Eric V of Denmark

Last updated
Eric V Klipping
Erik Glipping.jpg
King of Denmark
Reign1259–1286
Coronation 25 December 1259
Predecessor Christopher I
Successor Eric VI Menved
Regent Margaret Sambiria
Born1249
Aalholm Castle, Lolland, Denmark.
Died22 November 1286 (aged 3637)
Finderup, Viborg, Denmark
Burial
Viborg Cathedral, Viborg, Denmark
Consort Agnes of Brandenburg
Issue
among others...
Eric VI, King of Denmark
Christopher II, King of Denmark
Martha, Queen of Sweden
Full name
Eric Christoffersen
House House of Estridsen
Father Christopher I, King of Denmark
Mother Margaret Sambiria
Religion Roman Catholicism

Eric V Klipping (1249 – 22 November 1286) was King of Denmark (1259–1286) and son of King Christopher I of Denmark. From 1259-1266, he ruled under the auspices of his competent mother, Margaret Sambiria (1230-1282). Between 1261 and 1262, the young King Eric was a prisoner in Holstein following a military defeat. Afterwards, he lived in Brandenburg, where he was initially held captive by John I, Margrave of Brandenburg (c. 1213-1266) . [1]

Contents

Nickname

The king’s nickname ”Klipping” or ”Glipping” refers to a medieval coin that has become ”clipped” (a "clipped penny") or cut in order to indicate devaluation. The nickname is an unkind reference to his lack of trustworthiness. He "short-changed" his people and the monarchy. [2]

Regency

Memorial cross in village of Finderup Mindekors Finderup Lade.jpg
Memorial cross in village of Finderup

When his father King Christopher I was murdered in 1259, Prince Eric was too young to rule in his own right. The Danish court appointed his mother, Queen Margaret Sambiria (Danish: Sprænghest) as regent. She was the daughter of Sambor II, Duke of Pomerania and Matilda of Mecklenberg, and was a clever and intelligent woman. Immediately, she had to fight to keep her son on the throne from two powerful enemies; Archbishop Jacob Erlandsen (ca. 1220-1274) and Erik Abelsøn who was Duke of Schleswig from 1260 until his death in 1272. Archbishop Erlandsen had excommunicated the bishop who had anointed young Eric as king. Duke Eric was a nephew of King Christopher and had been in frequent conflict with the king. [3] [4]

Taking advantage of the situation, Chief Jaromar II of Rügen (c. 1218–1260) gathered an army of Wends and invaded Zealand. Queen Margaret raised an army, but was soundly defeated in 1259 near Ringsted. Jarimar went on to attack and pillage Copenhagen later that year. He shipped his army to Skåne inorder to continue his campaign. Unfortunately for him, he encountered the wrath of a farmer's wife, who killed him outright. The Wends fled back to Rűgen. [5]

Believing the Wendish incursion showed the Queen was weak, Duke Eric rebelled. The queen was forced to raise another army and march to Jutland to put the Duke in his place. She defeated the Duke, and while he negotiated a truce with her, he gathered allies in northern Germany to help him attack. The combined forces defeated Queen Margaret in 1261 at the Battle of Lohede south of Danevirke in Schleswig-Holstein. She and her son were captured and were forced to cede royal properties in southern Jutland to secure their release. [6]

In 1260, Queen Margaret had released Archbishop Erlandsen from prison thinking he would be grateful, but he subsequently issued an interdict over all of Denmark trying to force the Queen and her son, King Eric off the throne. In 1263, acting as regent of Denmark, the Queen wrote to Pope Urban IV asking him to intervene with Archbishop Erlandsen. After several years of quibbling, the Pope agreed to several items that the Queen wanted. He issued a dispensation to alter the terms of the Danish succession that would permit women to inherit the Danish throne. This would make it possible for one of King Eric's sisters to become the reigning Queen of Denmark in the event of his death, because he had no children. Although Pope Urban IV gave his consent, it never became an issue. King Eric's son, Prince Eric Menved, eventually succeeded to the Danish throne.

Reign

As an adult ruler, King Eric V tried to enforce his power over the church and nobility. In the 1270s, the King attacked Småland. His conflict with the church was brought to a satisfying result, with the help of the Pope. By 1282, he had so offended the nobles throughout Denmark that he was forced to accept a charter (Danish: håndfæstning - a kind of a Danish Magna Carta) which limited his authority and guaranteed the ancient rights and customs that preserved the power of the nobles. The King signed the charter at Nyborg Castle, recognized as Denmark’s first-ever constitution in existence. However at the time of King Eric's death, the rights and guarantees the 1282 charter would lose their effectiveness, since the next king would not be bound by the same agreement. [7] [8]

Mysterious death

"The conspirators ride from Finderup after the murder of Eric Klipping St. Cecilia Night 1286". Painted by Otto Bache, 1882. Otto Bache - De sammensvorne rider fra Finderup.jpg
"The conspirators ride from Finderup after the murder of Eric Klipping St. Cecilia Night 1286". Painted by Otto Bache, 1882.

