|8th Premier of Alberta|
May 31, 1943 –December 12, 1968
|Monarch|| George VI |
|Lieutenant Governor|| John C. Bowen |
John J. Bowlen
John Percy Page
|Preceded by||William Aberhart|
|Succeeded by||Harry E. Strom|
|Member of the Legislative Assembly of Alberta|
November 4, 1935 –March 21, 1940
|Preceded by|| William Ross |
|Succeeded by|| Andrew Davison |
March 21, 1940 –June 18, 1959
|Preceded by||William Howson|
|Succeeded by||District Abolished|
June 18, 1959 –December 11, 1968
|Preceded by||New District|
|Succeeded by||William Yurko|
|Senator for Edmonton West|
October 7, 1970 –September 20, 1983
|Appointed by||Pierre Trudeau|
Ernest Charles Manning
September 20, 1908
Carnduff, Saskatchewan, Canada
|Died||February 19, 1996 87) (aged|
Calgary, Alberta, Canada
|Political party||Social Credit Party of Alberta|
|Social Credit Party of Canada|
|Spouse(s)||Muriel Aileen Preston (1911–2006)|
|Children||2, including Preston|
Ernest Charles Manning,(September 20, 1908 – February 19, 1996), a Canadian politician, was the eighth premier of Alberta between 1943 and 1968 for the Social Credit Party of Alberta. He served longer than any other premier in the province's history and was the second longest serving provincial premier in Canadian history (only after George H. Murray of Nova Scotia). He was also the only member of the Social Credit Party of Canada to sit in the Senate and, with the party shut out of the House of Commons in 1980, was its last representative in Parliament when he retired from the Senate in 1983.
Manning's son, Preston Manning, was the founder of the Reform Party of Canada, a right-wing populist party based on Western Canadian conservative values. He rose up to become the Leader of the Official Opposition in 1997.
Manning was born in Carnduff, Saskatchewan, in 1908 to English immigrants George Henry Manning (1872–1956) and Elizabeth Mara Dixon (1870–1949). George had immigrated from England in 1900, and was followed by his fiancé in 1903. Their Carnduff homestead being inadequate, they moved to a new one in Rosewood in 1909.In his childhood, Ernest wasn't especially religious, only occasionally attending a Methodist church in town.
In 1924, he ordered a Philco radio receiver from a Sears catalog; he soon discovered William Aberhart's Back to the Bible Hour, which broadcast three-hour sermons every Sunday on CFCN. Aberhart's beliefs, expressed on the program, included Biblical literalism and an emphasis on the coming Rapture. Manning was among the first students of Aberhart's Calgary Prophetic Bible Institute, opening in 1927, and became its first graduate in April 1930.That year, he began speaking on the Back to the Bible Hour, continuing to do so both during and after his premiership.
In the 1935 provincial election, he was elected to the Legislative Assembly of Alberta as a Social Credit MLA from Calgary. The Socreds won an unexpected victory in that election, and Manning became Alberta's Provincial Secretary and Minister of Trade and Industry. In 1940, he switched seats and was elected from Edmonton. In 1943, he became Socred leader and premier of Alberta after Aberhart died.
Under Manning, the party largely abandoned social credit theories. Manning had been a loyal supporter of Aberhart from the beginning, so it is not clear why he was so willing to abandon his party's traditional ideology. One likely explanation may have been pragmatic; many of Social Credit's policy goals infringed on responsibilities reserved to the federal government under the British North America Act.
However, Manning twice honoured Aberhart's 1935 promise to issue a Prosperity Certificate to Albertans. In 1957, his government announced a $20 Alberta Oil Royalty Dividend and issued a $17 dividend the next year. The policy was widely criticized and, the next year, Manning agreed to use oil royalties on public works and social programs instead.
Manning also sought to purge anti-Semitic influences from the party. Anti-Semitism had long been a staple of Socred rhetoric, but became less fashionable after World War II. Manning, however, continued Social Credit's conservative social policies. For many years, airplanes could not serve alcohol while flying over the province.
Under Manning, Alberta became a virtual one-party province. He led Social Credit to seven consecutive election victories between 1944 and 1967, usually with more than 50% of the popular vote and only once having to face more than 10 opposition MLAs. The height of his popularity came in 1963, when the Socreds campaigned under the slogan "63 in '63"—i.e., a clean sweep of the then 63-seat legislature. They fell short of that goal, but still reduced the opposition to only three MLAs—two Liberals and one running with the support of both the Liberals and Progressive Conservatives—in total. It is still the biggest majority government, in terms of percentage of seats won, in Alberta's history. Social Credit's electoral success was based in part on what was viewed as its good government of the province.
