Ernesto Zedillo

Last updated

Ernesto Zedillo
Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de Leon World Economic Forum 2013 crop (cropped).jpg
54th President of Mexico
In office
1 December, 1994 30 November, 2000
Preceded by Carlos Salinas de Gortari
Succeeded by Vicente Fox
Secretary of Public Education of Mexico
In office
7 January, 1992 29 November, 1993
President Carlos Salinas de Gortari
Preceded by Manuel Bartlett
Succeeded by Fernando Solana
Secretary of Programming and Budget of Mexico
In office
1 December, 1988 7 January, 1992
President Carlos Salinas de Gortari
Preceded by Pedro Aspe
Succeeded by Rogelio Gasca
Personal details
Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de León

(1951-12-27) 27 December 1951 (age 68)
Mazamitla, Jalisco, Mexico
Political party Institutional Revolutionary Party
ParentsRodolfo Zedillo Castillo
Martha Alicia Ponce de León
Residence New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.
Education National Polytechnic Institute
Yale University
Signature Signature of Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de Leon.svg

Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de León, (Spanish pronunciation:  [eɾˈnesto seˈðiʝo] ; born 27 December 1951) is a Mexican economist and politician. He was President of Mexico from 1 December 1994 to 30 November 2000, as the last of the uninterrupted 71-year line of Mexican presidents from the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI).


During his presidency, he faced the worst economic crisis in Mexico's history, which started only weeks after he took office. [1] [2] He distanced himself from his predecessor Carlos Salinas de Gortari, blaming his policies for the crisis (although President Zedillo himself did not deviate from the neoliberal policies of his two predecessors), [1] [3] and oversaw the arrest of his brother Raúl Salinas de Gortari. [4] His administration was also marked, among other things, by renewed clashes with the EZLN and the Popular Revolutionary Army; [5] the controversial implementation of Fobaproa to rescue the national banking system; [6] a political reform which allowed residents of the Federal District (Mexico City) to elect their own mayor; and the Aguas Blancas and Acteal massacres perpetrated by State forces. [7] [8]

Although Zedillo's policies allowed Mexico to get out of the economic crisis and regain growth, popular discontent with seven decades of PRI rule led to the party losing, for the first time, its legislative majority in the 1997 elections, [9] and in the 2000 elections the right-wing opposition National Action Party's candidate Vicente Fox won the Presidency of the Republic, putting an end to 71 years of uninterrupted PRI rule. [10] Zedillo's admission of the PRI's defeat and his peaceful handing of power to his successor improved his image in the final months of his administration, and he left office with an approval rating of 60%. [11]

Since the ending of his term as president in 2000, Zedillo has been a leading voice on globalization, especially its impact on relations between developed and developing nations.

He is currently Director of the Center for the Study of Globalization at Yale University, is the Latin American co-chair of the Inter-American Dialogue, and is on the board of directors of Citigroup.

Early life and education

Ernesto Zedillo was born on 27 December 1951 in Mexico City. His parents were Rodolfo Zedillo Castillo, a mechanic, and Martha Alicia Ponce de León. Seeking better job and education opportunities for their children, his parents moved to Mexicali, Baja California.[ citation needed ]

In 1965, at the age of 14, he returned to Mexico City. In 1969 he entered the National Polytechnic Institute, financing his studies by working in the National Army and Navy Bank (later known as Banjército). He graduated as an economist in 1972 and began lecturing. It was among his first group of students that he met his wife, Nilda Patricia Velasco, with whom he has five children: Ernesto, Emiliano, Carlos (formerly married to conductor Alondra de la Parra [12] ), Nilda Patricia and Rodrigo.

In 1974, he pursued his master's and PhD studies at Yale University. His doctoral thesis was titled Mexico's Public External Debt: Recent History and Future Growth Related to Oil.[ citation needed ]

Political career

Zedillo began working in the Bank of Mexico (Mexico's central bank) as a member of the Institutional Revolutionary Party, where he supported the adoption of macroeconomic policies for the country's improvement. By 1987, he was named deputy-secretary of Planning and Budget Control in the Secretariat of Budget and Planning. In 1988, at the age of 36, he headed that secretariat. During his term as Secretary, Zedillo launched a Science and Technology reform.

