Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover

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Ernest Augustus
Crown Prince of Hanover
ERNSTAUGUSTofHannover1.jpg
Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale
Predecessor George V
Successor Titles revoked
Head of the House of Hanover
Pretence12 June 1878 – 14 November 1923
Predecessor George V
Successor Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick
Born(1845-09-21)21 September 1845
Hanover, Kingdom of Hanover
Died14 November 1923(1923-11-14) (aged 78)
Gmunden, First Austrian Republic
Burial
Spouse
Issue
Full name
Ernest Augustus William Adolphus George Frederick
German: Ernst August Wilhelm Adolf Georg Friedrich
House Hanover
Father George V of Hanover
Mother Marie of Saxe-Altenburg

Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover, 3rd Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale (Ernest Augustus William Adolphus George Frederick; 21 September 1845 – 14 November 1923), was the eldest child and only son of George V of Hanover and his wife, Marie of Saxe-Altenburg. Ernst August was deprived of the thrones of Hanover upon its annexation by Prussia in 1866 and later the Duchy of Brunswick in 1884. Although he was the senior male-line great-grandson of George III, the Duke of Cumberland was deprived of his British peerages and honours for having sided with Germany in World War I. Ernst August was the last Hanoverian prince to hold a British royal title and the Order of the Garter. His descendants are in the line of succession to the British throne.

George V of Hanover King of Hanover

George V was the last king of Hanover, the only child and successor of King Ernest Augustus. George V's reign was ended during the Unification of Germany.

Marie of Saxe-Altenburg British princess

Princess Marie of Saxe-Altenburg, VA was Queen of Hanover and the consort of George V, a grandson of George III of the United Kingdom and Queen Charlotte.

Kingdom of Hanover German kingdom established in 1814

The Kingdom of Hanover was established in October 1814 by the Congress of Vienna, with the restoration of George III to his Hanoverian territories after the Napoleonic era. It succeeded the former Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and joined 38 other sovereign states in the German Confederation in June 1815. The kingdom was ruled by the House of Hanover, a cadet branch of the House of Welf, in personal union with the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until 1837. Since its monarch resided in London, a viceroy handled the administration of the Kingdom of Hanover.

Contents

Early life

King George V and Queen Marie of Hanover and their children Ernest Augustus, Frederica and Marie. Family George V of Hanover.jpg
King George V and Queen Marie of Hanover and their children Ernest Augustus, Frederica and Marie.
The young crown prince with his father in the 1860s in "Linden-Hannover" 1860er Atelieraufnahme Ernst August, Kronprinz von Hannover, mit seinem Vater Konig Georg V., Kabinettformat, Fotograf Otto Kamm, Linden-Hannover, Deisterstrasse 1 (Ihmenbrucke).jpg
The young crown prince with his father in the 1860s in "Linden-Hannover"

Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Prince of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, was born at Hanover during the reign of his paternal grandfather, Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover. He became the crown prince of Hanover upon his father's accession as George V in November 1851. William I of Prussia and his minister-president Otto von Bismarck deposed George V and annexed Hanover after George sided with the defeated Austria in the 1866 Austro-Prussian War. During that war, the Crown Prince saw action at the Battle of Langensalza.

Hanover Place in Lower Saxony, Germany

Hanover or Hannover is the capital and largest city of the German state of Lower Saxony. Its 535,061 (2017) inhabitants make it the thirteenth-largest city of Germany, as well as the third-largest city of Northern Germany after Hamburg and Bremen. The city lies at the confluence of the River Leine and its tributary Ihme, in the south of the North German Plain, and is the largest city of the Hannover–Braunschweig–Göttingen–Wolfsburg Metropolitan Region. It is the fifth-largest city in the Low German dialect area after Hamburg, Dortmund, Essen, and Bremen.

Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover King of Hanover

Ernest Augustus, known for most of his adult life as the Duke of Cumberland, was King of Hanover from 20 June 1837 until his death. He was the fifth son and eighth child of King George III of the United Kingdom and Hanover. As a fifth son, Ernest seemed unlikely to become a monarch, but none of his four elder brothers had a legitimate son who survived infancy. The Salic Law, which barred succession to or through a female, prevailed in Hanover; therefore, when his elder brother King William IV died in 1837, Ernest succeeded him as King of Hanover. In the United Kingdom the succession to the monarchy was determined by male-preference primogeniture, a different system, and his niece Victoria became queen, thus ending the personal union between the British and Hanoverian crowns that had existed since 1714.

Crown prince heir to the throne

A crown prince is the male heir apparent to the throne in a royal or imperial monarchy. Its female form is crown princess, which may refer either to an heir apparent or, especially in earlier times, the wife of the person styled crown prince.

Exile

After the war, the exiled Hanoverian royal family took up residence in Hietzing, near Vienna, but spent a good deal of time in Paris. George V never abandoned his claim to the Hanoverian throne and maintained the Guelphic Legion at his own expense. The former Crown Prince traveled during this early period of exile, and ultimately accepted a commission in the Imperial and Royal Army of Austria-Hungary.

Hietzing 13th District of Vienna in Austria

Hietzing is the 13th municipal District of Vienna. It is located west of the central districts, west of Meidling. Hietzing is a heavily populated urban area with many residential buildings, but also contains large areas of the Vienna Woods, along with Schönbrunn Palace.

Vienna Capital city and state in Austria

Vienna is the federal capital, largest city and one of nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primate city, with a population of about 1.9 million, and its cultural, economic, and political centre. It is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union. Until the beginning of the 20th century, it was the largest German-speaking city in the world, and before the splitting of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in World War I, the city had 2 million inhabitants. Today, it has the second largest number of German speakers after Berlin. Vienna is host to many major international organizations, including the United Nations and OPEC. The city is located in the eastern part of Austria and is close to the borders of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary. These regions work together in a European Centrope border region. Along with nearby Bratislava, Vienna forms a metropolitan region with 3 million inhabitants. In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In July 2017 it was moved to the list of World Heritage in Danger.

Paris Capital of France

Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, diplomacy, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts.

Succession

When King George V died in Paris on 12 June 1878, Prince Ernst August succeeded him as Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale in the Peerage of Great Britain and Earl of Armagh in the Peerage of Ireland. Queen Victoria created him a Knight of the Garter on 1 August 1878. Kaiser Franz Joseph I of Austria appointed him to succeed his father as colonel and proprietor of the Austrian 42nd Regiment of Infantry. The regiment's name was changed to honor him, and he served as its honorary colonel from 1879 to the fall of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, in 1918.

The Peerage of Great Britain comprises all extant peerages created in the Kingdom of Great Britain after the Acts of Union 1707 but before the Acts of Union 1800. It replaced the Peerage of England and the Peerage of Scotland until it was itself replaced by the Peerage of the United Kingdom in 1801.

The Peerage of Ireland consists of those titles of nobility created by the English monarchs in their capacity as Lord or King of Ireland, or later by monarchs of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The creation of such titles came to an end in the 19th century. The ranks of the Irish peerage are Duke, Marquess, Earl, Viscount and Baron. As of 2016, there were 135 titles in the Peerage of Ireland extant: two dukedoms, ten marquessates, 43 earldoms, 28 viscountcies, and 52 baronies. The Crown of the United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland continues to exercise jurisdiction over the Peerage of Ireland, including those peers whose titles derive from places located in what is now the Republic of Ireland. Article 40.2 of the Irish Constitution forbids the state conferring titles of nobility and a citizen may not accept titles of nobility or honour except with the prior approval of the Government. As stated above, this issue does not arise in respect of the Peerage of Ireland, as no creations of titles in it have been made since the Constitution came into force.

Order of the Garter Order of chivalry in England

The Order of the Garter is an order of chivalry founded by Edward III in 1348 and regarded as the most prestigious British order of chivalry in England and later the United Kingdom. It is dedicated to the image and arms of Saint George, England's patron saint.