Legend has it that several nobles swore an oath that they would murder Eric in revenge for personal slights or policies the king enforced that they did not like. Chief among the conspirators was marshal (Danish: marsk ) Stig Andersen Hvide and Jacob Nielsen, Count of Halland. They paid Rane Jonsen (1254-1294) one of the king's companions, to keep them informed as to the king's activities, in order to fulfill their oath. [9] [10] [11]

November 1286 found the king at Viborg, in central Jutland. After a long day's hunt in the countryside led by Rane Jonsen, the king and a few attendants couldn't find their way back to the king's farm at Viborg. Rane suggested that they take shelter for the night of 22 November 1286 in the church barn in the village of Finderup (Finderup Lade). The assassins, dressed as Franciscan friars, were kept informed as to the kings' whereabouts and waited for everyone to settle down for the night. Once the king fell asleep, they rushed from their hiding places and stabbed and hacked the king to death. [12]

Tradition has it that he received 56 stab wounds. The folktale that grew up around this event has Stig Andersen personally striking the first blows in revenge for King Eric's seduction of Stig's wife while Stig himself was off with the king's army. Eric's bloody corpse was discovered the next morning. [13] [ dubious ]

The court immediately blamed the nation's most powerful noblemen Stig Andersen Hvide and Count Jacob of Halland and outlawed them and seven others. Only one was accused of killing the king, the others were accused of involvement. Whether they actually had anything to do with the murder remains a mystery. Stig Hvide fled the country to take up piracy. Certainly Stig Hvide was not the only person who had reason to want to see King Eric eliminated. Valdemar IV, who King Eric was forced to accept as Duke of Schleswig in 1283, as well as many of Archbishop Jakob Erlandsen's appointments to bishoprics, remained bitter enemies of the king until his death. [14]

Issue

King Eric V married Agnes of Brandenburg (c. 1257–1304) on 11 November 1273 at Schleswig. She was the daughter of John I, Margrave of Brandenburg (d. 1266) and Brigitte of Saxony. The marriage was probably agreed upon during King Eric's captivity in Brandenburg by Agnes' father from 1262 to 1264. Tradition claims that the King was released from captivity on his promise to marry Agnes without a dowry. [15] [16]

They had the following issue:

Related Research Articles

Valdemar I of Denmark King of Denmark

Valdemar I of Denmark, also known as Valdemar the Great, was King of Denmark from 1146 until his death in 1182. The reign of King Valdemar I saw the rise of Denmark, which reached its zenith under his second son, and successor, King Valdemar II of Denmark.

Eric IV of Denmark King of Denmark

Eric IV, also known as Eric Ploughpenny or Eric Plowpenny, was king of Denmark from 1241 until his death in 1250. He was the son of Valdemar II of Denmark by his wife, Berengaria of Portugal, and brother of King Abel of Denmark and King Christopher I of Denmark

Abel Valdemarsen was Duke of Schleswig from 1232 to 1252 and King of Denmark from 1250 until his death in 1252. He was the son of Valdemar II by his second wife, Berengaria of Portugal, and brother to Eric IV and Christopher I.

Christopher I was King of Denmark between 1252 and 1259. He was the son of Valdemar II of Denmark by his second wife, Berengaria of Portugal. He succeeded his brothers Eric IV Plovpenning and Abel of Denmark on the throne. Christopher was elected King upon the death of his older brother Abel in the summer of 1252. He was crowned at Lund Cathedral on Christmas Day 1252.

Eric VI of Denmark King of Denmark

Eric VIMenved was King of Denmark (1286–1319). A son of Eric V of Denmark and Agnes of Brandenburg, he became king in 1286 at age 12, when his father was murdered on 22 November by unknown assailants. On account of his age, his mother ruled for him until 1294.

Valdemar III of Denmark King of Denmark

Valdemar III (1314–1364) was king of Denmark from 1326 to 1329, while he was underage; he was also Duke of Schleswig as Valdemar V in 1325–26 and from 1330 to 1364. He was a rival king set up against the unsuccessful Christopher II and was widely opposed by his subjects. His term was ended when he abdicated. Sometimes the earlier King Valdemar the Young (c. 1209–1231) is also referred as Valdemar III.

Adolphus VIII, Count of Holstein Duke of Southern Jutland, Count of Holstein

Adolphus XI of Schauenburg, as Adolph I Duke of Schleswig, and as Adolph VIII Count of Holstein-Rendsburg, was the mightiest vassal of the Danish realm.

Margaret Sambiria Queen consort of Denmark

Margaret Sambiria was Queen of Denmark by marriage to King Christopher I, and regent during the minority of her son, King Eric V from 1259 until 1264. She is the first woman confirmed to have formally ruled as regent of Denmark. She was the reigning fief-holder of Danish Estonia in 1266–1282.