In 1992, he was appointed Secretary of Education by president Carlos Salinas. During his tenure in this post, he was in charge of the revision the Mexican public school textbooks. The changes, which took a softer line on foreign investment and the Porfiriato, among other topics, were highly controversial and the textbooks were withdrawn. [13] A year later he resigned to run the electoral campaign of Luis Donaldo Colosio, the PRI's presidential candidate.

1994 presidential campaign

Vladimir Putin and Ernesto Zedillo, at the Millennium Summit, 2000 Vladimir Putin at the Millennium Summit 6-8 September 2000-12.jpg
Vladimir Putin and Ernesto Zedillo, at the Millennium Summit, 2000

In 1994, after Colosio's assassination, Zedillo became one of the few PRI members eligible under Mexican law to take his place, since he had not occupied public office for some time.

The opposition blamed Colosio's murder on Salinas. Although the PRI's presidential candidates were always chosen by the current president, and thus Colosio had originally been Salinas' candidate, their political relationship had been affected by a famous speech during the campaign in which Colosio said that Mexico had many problems. It is also notable that the assassination took place after Colosio visited the members of the Zapatista movement in Chiapas and promised to open dialogue, something the PRI opposed.[ citation needed ]

After Colosio's murder, this speech was seen as the main cause of his break with the president.[ citation needed ] The choice of Zedillo was interpreted as Salinas' way of bypassing the strong Mexican political tradition of non-reelection and retaining real power, since Zedillo was not really a politician, but an economist (like Salinas), who clearly lacked the president's political talent and influence. It is unclear if Salinas had attempted to control Colosio, who was generally considered at that time to be a far better candidate.

Zedillo ran against Diego Fernández de Cevallos of the National Action Party and second-timer Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas of the Party of the Democratic Revolution. He won with 48.69% of popular vote, and became the last president to distinguish the 70-year PRI dynasty in México during the 20th century.

Presidency (1994–2000)

Zedillo at the World Economic Forum 2009 Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de Leon - World Economic Forum Annual Meeting Davos 2009.jpg
Zedillo at the World Economic Forum 2009
Ernesto Zedillo with Edmund Phelps, winner of the 2006 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, at the World Economic Forum's Summit on the Global Agenda 2008 Edmund S Phelps Ernesto Zedillo.jpg
Ernesto Zedillo with Edmund Phelps, winner of the 2006 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, at the World Economic Forum's Summit on the Global Agenda 2008

At age 43, Zedillo assumed the presidency on 1 December 1994 at the Legislative Palace of San Lázaro, taking oath before the Congress of the Union presided by the deputy president Carlota Vargas Garza. Zedillo's electoral victory was perceived as clean, but he came to office as an accidental candidate with no political base of his own and no experience. During the first part of his presidency, he took inconsistent policy positions and there were rumors that he would resign or that there would be a coup d'état against him, which caused turmoil in financial markets. [14]


Zedillo's cabinet needed to have members who could deal with crises. Over the course of his presidency, he had four as Minister of the Interior, Esteban Moctezuma, who dealt with the Zapatistas; Emilio Chuayffet, who resigned following the Acteal massacre; Francisco Labastida, who won the primary to determine the 2000 PRI presidential candidate; and Diódoro Carrasco Altamirano, who dealt with the strike at the National Autonomous University of Mexico.

Financial Crisis of December 1994

A few days after taking office, one of the biggest economic crises in Mexican history hit the country. Although it was outgoing President Salinas who was mainly blamed for the crisis, Salinas claimed that President Zedillo made a mistake by changing the economic policies held by his administration. Zedillo devalued the peso by 15%, which prompted the near-collapse of the financial system. [15] The crisis ended after a series of reforms and actions led by Zedillo. US president Bill Clinton granted a US$20 billion loan to Mexico, which helped in one of Zedillo's initiatives to rescue the banking system. [16]