Marriage

While visiting his second cousin Albert Edward, Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII) at Sandringham in 1875, he met Princess Thyra of Denmark (29 September 1853 26 February 1933), the youngest daughter of King Christian IX and a sister of the Princess of Wales (later Queen Alexandra). Due to an Act of Parliament that forbade descendants of George II of Great Britain from marrying without the British Sovereign's consent or else risk losing their titles and place in the succession, Ernest Augustus asked his first cousin once removed, Queen Victoria, for permission to marry. She gave it in an official document in letters patent. [1]

Sandringham House Country house in Norfolk, England, private home of Queen Elizabeth II

Sandringham House is a country house in the parish of Sandringham, Norfolk, England. It is the private home of Elizabeth II, whose father, George VI, and grandfather, George V, both died there. The house stands in a 20,000-acre (8,100 ha) estate in the Norfolk Coast Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. The house is listed as Grade II* along with its landscaped gardens, park, and woodlands.

Princess Thyra of Denmark youngest daughter of Christian IX of Denmark and Louise of Hesse-Kassel

Princess Thyra of Denmark, Danish pronunciation: [ˈtyːʁə], was the youngest daughter and fifth child of Christian IX of Denmark and Louise of Hesse-Kassel. In 1878, she married Ernest Augustus, the exiled heir to the Kingdom of Hanover. As the Kingdom of Hanover had been annexed by Prussia in 1866, she spent most of her life in exile with her husband in Austria.

Christian IX of Denmark King of Denmark

Christian IX was King of Denmark from 1863 until his death in 1906. From 1863 to 1864, he was concurrently Duke of Schleswig, Holstein and Lauenburg.

On 21/22 December 1878, he and Princess Thyra married at Christiansborg Palace in Copenhagen.

Christiansborg Palace castle in Copenhagen, seat of the Danish Parliament

Christiansborg Palace is a palace and government building on the islet of Slotsholmen in central Copenhagen, Denmark. It is the seat of the Danish Parliament, the Danish Prime Minister's Office, and the Supreme Court of Denmark. Also, several parts of the palace are used by the Danish monarch, including the Royal Reception Rooms, the Palace Chapel and the Royal Stables.

Copenhagen Capital of Denmark

Copenhagen is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. As of July 2018, the city has a population of 777,218. It forms the core of the wider urban area of Copenhagen and the Copenhagen metropolitan area. Copenhagen is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand; another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road.

Duchy of Brunswick

Queen Victoria appointed the Duke of Cumberland a colonel in the British Army in 1876 [2] and promoted him to major general in 1886, lieutenant general in 1892 and general in 1898. Although he was a British peer and a prince of Great Britain and Ireland, he continued to consider himself an exiled monarch of a German realm and refused to disclaim his succession rights to Hanover, making his home in Gmunden, Upper Austria.

The Duke of Cumberland was also first in the line of succession to the Duchy of Brunswick after his distant cousin, Duke William. In 1879, when it became apparent that the senior line of the House of Welf would die with William, the Brunswick parliament created a council of regency to take over administration of the duchy upon William's death. This council would appoint a regent if the Duke of Cumberland could not ascend the throne. When William died in 1884, the Duke of Cumberland proclaimed himself Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick. However, since he still claimed to be the legitimate King of Hanover as well, the German Reichsrat declared that he would disturb the peace of the empire if he ascended the ducal throne. Under Prussian pressure, the council of regency ignored his claim and appointed Prince Albert of Prussia as regent.

Negotiations between Ernest Augustus and the German government continued for almost three decades, to no avail. During this time, Regent Albert died and Duke John Albert of Mecklenburg was appointed as regent.

Reconciliation

The Duke of Cumberland was partially reconciled with the Hohenzollern dynasty in 1913, when his surviving son, Prince Ernst August, married the only daughter of Kaiser Wilhelm II, the grandson of the Prussian king who had deposed his father. On 24 October 1913, he renounced his succession rights to the Brunswick duchy (which had belonged to the Guelph dynasty since 1235) in favour of his son. The younger Ernst August thus became the reigning Duke of Brunswick on 1 November 1913 and married the Kaiser's daughter. As a mark of regard for his daughter's father-in-law, Kaiser Wilhelm II created the elder Ernst August a Knight of the Order of the Black Eagle.

