance Test, consisting of 55 km (34 mi) on roads (with a time allowed of 4 hours, giving a speed of approx. 230 meters per minute), immediately followed by a 5 km cross-country course at a speed of 333 meters per minute. Time penalties were given for exceeding the time allowed, but no bonus points were given for being fast.

Day 2 was a rest day, before the horses set off on the Speed Test on Day 3, over a steeplechase course that was 3.5 km with 10 plain obstacles, at 600 mpm.

Day 4 was the Jumping Test ("Prize Jumping"), which consisted of 15 obstacles, maximum 1.3 meters high and 3.0 meters wide.

Day 5 was the Dressage Test ("Prize Riding"), which was similar to the individual dressage test that year, except the horses were not required to do figure-eights, flying changes, or the jumping and obedience tests that were required of the dressage horses.

Horses had to carry at least 80 kg and had to be wearing a double bridle. Riders were required to be attired in informal uniform.

1920 Antwerp Olympics

There were significant changes in the format for the 1920 Olympics, most notable was the removal of the dressage test. 25 riders from 8 nations competed.

Horses began on Day 1 with a 45 km roads and tracks test to be completed in 3.5 hours. This was followed by a 5 km cross-country test, with 18 obstacles between 1.1–1.15 meters high, with a time limit of 12.5 minutes.

Day 2 consisted of a second roads and tracks test that was 20 km, with a time limit of 1 hour. The horse was then examined by a vet, and eliminated if lame or too exhausted to continue. The horse then went on to do a 4,000 meter steeplechase at 550 mpm. Unlike the previous year, speed was rewarded, with riders earning 1/2 point if they rode it at 600 mpm and 1 point if it was ridden at 650 mpm (this system of bonus points was eliminated in 1971). They were penalized 1 point for every second under the time. A new rule was also instituted which eliminated riders after three refusals, run-outs, or falls.

The jumping test consisted of 18 obstacles, a maximum of 1.25 meters high, on a 1,150 meter course. There was a 3-minute time limit, again rewarding speed with an extra 1/2 point for every second under the time, adding 1/4 point for every second over. Unlike today's show jumping tests, some obstacles had to be cleared multiple times during the test, at a different part of the fence each time. Riders gained points for refusals, run-outs, falls, and going off-course.

The required weight was reduced to 75 kg, where it would remain for several decades. Riders could also wear dark or "pink" coats instead of informal uniform attire. All riders had to wear cream breeches and silk hats.

1924 Paris Olympics

The 1924 Games again changed the format to what would be seen today. 44 competitors from 13 countries took part.

Dressage was held over two days due to the large number of entries. The test was now required to be held in a 20x60 meter arena, and a time limit was instituted (10 minute 30 seconds maximum). Riders had to demonstrate the walk, the "ordinary" (working) trot both rising and sitting, the "slow" (collected) trot, the extended trot, the "ordinary" and extended canter. They also had to show small circles, the halt, reinback, and counter-canter. There was new rule this year that required a double bridle but would not allow martingales, bandages, or bearing reins. Riders could now wear hunt caps in addition to silk hats.

The cross-country test on Day 3 was similar to what is now called the "long format" test, and was a true endurance test, taking 2 hours, 1 minute, and 47 seconds. It consisted of 5 phases. Phase A was a 7 km roads and tracks test at 240 mpm, followed by Phase B, a 4 km steeplechase at 550–600 mpm, then Phase C, a second roads and tracks at 240 mpm that was 15 km long. The horse then went on the 8 km cross-country test (Phase D) at a speed of only 450 mpm. Unlike today, the rider then had to complete a 2 km canter on the flat at 333 mpm (Phase E, which was abolished in 1967).

The 4th day held the jumping test.

1928 Amsterdam Olympics

This Olympic Games was similar to the 1924 Olympics. A few changes were made, however. In dressage, the time limit was raised to 11 minutes, and competitors lost 2 points for every second over this limit. Endurance day saw an increase in the steeplechase speed from 550 to 600 mpm. Stadium jumping rules changed to specify the course- 12 obstacles to be ridden at 375 mpm, with the competitor losing 1/2 point for every second over time.