Break with Salinas

Zedillo had been an accidental presidential candidate who was vaulted to prominence with the assassination of Colosio. The conflict between Zedillo and Salinas marked the early part of Zedillo's presidency. [17] As with De la Madrid and Salinas, Zedillo had never been elected to office and had no experience in politics. His performance as a candidate was lackluster, but the outbreak of violence in Chiapas and the shock of the Colosio assassination swayed voters to support the PRI candidate in the 1994 election. In office, Zedillo was perceived as a puppet-president with Salinas following the model of Plutarco Elías Calles in the wake of the 1928 assassination of president-elect Alvaro Obregón. In order to consolidate his own power in the presidency, Zedillo had to assert his independence from Salinas. On 28 February 1995 Zedillo ordered the arrest of the ex-president's older brother Raúl Salinas for the September 1994 murder of PRI General Secretary José Francisco Ruiz Massieu. This action marked a decisive break between Zedillo and Salinas. [14]

Zapatista Crisis

Mexico had been in turmoil since January 1994, with the initial Zapatista rebellion and two political assassinations. The presidential candidate Colosio of the PRI was assassinated in March 1994, and his campaign manager Ernesto Zedillo replaced him candidate a few days later. The other high-profile assassination, that of PRI Secretary General José Francisco Ruiz Massieu, brother-in-law of President Carlos Salinas de Gortari in September 1994, laid bare political rivalries within the PRI. In order to give credibility to the investigations of those political crimes and grant "a healthy distance", president Zedillo appointed Antonio Lozano Gracia a member of the opposition Political Party PAN as Attorney General of Mexico. Zedillo inherited the rebellion in Chiapas, but it was up to his administration to handle it.

On 5 January 1995, the Secretary of Interior Esteban Moctezuma started a secret meeting process with Marcos called "Steps Toward Peace" Chiapas. Talks seemed promising for an agreement, but Zedillo backed away, apparently because the military was not in accord with the government's apparent "acceptance of the Zapatistas' control over much of Chiapas territory." [18] [19] [20] In February 1995, the Mexican government identified the masked Subcomandante Marcos as Rafael Sebastián Guillén, a former professor at the Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana in Mexico City. Metaphorically unmasking Marcos and identifying him as a non-indigenous urban intellectual turned-terrorist of was the government's attempt to demystify and delegitimize the Zapatistas in public opinion. The army was prepared to move against Zapatista strongholds and capture Marcos. [21] The government decided to reopen negotiations with the Zapatistas. On 10 March 1995 President Zedillo and Secretary of the Interior Moctezuma signed the Presidential Decree for the Dialog, the Reconciliation and a peace with dignity in Chiapas law, which was discussed and approved by the Mexican Congress. [22] In April 1995, the government and the Zapatistas began secret talks to find an end to the conflict. [23] In February 1996, the San Andrés Accords were signed by the government and the Zapatistas. [24] In May 1996, Zapatistas imprisoned for terrorism were released. [25] In December 1997, indigenous peasants were murdered in an incident known as the Acteal massacre. [26] Survivors of the massacre sued Zedillo in U.S., but the U.S. Supreme Court dismissed the suit on the basis of his immunity as a head of state. [27]

Church-state relations

Oscar Vega and the President Ernesto Zedillo in 1998. Oscar Vega y Ernesto Zedillo.jpg
Oscar Vega and the President Ernesto Zedillo in 1998.

Salinas had gained support of the Roman Catholic Church in the 1988 elections and had pushed through a series of constitutional changes that significantly changed church-state relations. However, on 11 February 1995, Zedillo ignited a crisis with the Roman Catholic Church, hurting, recently restored MexicoHoly See diplomatic relations. [28] Relations had already been damaged because of the 24 May 1993 political assassination of the Guadalajara Cardinal Juan Jesús Posadas Ocampo and lack of government progress on solving the murder by the Attorney General of Mexico. PGR pressured the bishop of Chiapas, Samuel Ruiz García for supposedly concealing the Zapatistas guerrilla activity. [29] Ruiz's involvement had been strategic and an important instrument to keep the peace after the EZLN uprising. [30] [31] [32]

Poverty alleviation

Zedillo's presidential motto was Bienestar para tu familia ("Well-being for your family"). He created the poverty alleviation program Progresa, which subsidized the poorest families in Mexico, provided that their children went to school. It replaced the Salinas administration's PRONASOL, deemed too politicized. [33] It was later renamed Oportunidades (Opportunities) by president Vicente Fox. The parastatal organization CONASUPO, which was designed to supply food and provide food security to the poor was phased out in 1999, resulting in higher food prices. [34]