In 1918, the younger Duke Ernst August abdicated his throne along with the other German princes when all the German dynasties were disestablished by the successor German provisional Government which was established when the Emperor himself abdicated and fled Germany in exile to the Netherlands.

War

Schloss Cumberland in Gmunden, Austria, built in 1882 as exile seat for Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover, 3rd Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale Gmunden Schloss Cumberland.JPG
Schloss Cumberland in Gmunden, Austria, built in 1882 as exile seat for Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover, 3rd Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale

The outbreak of World War I created a breach between the British Royal Family and its Hanoverian cousins. On 13 May 1915, King George V of the United Kingdom ordered the removal of the Duke of Cumberland from the Roll of the Order of the Garter. According to the letters patent on 30 November 1917, he lost the status of a British prince and the style of Highness. Under the terms of the Titles Deprivation Act 1917, on 28 March 1919 his name was removed from the roll of Peers of Great Britain and of Ireland by Order of the King in Council for "bearing arms against Great Britain."

Later life

Prince Ernst August, the former Crown Prince of Hanover and former Duke of Cumberland, died of a stroke on his estate at Gmunden in November 1923. He is interred, next to his wife and his mother, in a mausoleum which he had built adjacent to Cumberland Castle.

Titles, styles, honours and arms

Titles and styles

Honours

Orders and Medals

Military Appointments

In Germany:

  • Flag of Hanover 1837-1866.svg  Kingdom of Hanover 1863 (ca.): Leutnant, Royal Hanoverian Garde-Husaren-Regiment
  • Flag of Bavaria (striped).svg  Kingdom of Bavaria December 9, 1912 (ca.): Generalmajor à la Suite, Royal Bavarian Schweren Reiter-Regiment " Prinz Karl von Bayern" Nr. 1 [16]

In Austria:

  • Flag of Austria-Hungary (1869-1918).svg 1879: Oberstinhaber (Colonel and Proprietor), K.u.K. Infanterieregiment "Ernst August, Herzog von Cumberland und Herzog zu Braunschweig-Lüneburg" Nr. 42
  • Flag of Austria-Hungary (1869-1918).svg 1914 (ca.): Generalmajor, K.u.K. Armee [17]
  • Flag of Austria-Hungary (1869-1918).svg 1914-1918 (ca.): General der Kavalrie, K.u.K. Armee [18]

In the United Kingdom:

  • Flag of the British Army.svg May 27, 1876: Colonel, British Army [19]
  • Flag of the British Army.svg March 19, 1886: Major General, British Army [20]
  • Flag of the British Army.svg April 1, 1892: Lieutenant General, British Army [21]
  • Flag of the British Army.svg December 14, 1898: General, British Army [22]

Arms

Until his father's death in 1878, Ernest Augustus' arms in right of the United Kingdom were those of his father (being the arms of the Kingdom of Hanover differenced by a label gules bearing a horse courant argent). Upon his father's death, he inherited his arms. [23]

Issue

Ernest Augustus with family, photographed by Karl Jagerspacher, 1887 Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover and Princess Thyra of Denmark with family.jpg
Ernest Augustus with family, photographed by Karl Jagerspacher, 1887

The Duke and Duchess of Cumberland had six children:

NameBirthDeathNotes
Princess Marie Louise of Hanover 11 October 187931 January 1948married Prince Maximilian of Baden (10 July 1867 6 November 1929); had issue
Prince George William of Hanover 28 October 188020 May 1912
Princess Alexandra of Hanover 29 September 188230 August 1963married Friedrich Franz IV, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (9 April 1882 17 November 1945); had issue
Princess Olga of Hanover 11 July 188421 September 1958
Prince Christian of Hanover 4 July 18853 September 1901
Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick 17 November 188730 January 1953married Princess Viktoria Luise of Prussia (13 September 1892 11 December 1980); had issue