The format and rules remained relatively unchanged through the 1932 Olympic Games.

1936 Berlin Olympics

The Berlin Games saw new rules designed to help protect the horse, mostly regarding the use of performance-altering drugs, especially stimulants and sedatives. Additionally, horses that were exhausted or lame following the endurance test were to be eliminated.

The weight requirement of at least 165 lbs, previously required for all rides, was dropped for the dressage phase, although it remained for stadium jumping and the endurance test. Scoring of the Stadium phase was weighed to make it significantly less-important than the Endurance test.

50 riders competed in the eventing competition, but only 27 finished, mostly due to one particular fence on cross-country (see Equestrian at the 1936 Summer Olympics).

1948 London Olympics

The 1948 Games had 46 entrants, including competitors from Argentina, Portugal, and Brazil. Dressages tests now included half-pass at the trot. The endurance test was reduced to 22 km of roads and tracks, a 3.5 km steeplechase, and 8 km on cross-country (a total of 33.5 km).

Olympics through the 1990s

Olympic Games from 1952 to 1996 saw few changes in format or rules. Dressage introduced the single flying change.

The Endurance test also saw some changes. Steeplechase speed increased to 690 mpm. Cross-country was shortened by 2 km and required 32–34 fences that were a maximum of 1.2 meters in height, and was to be ridden at the heightened speed of 570 mpm. Additionally, the 75 kg required for jumping was reduced to 70 kg for the 1996 Games, and abolished 2 years later.

Women were allowed to ride in equestrian events in 1952. However, it was not until Helena du Pont competed for the United States at the 1964 Tokyo Olympics that eventing saw its first woman representing her country.

The 1996 Games also provided a testing grounds for new methods of cooling the horses after cross-country, including misting fans, and added an additional hold during Phase C to ensure the horses were cooling properly. Also during this time was an extensive study performed on the event horses at the Games to study the effects of heat and different methods of cooling. These studies provided a great deal of valuable information, debunking several myths, and the results have been useful to horsemen outside of eventing as well. This was the first time where an extensive veterinary study was conducted in conjunction with the Games.

2004 Athens Olympics

The traditional Endurance test, known as the "classic format," included roads and tracks (Phase A and C), steeplechase (Phase B), and cross-country (Phase D). At the 2004 Olympics, the "short format" was introduced, removing phases A, B, and C from the endurance day. This was intended to reduce the amount of space needed to hold an Olympic-level competition, thereby helping to ensure that the sport was not ousted by the IOC from the Olympics. This format has drawn criticism from various members of the sport, but is now considered to be the "standard" competition format at all levels.

Show jumping in the Olympic Games

Show jumping Equestrian Jumping pictogram.svg
Show jumping

In 1900, show jumping allowed both military and non-military riders (and their mounts) to compete, excluding military school horses. Today, it is open to both sexes on any horse.

Courses have also changed considerably. Early fences were built more naturally, rather than the brightly colored poles that are today's standard. Fences were smaller, and courses were not as technical.

1912 Stockholm Games

31 riders from 8 countries competed. Each team could have a team of 4 riders with 2 alternates (with the team scoring using only the top 3 riders), and enter 6 riders in the individual competition with 3 alternates.

The course consisted of 15 obstacles and 29 jumping efforts- as many of these obstacles were jumped more than once, which is no longer allowed today. The maximum height was 1.4 meters (4.7 feet), water could be 4 meters (7.3 feet) max in width. The course also included a ditch, stone wall, post-and-rail, brush, and triple-bars, and was ridden at a speed of 400 mpm.

Scoring was very different from today, with the riders trying to gain points. Each jump was worth 10 point, and riders could lose points for various disobediences and mistakes:

Like eventing, all horses had to carry at least 165 lbs in weight. Riders were required to wear informal uniform if the rider was an officer, a black or "pink" coat with silk hat or hunt cap if a civilian.