Canute Lavard Danish prince

Canute Lavard was a Danish prince. Later he was the first Duke of Schleswig and the first border prince who was both a Danish and a German vassal, a position leading towards the historical double position of Southern Jutland. He was killed by his cousin Magnus, who saw him as a rival to the Danish throne. Canute Lavard was canonized in 1170.

Stig Andersen Hvide was a Danish nobleman and magnate, known as the leading man among the outlaws after the murder of King Eric V of Denmark. In Danish tradition, he is known as Marsk Stig.

Jakob Erlandsen was a Danish Archbishop of Lund (1254–1274) and the central character of the first great church conflict in Denmark.

Hvide was a medieval Danish clan, and afterwards in early modern era a Danish noble surname of presumably one surviving branch of leaders of that clan. Before the 16th century it was not used as surname. It signified the color white.

Matilda of Holstein Queen consort of Denmark

Matilda of Holstein or Mechthild was a Danish queen consort, married to King Abel of Denmark and later to Birger Jarl, Regent of Sweden.

Jutta of Saxony Queen consort of Denmark

Jutta of Saxony was a Danish Queen consort, spouse of King Eric IV of Denmark. Jutta was the daughter of Albert I, Duke of Saxony. She married king Erik in 1239, and became junior queen consort, since her husband was junior king, even though there were no senior queen at the time. She would become senior queen in 1242.

Valdemar IV, Duke of Schleswig German noble

Valdemar IV Eriksøn was Duke of Schleswig from 1283 until his death in 1312. He was the eldest son of Duke Eric I of Schleswig and Margaret of Rugia.

House of Estridsen

The House of Estridsen was a dynasty that provided the kings of Denmark from 1047 to 1412. The dynasty is named after its ancestor Estrid Svendsdatter. The dynasty is sometimes called the Ulfinger, after Estrid's husband, Ulf the Earl. The dynasty also provided three of the rulers of Sweden in the years 1125–1412. Their family coat of arms became the coat of arms of Denmark and therefore influenced the coat of arms of Tallinn and the coat of arms of Estonia.

Canute Porse the Elder Danish noble

Canute Porse the Elder or Knud/Knut Porse was a medieval Danish nobleman and Duke of Samsø, Duke of Halland, and Duke of Estonia.

The 6000-mark war was a war between Denmark and Sweden which took place from 1276 to 1278. It started because of a disagreement over an agreed sum of 6,000 silver marks for Danish assistance to Magnus Birgersson in the battle against Valdemar Birgersson in 1275.

War of the Outlaws

The War of the Outlaws also known as The Outlaw War, The Outlaw Revenge War, Danish-Norwegian War, The Revenge War and in Denmark as the war with Norway over the archbishop's election. The war took place from 1289 to 1296. It was a conflict between two royal families over hereditary demands and special interests and was triggered by the murder of Eric V of Denmark.

Rane Jonsen was a Danish esquire and camerarius, known for his role in the murder of Eric V of Denmark. He is mentioned in a traditional Medieval ballad as the traitor "warding his master with deceit". He owned Gjorslev Manor on the Stevns Peninsula.

References

  1. Artikel: Erik 5 Klipping 1249-1286 (Om danmarkshistorien.dk)
  2. "klipping". Danish-English Dictionary online. Retrieved August 1, 2018.
  3. "Erlandsen, Jacob, –1274, Ærkebisp". Dansk biografisk Lexikon. Retrieved August 1, 2018.
  4. "Erik (I), Hertug af Sønderjylland, –1272". Dansk biografisk Lexikon. Retrieved August 1, 2018.
  5. "Jaromar II". Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie. Retrieved August 1, 2018.
  6. "Lohede, Slaget ved". Historisk Samfund for Sønderjylland. Retrieved August 1, 2018.
  7. Kilde: Mordet på Erik Klipping 22. november 1286 (Om danmarkshistorien.dk)
  8. Porter, Darwin; Prince, Danforth; Norum, Roger (15 June 2011). Frommer's Scandinavia. John Wiley & Sons. p. 137. ISBN   978-1-118-09023-7.
  9. "Stig Andersen Hvide". Dansk Biografisk Leksikon. Retrieved August 1, 2018.
  10. "Grev Jakob af Hallands". Gyldendals og Politikens Danmarkshistorie. Retrieved August 1, 2018.
  11. "Rane Jonsen". roskildehistorie. Retrieved August 1, 2018.
  12. "Mordet i Finderup Lade - Erik Klipping". gedevasen. Retrieved August 1, 2018.
  13. Huitfeldt, Arild. Danmarks Riges Krønike
  14. "Valdemar 4. Eriksen, d. 1312, hertug af Sønderjylland". Dansk Biografisk Leksikon. Retrieved August 1, 2018.
  15. Alf Henrikson: Dansk historia (Danish history) (1989) (Swedish)
  16. "Agnes, 1258-1304, Dronning". Dansk biografisk Lexikon. Retrieved August 1, 2018.
Eric Klipping
Born: 1249 Died: 22 November 1286
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Christopher I
King of Denmark
1259–1286
Succeeded by
Eric Menved