However, an ominous sign came during Manning's last victory, when the once-moribund Progressive Conservatives led by Peter Lougheed won six seats, mostly in Calgary and Edmonton. More seriously, the PCs did well enough across the rest of the province to hold Social Credit to 45 percent of the vote, its lowest vote share since 1940. Despite its longstanding popularity, Social Credit was a rural-based party, and never lost that essential character. It never really adapted to the changes in Alberta as its two largest cities gained increasing influence, though Manning himself represented urban ridings for his entire career. Manning retired in 1968, and Social Credit was knocked out of office three years later. It has never come within sight of power again. By the time Manning left the legislature, only he, Alfred Hooke, and William Tomyn were left from the original 1935 caucus. Of that trio, Hooke was the only MLA to see the government right through from its beginning to its very end in 1971 (Tomyn served a break from 1952 to 1959).
Manning also used his strong provincial standing to influence the federal Socreds. He told the 1961 federal leadership convention that Alberta would never accept francophone Catholic Real Caouette of Quebec as the party's leader, even though Caouette led the party's strongest branch east of Manitoba. Robert Thompson of Alberta won the election, although Manning's objections to Caouette led to suspicions that the vote was fixed. Indeed, Caouette later claimed that he had enough support to win, but the Quebec delegates all voted for Thompson after Manning told him, "Tell your people to vote for Thompson because the West will never accept a Roman Catholic French Canadian leader."
By this time, however, all but four members of the Social Credit federal caucus came from Quebec. In 1963, virtually all of the Socred MPs from Quebec followed Caouette into the Ralliement des créditistes, leaving behind a Social Credit rump in English Canada.
Afterwards, Manning did not provide much support to Thompson's tiny caucus and, being concerned with the leftward trajectory of both the federal Liberals and the Progressive Conservatives, encouraged Thompson to try to bring about a merger of the federal Socred and PC parties. Negotiations failed but in 1967, with the support of both Manning and PC leader Robert Stanfield, Thompson ran in the next election with the PCs.
After retirement from provincial politics in 1968, Manning established his own consulting firm, Manning Consultants Limited, with his son Preston. In 1970, he was appointed to the Senate as the first (and as it turned out, only) Socred to serve in that body. The same year, he was made a Companion of the Order of Canada. He retired from the Senate in 1983, having reached the mandatory retirement age of 75. Ernest Manning died in Calgary in 1996.
In 1936, Manning married Muriel Aileen Preston, the pianist at the Prophetic Bible Institute. They had two sons.
Their first son, William Keith (commonly called Keith,) was born on May 2, 1939. Keith suffered from cerebral palsy; for stretches of time, he was interred at a hospital in upstate New York, the Red Deer School Hospital, and a nursing home in Edmonton. He married fellow nursing home resident Marilyn Brownell, and died from cardiac arrest on June 29, 1986.
Their second son, Ernest Preston (commonly called Preston,) was born on June 10, 1942. Preston went on to found the Reform Party of Canada.
Manning was appointed as the first member of Alberta Order of Excellence on September 23, 1981.Manning was also invested as a Companion of the Order of Canada by Governor-General Michener in 1970.
A high school and a business park road in Calgary, a freeway road in Edmonton, and a town in Northern Alberta, are named after Ernest Manning.
In 1980, the Ernest C. Manning Awards Foundation was created, and the Manning Innovation Awards were started in 1982, with the purpose of promoting and honouring Canadian innovation.
In 2013, the federal riding of Edmonton Manning was established in Manning's name.
William Aberhart, also known as "Bible Bill" for his outspoken Baptist views, was a Canadian politician and the seventh Premier of Alberta. He was the founder and first leader of the Alberta Social Credit Party, which believed the Great Depression was caused by ordinary people not having enough to spend. Therefore, Aberhart argued that the government should give each Albertan $25 per month to spend to stimulate the economy, by providing needed purchasing power to allow needy customers to buy from waiting businesses.
William Andrew Cecil Bennett was a Canadian politician. He was the 25th Premier of British Columbia. With just over 20 years in office, Bennett was and remains the longest-serving premier in British Columbia history. He was usually referred to as W. A. C. Bennett, although some referred to him either affectionately or mockingly as "Wacky" Bennett. To his close friends, he was known as "Cece".
The British Columbia Social Credit Party, whose members are known as Socreds, was the governing provincial political party of British Columbia, Canada, for all but three years between the 1952 provincial election and the 1991 election. For four decades, the party dominated the British Columbian political scene, with the only break occurring between the 1972 and 1975 elections when the British Columbia New Democratic Party governed.
The Canadian social credit movement is a Canadian political movement originally based on the Social Credit theory of Major C. H. Douglas. Its supporters were colloquially known as Socreds in English and créditistes in French. It gained popularity and its own political party in the 1930s, as a result of the Great Depression.
Alberta Social Credit was a provincial political party in Alberta, Canada, that was founded on social credit monetary policy put forward by Clifford Hugh Douglas and on conservative Christian social values. The Canadian social credit movement was largely an out-growth of Alberta Social Credit. The Social Credit Party of Canada was strongest in Alberta, before developing a base in Quebec when Réal Caouette agreed to merge his Ralliement créditiste movement into the federal party. The British Columbia Social Credit Party formed the government for many years in neighbouring British Columbia, although this was effectively a coalition of centre-right forces in the province that had no interest in social credit monetary policies.