1920 Antwerp and 1924 Paris Olympics

The course at the 1920 Games was 800 meters in length with 14 obstacles, all of which were 1.3–1.4 meters high. The water was a maximum of 4 meters in width. 25 riders from 6 countries competed.

Changes in scoring included:

The 1924 Paris Olympics was similar to the Antwerp Olympics, except the course consisted of 15 obstacles. 34 competitors from 11 countries competed.

1928 Amsterdam Olympics

46 riders from 16 nations competed over a 16-obstacle course.

Changes in scoring included:

1932 Los Angeles Olympics

Only 11 riders from 4 nations competed (United States, Mexico, Japan, and Sweden), due to the state of the world economy, a continued shortage of quality horses, and the cost of transporting European horses to the United States. The 18-obstacle course consisted of 20 jumping efforts. Maximum height increased from 1.4 to 1.6 meters (5.3 feet). Maximum width of the water increased from 4 meters to 5 meters (16.5 feet).

1936 Berlin and 1948 London Olympics

18 nations competed over a 17-obstacle course at the 1936 Games, and the gold and bronze medals were determined using a jump-off. The course had 20 efforts, including a narrow gate, open ditch, double oxer, and a wall.

All rules stayed the same except for:

The 1948 London Olympics had 44 riders from 15 nations competing, including for the first time Brazil, Ireland, Denmark, and Finland.

Format, courses, and scoring today

The format of today's Olympic Show Jumping competition is over 5 rounds.

The maximum height allowed on today's course has remained at 1.6 meters (5.3 feet), width is a maximum of 2 meters (6.7 feet) for oxers and 2.2 meters (7.2 feet) for triple bars. Water has increased in width to a maximum of 4.5 meters (14.9 feet). The total length is only 500–600 meters, shorter than the earlier years.

Scoring is simpler and has changed to a penalty system, with each rider incurring "faults." 4 faults are assessed for a knockdown or if the horse lands in the water or on its edge. The first disobedience incurs 3 faults, the second 6 faults, and the third results in elimination. Fall of horse or rider also results in elimination.

Location of the Equestrian Events

Occasionally, the equestrian competitions have been held away from the main Games. This has occurred at the:

Rules

Age Requirements

Riders are required by the FEI to be a minimum of 16 years old to participate in dressage classes and 18 for show jumping and eventing due to the increased risk posed to both rider and mount. All horses must be at least 9. There is no maximum age.

Number of horses and riders

Quotas of horse/rider pairs vary between Games and between each discipline. Currently, each National Federation may enter a team of 4 riders on the jumping team (one of which is a reserve), 5 on the event team (no reserves), and 3 riders on the dressage team.

Drug Rules

Due to a great deal of drug abuse, drug rules for horses were instituted at the 1972 Munich Olympics (although there was no testing at that Games). Currently, there are very strict rules regarding what drugs may be used on the equine athletes of equestrian competition.

Veterinary Inspections

All horses at the Olympics must undergo a veterinary inspection before the Games to ensure they are in good health and not carrying any disease. Veterinary inspections may also occur throughout the Games.

Medal table

RankNationGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1Flag of Germany.svg  Germany  (GER)25131452
2Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden  (SWE)17121443
3Flag of France.svg  France  (FRA)14131037
4Flag of the United States.svg  United States  (USA)11212052
5Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain  (GBR)11111335
6Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany  (FRG)115925
7Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands  (NED)1013326
8Flag of Italy.svg  Italy  (ITA)79723
9Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union  (URS)65415
10Flag of Australia.svg  Australia  (AUS)63312
11Flag of Switzerland.svg  Switzerland  (SUI)510823
12Flag of the German Olympic Team (1960-1968).svg  United Team of Germany  (EUA)55414
13Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium  (BEL)42612
14Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand  (NZL)3249
15Flag of Canada.svg  Canada  (CAN)2237
16Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico  (MEX)2147
17Flag of Poland.svg  Poland  (POL)1326
18Flag of Spain.svg  Spain  (ESP)1214
19Flag of Austria.svg  Austria  (AUT)1113
20Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil  (BRA)1023
21Flag of Czechoslovakia.svg  Czechoslovakia  (TCH)1001
Flag of Japan.svg  Japan  (JPN)1001
23Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark  (DEN)0426
24Flag of Chile.svg  Chile  (CHI)0202
25Flag of Romania.svg  Romania  (ROU)0112
26Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina  (ARG)0101
Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria  (BUL)0101
Flag of Norway.svg  Norway  (NOR)0101
29Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal  (POR)0033
30Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia  (KSA)0022
31Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary  (HUN)0011
Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland  (IRL)0011
Totals (32 nations)145143142430

