Ernest Christopher Dowson
|Born||2 August 1867|
Lee, London, UK
|Died||23 February 1900 32) (aged|
Catford, England, UK
|Alma mater||The Queen's College, Oxford|
|Occupation||Poet, novelist, and short-story writer|
Ernest Christopher Dowson (2 August 1867 –23 February 1900) was an English poet, novelist, short-story writer, often associated with the Decadent movement.
Ernest Dowson was born in Lee, London, in 1867. His great-uncle was Alfred Domett, a poet and politician who became Premier of New Zealand and had allegedly been the subject of Robert Browning's poem "Waring." Dowson attended The Queen's College, Oxford, but left in March 1888 without obtaining a degree.
In November 1888, he started work with his father at Dowson and Son, a dry-docking business in Limehouse, east London, which had been established by the poet's grandfather. He led an active social life, carousing with medical students and law pupils, going to music halls and taking the performers to dinner. He was also working assiduously at his writing during this time. He was a member of the Rhymers' Club, which included W. B. Yeats and Lionel Johnson. He was a contributor to such literary magazines as The Yellow Book and The Savoy .
Dowson collaborated on two unsuccessful novels with Arthur Moore, worked on a novel of his own, Madame de Viole, and wrote reviews for The Critic . Later in his career, Dowson was a prolific translator of French fiction, including novels by Balzac and the Goncourt brothers, and Les Liaisons dangereuses by Choderlos de Laclos.
In 1889, aged 23, Dowson became infatuated with the 11 year old Adelaide "Missie" Foltinowicz, daughter of a Polish restaurant owner; in 1893 he unsuccessfully proposed to her.To Dowson's despair, Adelaide was eventually to marry a tailor.
In August 1894, Dowson's father, who was in the advanced stages of tuberculosis, died of an overdose of chloral hydrate. His mother, who was also consumptive, hanged herself in February 1895. Soon after her death, Dowson began to decline rapidly.The publisher Leonard Smithers gave him an allowance to live in France and write translations, but he returned to London in 1897 (where he stayed with the Foltinowicz family, despite the transfer of Adelaide's affections).
In 1899, Robert Sherard found Dowson almost penniless in a wine bar and took him back to the cottage in Catford, where Sherard was living. Dowson spent the last six weeks of his life at Sherard's cottage where he died at age 32. He had become a Catholic in 1892 and was interred in the Roman Catholic section of nearby Brockley and Ladywell Cemeteries.After Dowson's death, Oscar Wilde wrote: "Poor wounded wonderful fellow that he was, a tragic reproduction of all tragic poetry, like a symbol, or a scene. I hope bay leaves will be laid on his tomb and rue and myrtle too for he knew what love was". Wilde himself was dead before the end of the year.
Dowson is best remembered for such vivid phrases as "Days of Wine and Roses":
– Ernest Dowson, from "Vitae Summa Brevis" (1896).
and "Gone with the wind":
This latter poem was first published in The Second Book of the Rhymer's Club in 1894,and was noticed by Richard Le Gallienne in his "Wanderings in Bookland" column in The Idler , volume 9.
This is also the source of the phrase 'I have been faithful..in my fashion'. Faithful in My Fashion became the title of a 1946 film. Cole Porter paraphrased Dowson in "Always True to You in My Fashion" from Kiss Me, Kate . Morrissey has the lines, "In my own strange way,/I've always been true to you./In my own sick way,/I'll always stay true to you," in "Speedway," on the album Vauxhall & I .
Margaret Mitchell, touched by the "far away, faintly sad sound I wanted" of the third stanza's first line, chose that line as the title of her novel Gone with the Wind .
According to the Oxford English Dictionary , Dowson provides the earliest use of the word soccer in written language (although he spells it socca, presumably because it did not yet have a standard written form).
His prose works include the short stories collected as Dilemmas (1895), and the two novels A Comedy of Masks (1893) and Adrian Rome (each co-written with Arthur Moore).
His collaborator Arthur Moore wrote several witty comic novels about the young adult duo of Anthony 'Tony' Wilder and Paul Morrow (one, 'The Eyes of Light' is mentioned by friend E. Nesbit in her book 'The Phoenix and the Carpet'). Tony is based on Dowson, while Paul is based on Moore. “Days of Wine and Roses” was recited in the British TV series, The Durrells in Corfu; Season 2, Episode 4.
Composer Frederick Delius set a number of Dowson's poems to music, in his Songs of Sunset and Cynara .
John Ireland included a setting of "I Was Not Sorrowful (Spleen)" from Verses (1896) in his 1912 song cycle Songs of a Wayfarer .