NAFTA and other economic measures

Carlos Salinas had negotiated Mexico's place in NAFTA, which took effect in January 1994, so Zedillo was the first president to oversee it for his entire term. The Mexican economy suffered following the December 1994 peso crisis, when currency was devalued by 15% and the U.S. intervened to prop up the economy with a multi-billion dollar loan, so that NAFTA under the Zedillo administration got off to a rocky start. The Mexican GDP was -7% and there were hopes that NAFTA would lift that miserable performance statistic. [35]

In the run-up to implementation of NAFTA, Salinas had privatized hundreds of companies. During the Zedillo administration, he privatized the state railway company, Ferrocarriles Nacionales de México. This led to the suspension of passenger service in 1997.

Electoral reform

Zedillo saw electoral reform as a key issue for his administration. [36] In January 1995, Zedillo initiated multiparty talks about electoral reform, which resulted in an agreement on how to frame political reform. In July 1996, those talks resulted in the agreement of Mexico's four major parties on a reform package, which was ratified unanimously in legislature. It created autonomous organizations to oversee elections, made the post of Head of Government of Mexico City, previously an appointed position, into an elective one, as of July 1997, and created closer oversight of campaign spending. "Perhaps most crucially, it represents a first step toward consensus among the parties on a set of mutually accepted democratic rules of the game." [37] The reforms lowered the influence of the PRI and opened opportunities for other parties. [38] In the 1997 elections, for the first time the PRI did not win the majority in Congress. Zedillo was also a strong advocate of federalism as a counterbalance to a centralized system. [39]

Foreign relations

Zedillo sought to forge new ties overseas, including ones with China. [40] He made a rhetorical gesture to Africa, but without real effect. [41]

2000 Election

The presidential election of 2 July 2000 was a watershed in Mexican history for several reasons. The PRI presidential candidate, Francisco Labastida was not designated by the sitting president (as all former Presidential nominees from the PRI had been until that point), but by an open internal primary of the party. [42] Changes in the electoral rules meant that the government did not control voting as it had previously in the Ministry of the Interior. Elections were now the jurisdiction of the Federal Electoral Institute (IFE), with Mexicans having faith that elections would be free and fair. [43] IFE implemented new procedures regarding campaigns and balloting, with rules for finance, guarantee of the secret ballot, and unbiased counting of votes. Also important were some 10,000 Mexican poll watchers and over 850 foreign observers, including ex-president of the U.S., Jimmy Carter. Zapatista leader Subcomandante Marcos declared that the election was a "dignified and respectable battleground." [44] The results of the election were even more historic. For the first time since the founding of Zedillo's party in 1929, an opposition candidate won, a peaceful change from an authoritarian government. [45] Zedillo went on national television when the polls closed, declaring that Vicente Fox had won. In Fox's autobiography he writes, "There are still those old-guard priistas who consider Ernesto Zedillo a traitor to his class for his actions on the night of 2 July 2000, as the party boss who betrayed the machine. But in that moment President Zedillo became a true democrat ... In minutes he preempted any possibility of violent resistance from hard-line priistas. It was an act of electoral integrity that will forever mark the mild-mannered economist as a historic figure of Mexico's peaceful transition to democracy." [46]


Zedillo at the World Economic Forum Summit on the Global Agenda 2008 in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Ernesto Zedillo World Economic Forum (2008).jpg
Zedillo at the World Economic Forum Summit on the Global Agenda 2008 in Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

Since leaving office, Zedillo has held many jobs as an economic consultant in many international companies and organizations. He currently is on the faculty at Yale University, where he teaches economics and heads the Yale Center for the Study of Globalization. In 2008, a conference on global climate change was convened at Yale, resulting in a published volume edited by Zedillo. [47]

Corporate boards

Non-profit organizations

Ernesto Zedillo Ernesto Zedillo.jpg
Ernesto Zedillo

In 2009, Zedillo headed an external review of the World Bank Group's governance. [58]

In 2016, Zedillo co-signed a letter calling for an end to the War on Drugs, along with people like Mary J. Blige, Jesse Jackson and George Soros. [59]

