Ernest Marc Louis de Gonzague Doudart de Lagrée (French pronunciation: [ɛʁnɛst dudaʁ də laɡʁe] ; March 31, 1823 – March 12, 1868) was the leader of the French Mekong Expedition of 1866-1868.
He was born in Saint-Vincent-de-Mercuze near Grenoble, France, and graduated from the École Polytechnique.He joined the navy and served in the Crimean War, then took up a post in Indochina in the hope that the climate would help his chronically ulcerated throat. It did not, and throughout the Mekong expedition he was often in severe pain.
Saint-Vincent-de-Mercuze is a commune in the Isère department in southeastern France.
Grenoble is a city in southeastern France, at the foot of the French Alps where the river Drac joins the Isère. Located in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region, Grenoble is the capital of the department of Isère and is an important European scientific centre. The city advertises itself as the "Capital of the Alps", due to its size and its proximity to the mountains.
France, officially the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million. France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
The expedition left Saigon on June 5, 1866. In addition to his ulcers, Doudart de Lagrée suffered from fever, amoebic dysentery and infected wounds caused by leeches, as the expeditioners had to walk barefoot once they had worn out their supply of shoes. By the time the expedition reached Dongchuan, in Yunnan, China, he was too sick to be moved, and his second-in-command Francis Garnier took command. Garnier led the expedition to Dali, leaving Doudart de Lagrée in the care of the doctor. He died from an abscess on his liver. The doctor removed his heart to return it to France, while Doudart de Lagrée was buried in Dongchuan.
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set point. There is not a single agreed-upon upper limit for normal temperature with sources using values between 37.5 and 38.3 °C. The increase in set point triggers increased muscle contractions and causes a feeling of cold. This results in greater heat production and efforts to conserve heat. When the set point temperature returns to normal, a person feels hot, becomes flushed, and may begin to sweat. Rarely a fever may trigger a febrile seizure. This is more common in young children. Fevers do not typically go higher than 41 to 42 °C.
Leeches are segmented parasitic or predatory worms that belong to the phylum Annelida and comprise the subclass Hirudinea. They are closely related to the oligochaetes, which include the earthworms, and like them have soft, muscular, segmented bodies that can lengthen and contract. Both groups are hermaphrodites and have a clitellum, but leeches typically differ from the oligochaetes in having suckers at both ends and in having external annulations that do not correspond with their internal segmentation. The body is relatively solid, and the spacious body cavity found in other annelids, the coelom, is reduced to small channels.
Yunnan is a province in Southwest China. The province spans approximately 394,000 square kilometres (152,000 sq mi) and has a population of 47.368 million. The capital of the province is Kunming, formerly also known as Yunnan. The province borders the Chinese provinces Guangxi, Guizhou, Sichuan, and the Tibet Autonomous Region, as well as the countries Vietnam, Laos, and Myanmar.
Ernest Doudart de Lagrée was also an entomologist. Insect collections made by him in Africa are conserved in Muséum national d'histoire naturelle in Paris.
The French Navy, informally "La Royale", is the maritime arm of the French Armed Forces. Dating back to 1624, the French Navy is one of the world's oldest naval forces. It has participated in conflicts around the globe and played a key part in establishing the French colonial empire.
Marie Joseph François Garnier was a French officer, inspector of Indigenous Affairs of Cochinchina and explorer. He eventually became mission leader of the Mekong Exploration Commission in 19th century Southeast Asia.
Émile Gsell was a French photographer who worked in Southeast Asia, becoming the first commercial photographer based in Saigon. He participated in at least three scientific expeditions, and the images he produced from the first, to Angkor Wat, are amongst the earliest photographs of that site. Though he died at an early age he managed to make several hundred photographs in just over a dozen years featuring a wide range of subject matter including architecture, landscapes, and studio, ethnographic and genre portraits.
Perrig Quéméneur is a French road bicycle racer from Brittany, who currently rides for UCI Professional Continental team Total Direct Énergie.
Émile Edouard Charles Louis Digneffe was a Belgian lawyer, banker, businessman, a Walloon activist and liberal politician.
Éloi Tassin was a French professional road bicycle racer. Tassin won a stage in the 1939 Tour de France, and another stage in the 1947 Tour de France.
French–Vietnamese relations started as early as the 17th century with the mission of the Jesuit father Alexandre de Rhodes. Various traders would visit Vietnam during the 18th century, until the major involvement of French forces under Pigneau de Béhaine from 1787 to 1789 helped establish the Nguyễn Dynasty. France was heavily involved in Vietnam in the 19th century under the pretext of protecting the work of Catholic missionaries in the country.
Claude Dhotel, better known by his stage name C. Jérôme, was a French singer.
Naïve Records is a French independent record label based in Paris, specializing in electronic music, pop music, jazz and classical music.
Louis Delaporte was a French explorer and artist, whose collection and documentation of Khmer art formed the nucleus of exhibitions in Paris, originally at the 1878 Paris Exposition and later at the Palais du Trocadéro, where he became chief curator of the Musée Indochinois. In 1927, after his death, his collection was moved to the Guimet Museum.
Alexandre Arcady is a French actor, film director, producer and screenwriter.
Élie Semoun is a French comedian, actor, director, writer and singer of Moroccan origin.
Louis-Marie Ernest Daudet was a French journalist, novelist and historian. Prolific in several genres, Daudet began his career writing for magazines and provincial newspapers all over France. His younger brother was Alphonse Daudet.
The Mekong expedition of 1866–1868, conceived and promoted by a group of French colonial officers and launched under the leadership of captain Ernest Doudard de Lagrée, was a naval exploration and scientific expedition of the Mekong River on behalf of the French colonial authorities of Cochinchina. Its primary objective, besides scientific documentation, mapping, and the mission civilisatrice, was an assessment of the river's navigability in order to link the delta region and the port of Saigon with the riches of southern China and upper Siam. Ambitions were to turn Saigon into a successful commercial center such as British controlled Shanghai at the mouth of the Yangtze River.
Jules Brasseur was a French actor and singer, born 1829 in Paris and died in the same city in 1890, who achieved considerable popular success in Paris and around France in the second half of the 19th century.
Jean-François-Ernest Jaime was a French watercolourist, lithographer, art historian and playwright. He was the father of dramatist Adolphe Jaime (1824–1901).
Charles Voirin, called Varin, was a 19th-century French playwright.
Pierre Michel Delaporte was a 19th-century French playwright, painter, lithographer and political caricaturist.
Anatole Loquin was a French writer, comptroller of Customs and musicologist. He also wrote under the pseudonyms Paul Lavigne, Louis Sévin et Ubalde.
Pierre Paul Marie Benoît de La Grandière was a French admiral who was Governor of the colony of Cochinchina from 1863 to 1868. He consolidated French control over Vietnam, and developed the city of Saigon as a major port.
Théogène François Page was a French naval officer. He was Commissioner of Tahiti from 1852, Governor of Tourane in Vietnam from 1859 to 1860, then governor of Cochinchina in Saigon from 1860 to 1861.
The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.
Choisi pour ses talents de dessinateur, Delaporte accompagne la Mission Doudart de Lagrée explorant le cours du Mekong.
Ce marin est aussi un passionné d’archéologie. Le Cambodge lui doit beaucoup pour ses recherches sur l’art khmer. Le 5 juin 1866, Doudart de Lagrée quitte Saigon, à la tête d’une expédition qui doit remonter le Mékong. Elle est de retour le 19 juin 1868. La mission fut un succès, mais le capitaine de frégate Ernest Doudart de Lagrée était décédé le 12 Mars à Tong-Tchouen en Chine terrassé par la maladie.
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