T. E. Lawrence quotes from Dowson's poem, "Impenitentia Ultima," in Seven Pillars of Wisdom , chapter LIV.
In anticipation of the anniversary of Dowson's birth on 2 August 2010, his grave, which had fallen derelict and been vandalized, was restored. The unveiling and memorial service were publicised in the local ( South London Press ) and national (BBC Radio 4 and the Times Literary Supplement ) British press, and dozens paid posthumous tribute to the poet 110 years after his death. In the Poems and Prose of Ernest Dowson, a 1919 memoir written by Arthur Symons, Symons described Dowson as, "... a man who was undoubtedly a man of genius ... There never was a poet to whom verse came more naturally ... He had the pure lyric gift, unweighed or unballasted by any other quality of mind or emotion..."
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Arthur William Symons, was a British poet, critic and magazine editor.
The Rhymers' Club was a group of London-based male poets, founded in 1890 by W. B. Yeats and Ernest Rhys. Originally not much more than a dining club, it produced anthologies of poetry in 1892 and 1894. They met at the London pub ‘Ye Olde Cheshire Cheese’ in Fleet Street and in the 'Domino Room' of the Café Royal.
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The Decadent movement was a late-19th-century artistic and literary movement, centered in Western Europe, that followed an aesthetic ideology of excess and artificiality. The visual artist Félicien Rops's body of work and Joris-Karl Huysmans's novel Against Nature (1884) are considered the prime examples of the decadent movement. It first flourished in France and then spread throughout Europe and to the United States. The movement was characterized by self-disgust, sickness at the world, general skepticism, delight in perversion, and employment of crude humor and a belief in the superiority of human creativity over logic and the natural world. Central to the decadent movement was the view that art is totally opposed to nature in the sense both of biological nature and of the standard, or "natural", norms of morality and sexual behaviour.
"Always True to You in My Fashion" is a 1948 show tune by Cole Porter, written for the musical Kiss Me, Kate. It is based on Non Sum Qualis Eram Bonae sub Regno Cynarae, a similarly ironic poem by the English Decadent poet Ernest Dowson (1867–1900), which has the refrain 'I have been faithful to thee, Cynara! in my fashion,' and which was probably inspired by Dowson's lifelong friend Adelaide Foltinowicz, who never returned his devotion. The phrase "faithful in my fashion" entered the language before the song was written, and was the title of a 1946 Hollywood film.
Nationality words link to articles with information on the nation's poetry or literature.
Nationality words link to articles with information on the nation's poetry or literature.
— Opening lines of Rudyard Kipling's White Man's Burden, first published this year
The Savoy was a magazine of literature, art, and criticism published in eight numbers from January to December 1896 in London. It featured work by authors such as W. B. Yeats, Max Beerbohm, Joseph Conrad, Aubrey Beardsley and William Thomas Horton. Only eight issues of the magazine were published: two quarterly and six monthly (July-December). The publisher was Leonard Smithers, a controversial friend of Oscar Wilde who was also known as a pornographer. Among other publications by Smithers were rare erotic works and unique items such as books bound in human skin.
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William Theodore Peters was an American poet and actor. Associated with 1890s decadence, he was a friend of Ernest Dowson, who dedicated a poem to him, "To William Theodore Peters on His Renaissance Cloak". In October 1892, he commissioned Dowson to write the play that would ultimately become the Pierrot of the Minute, for him to act in. Peters also authored an epilogue to the play, spoken by the character of Pierrot. This was included in Peters' book of verse, Posies Out of Rings and Other Conceits, a "quaint little salmon pink volume", which was published by John Lane and the Bodley Head in 1896. Peters also wrote a children's book, 'The Children of the Week', illustrated by Clinton Peters, published in 1886 by Dodd, Mead, & Co. Peters' only other book was 1894's the Tournament of Love, published by Brentano's, with drawings by Alfred Garth Jones. Later, music was composed for the piece by Noel Johnson. The work was performed at the Théâtre d'Application, 18 rue St. Lazare, on May 8, 1894, with Peters playing the part of the troubadour Betrand de Roaix. He was a frequent guest of the Rhymers' Club. Peters died of starvation in Paris. Peters died in poverty at the age of 41 or 42 in Paris.
Leonard Charles Smithers was a London publisher associated with the Decadent movement.
Cynara is a setting by Frederick Delius of a poem by Ernest Dowson, for solo baritone voice and orchestra.
Songs of Sunset is a work by Frederick Delius, written in 1906-07, and scored for mezzo-soprano and baritone soli, SATB chorus and large orchestra. The words are by Ernest Dowson.
Primary Works (modern scholarly editions)
Critical Studies on Dowson and the 1890s
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