Lawsuit in the U.S. by Indigenous Mexican Plaintiffs

According to a 2012 Economist article, a group of ten anonymous Tzotzil people claiming to be survivors of the Acteal massacre have taken an opportunity to sue former President Zedillo in a civil court in Connecticut, "seeking about $50 million and a declaration of guilt against Mr Zedillo." The victims of the massacre were members of an indigenous-rights group known as Las Abejas; however, the current president of that organization, Porfirio Arias, claims that the alleged victims were in fact not residents of Acteal at all. This has led commentators to allege the trial to be politically motivated, perhaps by a member of his own political party, the Institutional Revolutionary Party, angry about Zedillo's reforms that led to the party losing power in the 2000 Mexican presidential election, after 71 years of continuous political rule. [60]

The United States Department of State recommended that President Zedillo be granted immunity from prosecution due to the actions occurring as part of his official capacity as head of state. This motion is not binding in the US court system, but judges "generally side with the State Department." [61]

The plaintiffs, who are being represented by Rafferty, Kobert, Tenenholtz, Bounds & Hess may appeal the ruling of U.S. District Judge Michael Shea to sidestep the immunity Zedillo has been granted. [62]

In 2014, the US Supreme Court refused to hear a case against Zedillo on grounds of "sovereign immunity" as a former head of state by survivors of the Acteal massacre. [63]

Public opinion and legacy

In a national survey conducted in 2012 by BGC-Excélsior regarding former Presidents, 39% of the respondents considered that the Zedillo administration was "very good" or "good", 27% responded that it was an "average" administration, and 31% responded that it was a "very bad" or "bad" administration. [64]


See also

Related Research Articles

Politics of Mexico

The Politics of Mexico take place in a framework of a federal presidential representative democratic republic whose government is based on a congressional system, whereby the President of Mexico is both head of state and head of government, and of a multi-party system. The federal government represents the United Mexican States and is divided into three branches: executive, legislative and judicial, as established by the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States, published in 1917. The constituent states of the federation must also have a republican form of government based on a congressional system as established by their respective constitutions.

Carlos Salinas de Gortari 53rd pesident of Mexico

Carlos Salinas de Gortari is a Mexican economist and politician affiliated with the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) who served as President of Mexico from 1988 to 1994. He is widely regarded as the most influential and controversial politician in Mexico over the last 30 years. Earlier in his career he worked in the Budget Secretariat, eventually becoming Secretary. He was the PRI presidential candidate in 1988, and was declared elected on 6 July 1988 after accusations of electoral fraud.

Zapatista Army of National Liberation far-left libertarian-socialist political group

The Zapatista Army of National Liberation, often referred to as the Zapatistas[sapaˈtistas], is a far-left libertarian-socialist political and militant group that controls a substantial amount of territory in Chiapas, the southernmost state of Mexico.

Institutional Revolutionary Party Mexican political party

The Institutional Revolutionary Party is a Mexican political party founded in 1929 that held uninterrupted power in the country for 71 years from 1929 to 2000, first as the National Revolutionary Party, then as the Party of the Mexican Revolution and finally as the PRI beginning in 1946.

The Acteal massacre was a massacre of 45 people attending a prayer meeting of Roman Catholic indigenous townspeople, including a number of children and pregnant women, who were members of the pacifist group Las Abejas, in the small village of Acteal in the municipality of Chenalhó, in the Mexican state of Chiapas. The Acteal massacre occurred on December 22, 1997, by the right-wing paramilitary group Máscara Roja, or "Red Mask."

Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas Mexican politician

Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas Solórzano is a prominent Mexican politician. He is a former Head of Government of Mexico City and a founder of the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD). He ran for the presidency of Mexico three times. His 1988 loss to the Institutional Revolutionary Party candidate Carlos Salinas de Gortari had long been considered a direct result of obvious electoral fraud, later acknowledged by President Miguel de la Madrid. He previously served as a Senator, having been elected in 1976 to represent the state of Michoacán and also as the Governor of Michoacán from 1980 to 1986.

Luis Donaldo Colosio Mexican politician

Luis Donaldo Colosio Murrieta was a Mexican politician, economist, and PRI presidential candidate, who was assassinated at a campaign rally in Tijuana during the Mexican presidential campaign of 1994.