Medals per year

Nation 00 08 12 20 24 28 32 36 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 Total
Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina  (ARG)        1  1
Flag of Australia.svg  Australia  (AUS)          3111 212111
Flag of Austria.svg  Austria  (AUT)     1   113
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium  (BEL)4 15     2 12
Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil  (BRA)          1113
Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria  (BUL)         1   1
Flag of Canada.svg  Canada  (CAN)         111 126
Flag of Czechoslovakia.svg  Czechoslovakia  (TCH)    1               1
Flag of Chile.svg  Chile  (CHI)        2       2
Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark  (DEN)   1 111   1 16
Flag of France.svg  France  (FRA)3 321231431221 311134
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany  (GER)  4  3 7 4         7444542
Flag of the German Olympic Team (1960-1968).svg  United Team of Germany  (EUA)          626           14
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain  (GBR) 3   11131143 3313230
Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary  (HUN)      1        1
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy  (ITA)2  52 3333223
Flag of Japan.svg  Japan  (JPN)     1  1
Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico  (MEX)      4  37
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands  (NED)   2421    3341222
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand  (NZL)               122319
Flag of Norway.svg  Norway  (NOR)   1           1
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland  (POL)    12 1     2   6
Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal  (POR)    1 11    3
Flag of Romania.svg  Romania  (ROU)       1     1       2
Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia  (KSA)                     11
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union  (URS)         12228      15
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain  (ESP)    1  1  24
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden  (SWE)  694331343 2 11141
Flag of Switzerland.svg  Switzerland  (SUI)    21 1113212 3211122
Flag of the United States.svg  United States  (USA) 11513211334 522435349
Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany  (FRG)             457 45     25

Note: Dark gray squares represent years in which the NOC either did not exist or did not compete in the equestrian portion of the Olympic Games.

Events

Event96 00 0408 12 20 24 28 32 36 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 Years
Show jumping, individual- X -- X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 26
Show jumping, team---- X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 25
Eventing, individual---- X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 25
Eventing, team---- X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 25
Dressage, individual---- X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 25
Dressage, team------- X X X X X X - X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 21
Events04015866666665666666666666666

Past events

Event96 00 0408 12 20 24 28 32 36 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 Years
High jump- X ---------------------------1
Long jump- X ---------------------------1
Polo, team- X - X - X X -- X -------------------5
Vaulting, individual----- X -----------------------1
Vaulting, team----- X -----------------------1