The Progressive Conservative Association of Alberta was a provincial centre-right party in the Canadian province of Alberta. The party formed the provincial government, without interruption, from 1971 until the party's defeat in the 2015 provincial election under Premiers Peter Lougheed, Don Getty, Ralph Klein, Ed Stelmach, Alison Redford, Dave Hancock and Jim Prentice. At 44 years, this was the longest unbroken run in government at the provincial or federal level in Canadian history.
The Social Credit Party of Canada, colloquially known as the Socreds, was a populist political party in Canada that promoted social credit theories of monetary reform. It was the federal wing of the Canadian social credit movement.
Historically in Quebec, Canada, there were a number of political parties that were part of the Canadian social credit movement. There were various parties at different times with different names at the provincial level, all broadly following the social credit philosophy; at various times they had varying degrees of affiliation with the Social Credit Party of Canada at the federal level.
David Réal Caouette was a Canadian politician from Québec. He was a member of parliament (MP) and leader of the Social Credit Party of Canada and founder of the Ralliement des créditistes. Outside politics he worked as a car dealer.
Robert Norman Thompson was a Canadian politician, chiropractor, and educator. He was born in Duluth, Minnesota, to Canadian parents and moved to Canada in 1918 with his family. Raised in Alberta, he graduated from the Palmer School of Chiropractic in 1939 and worked as a chiropractor and then as a teacher before serving in the Royal Canadian Air Force during World War II.
The 1935 Alberta general election was the eighth general election for the Province of Alberta, Canada. It was held on August 22, 1935, to elect members of the Legislative Assembly of Alberta. The newly founded Social Credit Party of Alberta won a sweeping victory, unseating the 14-year government of the United Farmers of Alberta. It was one of only five times that Alberta has changed governments.
The 1971 Alberta general election was the seventeenth general election in the Province of Alberta, Canada. It was held on August 30, 1971, to elect members of the Legislative Assembly of Alberta.
Gordon Edward Taylor was a Canadian politician, businessman and teacher from Drumheller, Alberta. He served as an elected official for 48 years at both the provincial and federal levels, and never lost an election.
In 1963, the Quebec wing of the Social Credit Party of Canada split off from the national party as the Ralliement des créditistes. The split had its roots in a long-standing dispute between the de facto leader of the Ralliement, Réal Caouette, and the party's national leader, Robert N. Thompson. At the party's 1960 leadership convention, held two years after the party lost all of its seats in the House of Commons of Canada, Thompson defeated Caouette for the leadership. The party returned to Parliament in the 1962 federal election, but all but four of its 29 MPs came from Quebec. Under the circumstances, Thompson was all but forced to name Caouette as deputy leader of the party. The relationship was strained, however, and the strain was exacerbated when the party failed to make any gains in its old heartland of the Prairies in the 1963 federal election. Only Thompson and three others were elected outside of Quebec, while 20 Socreds were elected in Quebec. The two factions of the party were not re-united until October 1971.
The Canadian social credit movement first contested the 1935 federal election in order to capitalize from the Alberta Social Credit League's surprise victory in Alberta's August 1935 provincial election. Social Credit supporters ran as the Western Social Credit League and John Horne Blackmore was appointed the movement's parliamentary leader following the election although Alberta Premier William Aberhart was generally regarded as the unofficial national leader of the movement.
Edith Blanche Rogers was a Canadian politician who served as a member of the Legislative Assembly of Alberta from 1935 until 1940. Born in Nova Scotia, she came west to Alberta to accept a job as a teacher. She later moved to Calgary where she encountered evangelist William Aberhart and became a convert to his social credit economic theories. After advocating these theories across the province, she was elected in the 1935 provincial election as a candidate of Aberhart's newly formed Social Credit League.
The 1937 Social Credit backbenchers' revolt took place from March to June 1937 in the Canadian province of Alberta. It was a rebellion against Premier William Aberhart by a group of backbench members of the Legislative Assembly (MLAs) from his Social Credit League. The dissidents were unhappy with Aberhart's failure to provide Albertans with C$25 monthly dividends through social credit as he had promised before his 1935 election. When the government's 1937 budget made no move to implement the dividends, many MLAs revolted openly and threatened to defeat the government in a confidence vote.
Joseph Lucien Paul Maynard was a lawyer and a provincial politician from Alberta, Canada. He served in the Legislative Assembly of Alberta from 1935 to 1955 as a member of the Social Credit Party.
Populism in Canada involves the phenomenon of populist political ideology in Canada. Populism has been a particularly strong phenomenon in Western Canada and in Quebec as promoted by the provincial Social Credit parties in the West and in Quebec and by the Social Credit Party of Canada and by the Reform Party of Canada. John Richards (1981) sees elements of populism in the following political movements:
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