Ancestry

Notes

  1. [Letters patent https://www.heraldica.org/topics/britain/prince_highness_docs.htm#1906]
  2. "No. 24330". The London Gazette . 26 May 1876. p. 3186.
  3. Ruvigny, Melville Henry Massue, 9th Marquis of. Titled Nobility of Europe: An International Peerage, London: Harrison & Sons, 1914. p. 52-53
  4. Hof und Staats-Handbuch des herzogthums Braunschweig für 1902. Duchy of Brunswick, 1902. p.10.
  5. Ruvigny, p. 53
  6. Ruvigny, p. 53
  7. Ruvigny, p. 53
  8. Ruvigny, p. 53
  9. Ruvigny, p. 53
  10. Ruvigny, p. 52
  11. "A Szent István Rend tagjai" Archived 22 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  12. Shaw, Wm. A. (1906) The Knights of England, I, London, p. 65
  13. Jørgen Pedersen (2009). Riddere af Elefantordenen, 1559–2009 (in Danish). Syddansk Universitetsforlag. p. 464. ISBN   978-87-7674-434-2.
  14. Ruvigny, p. 53
  15. Ruvigny, p. 53
  16. Helmut Weitze Military Antiques Auction House. “Bavarian Uniform Ensemble of Duke Ernst August (II) of Brunshwick and Lunenburg as General Major à la Suite in the Royal Bavarian 1st Schweren Reiter Regiment “Prinz Karl von Bayern” (Auction Number 272415)." Retrieved from: https://www.weitze.net/militaria/14/Bayern_Uniform_Ensemble_aus_dem_Besitz_von_Herzog_Ernst_August_von_Braunschweig_Lueneburg_als_Generalmajor_agrave_la_Suite_des_Kgl_Bayerischen_1_Schweren_Reiter_Regiments_Prinz_Karl_von_Bayern_ZU_NR_272415__272414.html. Notes: The rank "generalmajor," which translates to "major general," was the equivalent in rank to brigadier in the British Army and brigadier general in the U.S. Army.
  17. Dorotheum Auctions. (2015.May 7). “Ernst August, Crown Prince of Hannover, Duke of Cumberland (Lot No. 218).” Retrieved from: https://www.dorotheum.com/en/auctions/current-auctions/kataloge/list-lots-detail/auktion/11181-imperial-court-memorabilia-and-historical-objects/lotID/218/lot/1864465-ernst-august-crown-prince-of-hannover-duke-of-cumberland.html. Notes: The rank of “generalmajor” translates to “major general” but was equal in rank to a brigadier in the British Army and brigadier general in the U.S. Army.
  18. Willhaben Auction House. (2018, July 8). “Field gray K.u.K. field blouse as General (der Kavalrie) of Ernst August, Duke of Cumberland.” Retrieved from: https://www.willhaben.at/iad/kaufen-und-verkaufen/d/feldgraue-kuk-feldbluse-eines-generals-aus-dem-besitz-v-ernst-august-herzog-von-cumberland-256908186/. Notes: The rank "general der kavalrie" directly translates as "general of cavalry" and was the equivalent in rank to a lieutenant general in the British or U.S. Armies. The 3rd Duke of Cumberland was photographed wearing the auctioned K.u.K. lancer pattern field blouse in a ca.1917-1918 family photo.
  19. "No. 24330". The London Gazette . 26 May 1876. p. 3186.
  20. The Quarterly Army List for the Quarter Ending 31st March, 1915. London: J.J. Keliher & Co., Ltd. Pp.9-10.
  21. Army List, March 1915. p. 10
  22. Army List, March 1915. p. 10
  23. Marks of Cadency in the British Royal Family
Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover
Cadet branch of the House of Welf
Born: 21 September 1845 Died: 14 November 1923
Peerage of Great Britain
Preceded by
George
Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale
12 June 1878 – 28 March 1919
Suspended
Peerage of Ireland
Preceded by
George
Earl of Armagh
12 June 1878 – 28 March 1919
Suspended
Titles in pretence
Loss of title
 TITULAR 
Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale
28 March 1919 – 14 November 1923
Succeeded by
Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick
Preceded by
George V
 TITULAR 
King of Hanover
12 June 1878 – 14 November 1923
Reason for succession failure:
Hanover annexed by Prussia in 1866
Preceded by
William
 TITULAR 
Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
18 October 1884 - 1 November 1913
Reason for succession failure:
Refused to give up claim to Hanover

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