Nations

Nation96 00 04 08 12 20 24 28 32 36 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 Years
Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina  (ARG)  396798897451412416
Flag of Australia.svg  Australia  (AUS)  44774791051114812121215
Flag of Austria.svg  Austria  (AUT)  23825154142553923118
Flag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan  (AZE)  112
Flag of Belarus.svg  Belarus  (BLR)  1323
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium  (BEL) X 41811933244318669310519
Flag of Bermuda.svg  Bermuda  (BER)  123111118
Flag of Bolivia.svg  Bolivia  (BOL)  1113
Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil  (BRA)  643313344691191091216
Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria  (BUL)  23334541113111
Flag of Cambodia.svg  Cambodia  (CAM)  21
Flag of Canada.svg  Canada  (CAN)  34421111101111111161012121016
Flag of Chile.svg  Chile  (CHI)  291334214110
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China  (CHN)  612
Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia  (COL)  432111228
Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia  (CRO)  112
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic  (CZE)  112
Flag of Czechoslovakia.svg  Czechoslovakia  (TCH)  1199215
Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark  (DEN)  413465643334736544419
Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg  Dominican Republic  (DOM)  11
Flag of East Germany.svg  East Germany  (GDR)  772
Flag of Ecuador.svg  Ecuador  (ECU)  1113
Flag of Egypt.svg  Egypt  (EGY)  3311111119
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland  (FIN)  111155721411312116
Flag of France.svg  France  (FRA) X 424129398987771091111121410116101224
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany  (GER)  138981216141312131211
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain  (GBR)  346666810810111111121215141112131221
Flag of Greece.svg  Greece  (GRE)  172
Flag of Guatemala.svg  Guatemala  (GUA)  31114
Flag of Hong Kong.svg  Hong Kong  (HKG)  31
Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary  (HUN)  593488558
Flag of India.svg  India  (IND)  4113
Flag of Iran.svg  Iran  (IRI)  11
Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland  (IRL)  33674644579971068617
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy  (ITA) X 105566467778948512147863623
Flag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica  (JAM)  112
Flag of Japan.svg  Japan  (JPN)  454123104576109984681019
Flag of Jordan.svg  Jordan  (JOR)  11114
Flag of Liechtenstein.svg  Liechtenstein  (LIE)  11
Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico  (MEX)  66479888125644454117
Flag of Morocco.svg  Morocco  (MAR)  112
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands  (NED)  158395317738128888111219
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands Antilles  (AHO)  112
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand  (NZL)  131586671096512
Flag of Norway.svg  Norway  (NOR)  3566241114111
Flag of Palestine.svg  Palestine  (PLE)  11
Flag of Peru.svg  Peru  (PER)  112
Flag of the Philippines.svg  Philippines  (PHI)  1113
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland  (POL)  65644811445434114
Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal  (POR)  4338979231521132117
Flag of Puerto Rico.svg  Puerto Rico  (PUR)  1211116
Flag of Qatar.svg  Qatar  (QAT)  41
Flag of Romania.svg  Romania  (ROU)  5667716
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia  (RUS) X 7235357
Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia  (KSA)  342445
Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa  (RSA)  3113
Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea  (KOR)  1271054118
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union  (URS)  991010101171189
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain  (ESP)  4676683444881311423918
Flag of Syria.svg  Syria  (SYR)  11
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden  (SWE)  1722129699991035184121391112121222
Flag of Switzerland.svg  Switzerland  (SUI)  996479866114887118954720
Flag of Chinese Taipei for Olympic games.svg  Chinese Taipei  (TPE)  11
Flag of Thailand.svg  Thailand  (THA)  112
Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey  (TUR)  466315
Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine  (UKR)  4553
Olympic flag.svg  Unified Team  (EUN)  81
Flag of the German Olympic Team (1960-1968).svg  United Team of Germany  (EUA)  99103
Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg  United Arab Emirates  (UAE)  11
Flag of the United Arab Republic.svg  United Arab Republic  (UAR)  31
Flag of the United States.svg  United States  (USA) X 485588798101011111211121214141312131224
Flag of Uruguay.svg  Uruguay  (URU)  3213
Flag of Venezuela.svg  Venezuela  (VEN)  31124
Flag of the United States Virgin Islands.svg  Virgin Islands  (ISV)  11114
Flag of SFR Yugoslavia.svg  Yugoslavia  (YUG)  132
Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany  (FRG)  11111111135
Flag of Zimbabwe.svg  Zimbabwe  (ZIM)  11
Nations511081720621172529292018272311303235303738424043
Horse riders37-64126289971133112710313415815911612517913568157182215218195203193199200
Year96 00 04 08 12 20 24 28 32 36 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 16 20

See also

Related Research Articles

Dressage highly skilled form of riding performed in exhibition and competition

Dressage is a highly skilled form of riding performed in exhibition and competition, as well as an "art" sometimes pursued solely for the sake of mastery. As an equestrian sport defined by the International Equestrian Federation, dressage is "the highest expression of horse training" where "horse and rider are expected to perform from memory a series of predetermined movements."

Eventing equestrian triathlon

Eventing is an equestrian event where a single horse and rider combine and compete against other combinations across the three disciplines of dressage, cross-country, and show jumping. This event has its roots in a comprehensive cavalry test that required mastery of several types of riding. The competition may be run as a one-day event (ODE), where all three events are completed in one day or a three-day event (3DE), which is more commonly now run over four days, with dressage on the first two days, followed by cross-country the next day and then show jumping in reverse order on the final day. Eventing was previously known as Combined Training, and the name persists in many smaller organizations. The term "Combined Training" is sometimes confused with the term "Combined Test", which refers to a combination of just two of the phases, most commonly dressage and show jumping.

Equitation is the art or practice of horse riding or horsemanship.

Equestrian at the 1912 Summer Olympics

The equestrian program at the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm, included five medal events. There were individual competitions in dressage, eventing, and show jumping. Team scores were also gathered and medals awarded for teams in the eventing and jumping competitions. Equestrian had been absent from the Olympic program since the 1900 Summer Olympics, making the 1912 Games the second time the sport was featured. Ten nations competed: Belgium, Chile, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Norway, Russia, Sweden, and the USA. Only Sweden and Germany were able to supply a full team for all three disciplines, with several countries having several riders and horses used in two or even all three disciplines. A total of 88 entries ran in the three events, with 62 riders and 70 horses.

The equestrian events at the 1924 Paris Olympics included eventing, show jumping and dressage. Vaulting was not included this year. The competitions were held from 21 to 27 July 1924. 17 nations fielded teams: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Finland, France, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, USA, and Yugoslavia, with Germany not being invited. Of those 17 countries, only 5 fielded teams in all 3 disciplines: France, Sweden, Belgium, Switzerland and Czechoslovakia. A total of 111 entries and 126 horses competed. Horses in both the jumping and eventing competitions were required to carry at least 75 kilograms (165 lb).

Equestrian at the 1928 Summer Olympics

The equestrian events at the 1928 Summer Olympics included dressage, eventing, and show jumping. All three disciplines had both individual and team competitions. The competitions were held from 8 to 12 August 1928. Teams were now fielded by three riders, rather than four, the purpose being to reduce pressure on national federations to find that many riders in order to compete for team medals. Riders had to be considered amateurs, which was defined as either an actively serving professional officer, or as a gentleman rider as defined by the rules of that rider's national governing body. A total of 121 entries were present from 20 nations: Argentina, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the USA. This was the first appearance for Hungary, Japan and Argentina in equestrian events at an Olympics. Additionally, after being shut out from two Olympic competitions, Germany also returned to the Games to win a few medals in the equestrian events.

Equestrian at the 1932 Summer Olympics

The equestrian events at the 1932 Los Angeles Summer Games included dressage, eventing, and show jumping. The competitions were held from August 10 to 14, 1932. Due to the Great Depression, and the fact that the Games were held in Los Angeles, only 35 entries from 6 nations competed—which was to be the lowest participation of any Olympic Games.

Equestrian at the 1936 Summer Olympics

The equestrian events at the 1936 Berlin Summer Olympics included dressage, eventing, and show jumping. All three disciplines had both individual and team competitions. The host country, Germany, had a stellar year, winning both individual and team gold in every equestrian event, as well as individual silver in dressage. The competitions were held from 12 to 16 August 1936. Moderately priced tickets meant huge crowds at all equestrian events, with 15,000–20,000 spectators at any time during the dressage competition, 60,000 on the endurance day of eventing, and 120,000 for the Nations Cup in jumping.

The equestrian events at the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal included show jumping, dressage and eventing. All three disciplines, except for the Nations Cup, were held at the equestrian stadium in Bromont, which had a capacity of 15,000 spectators, and the cross-country and steeplechase were also nearby. Building this stadium provided some headache for the Organizing Committee after the original estimate of 1 million Canadian dollars increased to CAD 4,425.

The equestrian events at the 1948 London Summer Olympics included dressage, eventing, and show jumping. All three disciplines had both individual and team competitions. The competitions were held from 9 to 14 August 1948, with the first five days held in the military complex at Aldershot, the endurance day on the army grounds of Aldershot at Tweseldown, and the jumping at the Empire Stadium in Wembley. World War II resulted in a greatly reduced number of competitors, including the absence of Germany, although Brazil made its first appearance in the equestrian events. 108 entries from 17 nations competed. The youngest participant was Aëcio Coelho from Brazil at 23 years old, while the oldest rider was the Italian Alessandro, Count Bettoni Cazzago, at 55 years old.

The equestrian events at the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich included show jumping, dressage and eventing. All three disciplines had both individual and team competitions. The equestrian competitions were held at 3 sites: an existing equestrian facility at Riem for the individual show jumping and eventing competitions, the Olympic Stadium in Munich for the Nations Cup, and Nymphenburg, a Baroque palace garden, for the sold-out dressage. 180 entries, including 31 women, competed from 27 countries: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, Bulgaria, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Denmark, German Democratic Republic (GDR), France, Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), Great Britain, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Soviet Union, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the USA. The youngest participant was Kurt Maeder from Switzerland at 19 years old, while the oldest rider was Lorna Johnstone from Great Britain at 70 years old.

Equestrian at the 1964 Summer Olympics

The equestrian events at the 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo included show jumping, dressage and eventing. All three disciplines had both individual and team competitions. The competitions were held from 16 to 24 October 1964. These events took place at Karuizawa, which would become the first city to host Summer and Winter Olympic event when it hosted the curling events for the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano.

The Concours Complet International (CCI) is the competition rating for the equestrian sport of eventing, given by the international governing body for the sport, the FEI. The rating system was recently changed, effective January 1, 2019.

Impulsion

Impulsion is the movement of a horse when it is going forward with controlled power. Related to the concept of collection, impulsion helps a horse effectively use the power in its hindquarters. To achieve impulsion, a horse is not using speed, but muscular control; the horse exhibits a relaxed spinal column, which allows its hindquarters to come well under its body and "engage" so that they can be used in the most effective manner to move the horse forward at any speed.

Equestrian at the 2007 Pan American Games

The Equestrian events included three disciplines: dressage, eventing, and show jumping, and were held at the Deodoro Military Club.

The equestrian events at the 2012 Olympic Games in London were held between 28 July and 9 August at Greenwich Park. Medals were awarded in three disciplines for both individual and team competitions.

The individual eventing in equestrian at the 2012 Olympic Games in London was held at Greenwich Park from 28 to 31 July.

The equestrian events at the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro were held between 6 and 19 August at National Equestrian Center in Deodoro. Medals were awarded in three disciplines for both individual and team competitions.

The individual eventing in equestrian at the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin was held on the May Field (dressage), in Döberitz (cross-country), and at the Olympiastadion (jumping) from 13 to 16 August. Of the 50 horse and rider pairs to begin the competition, only 27 finished. Three horses died during the competition.

The team eventing in equestrian at the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin was held on the May Field (dressage), in Döberitz (cross-country), and at the Olympiastadion (jumping) from 13 to 16 August. Scores from the individual competition were used to determine team results. Any nation with three individual horse and rider pairs was entered as a team, with team score being the sum of the three individual scores. All three pairs had to finish the event for the team to receive a place, however; this eliminated 10 out of the 14 teams.

References

  1. International Federation for Equestrian Sports - Who we are & What we stand for
  2. "Equestrianism – Jumping, individual (1900)". Herman De Wael. Retrieved 20 November 2008.
  3. The Horse in Transition, International Museum of the Horse, retrieved August 25, 2011
  4. "1928 Overview". 100 Years of Equestrian Sport in the Olympic Movement. International Equestrian Federation. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
  5. "1952 Overview". 100 Years of Equestrian Sport in the Olympic Movement. International Equestrian Federation. Retrieved 3 September 2013.