Confederation of Mexican Workers

The Confederation of Mexican Workers is the largest confederation of labor unions in Mexico. For many years, it was one of the essential pillars of the Partido Revolucionario Institucional, which ruled Mexico for more than seventy years. However, the CTM began to lose influence within the PRI structure in the late 1980s, as technocrats increasingly held power within the party. Eventually, the union found itself forced to deal with a new party in power after the PRI lost the 2000 general election, an event that drastically reduced the CTM's influence in Mexican politics.

Samuel Ruiz Mexican Roman Catholic bishop and indigenous rights activist.

Samuel Ruiz García was a Mexican Roman Catholic prelate who served as bishop of the Diocese of San Cristóbal de las Casas, Chiapas, from 1959 until 1999. Ruiz is best known for his role as mediator during the conflict between the Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN) and the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), a Mexican political party which had held power for over seventy years, and whose policies were often disadvantageous to the indigenous populations of Chiapas. Inspired by Liberation Theology, which swept through the Roman Catholic Church in Latin America after the 1960s, Ruiz's diocese helped some hundreds of thousands of indigenous Maya people in Chiapas who were among Mexico's poorest marginalized communities.

Esteban Moctezuma Mexican politician

Esteban Moctezuma Barragán is a Mexican politician formerly affiliated with the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) and is currently a member of MORENA. He is a former senator and served as secretary of social development and secretary of the interior in the cabinet of President Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de León. From that position, early in January 1995, he pursued peace talks in Chiapas with the EZLN insurgents; in February the government pursued a strategy of military intervention, followed by a resumption of peace talks with the insurgents. In 2018, he was appointed by President Andrés Manuel López Obrador as Secretary of Education.

Víctor Manuel Camacho Solís was a Mexican politician who served in the cabinets of presidents Miguel de la Madrid and Carlos Salinas. Born in Mexico City to Manuel Camacho López and Luz Solís, he belonged to the Frente Amplio Progresista. At first he was affiliated with the PRI, later with the Party of the Democratic Center and then with the Party of the Democratic Revolution.

Events in the year 1994 in Mexico.

1994 Mexican general election

General elections were held in Mexico on 21 August 1994. The presidential elections resulted in a victory for Ernesto Zedillo of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), whilst the PRI won 300 of the 500 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and 95 of the 128 seats in the Senate. Voter turnout ranged from 77.4% in the proportional representation section of the Chamber elections to 75.9% in the constituency section.

Chiapas conflict armed conflicts between indigenous peoples and white people in Mexico

The Chiapas conflict refers to the 1994 Zapatista uprising, the 1995 Zapatista crisis and their aftermath, and tensions between the indigenous peoples and subsistence farmers in the Mexican state of Chiapas from the 1990s to the present day.

President of Mexico Head of state of the country of Mexico

The president of Mexico, officially known as the president of the United Mexican States, is the head of state and head of government of Mexico. Under the Constitution of Mexico, the president is also the Supreme Commander of the Mexican Armed Forces. The current president is Andrés Manuel López Obrador, who took office on 1 December 2018.

With President Carlos Salinas de Gortari's economic and political reforms, the NAFTA agreement, Mexico was getting propelled as an important player in the world economy. When an unsolved ethnic situation was brewing in the Mexican county, that is when the Zapatistas uprising happened. The Mexican Government started immediate peace talks. In the early days of the new government administration, President Ernesto Zedillo took a series of erratic decisions that completely broke with the previous administration's agreements and with his own action plan previously defined.

Marco Antonio Bernal Mexican politician

Andrés Marco Antonio Bernal Gutiérrez is a Mexican politician affiliated with the PRI. As of 2013 he served as Deputy of both the LX and LXII Legislatures of the Mexican Congress representing Tamaulipas. He also served as Senator during the LVII Legislature.

Max García Appedole is a Mexican entrepreneur and political activist. Appedole is considered an important advocate for the Mexican Government's peaceful solution with the Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN).

Crime Diaries: The Candidate is a Spanish-language Mexican crime web television miniseries starring Martín Altomaro, Norma Angélica and Enrique Arreola. The plot is inspired by real-life events with real-life footage inter-cutting with the drama, and revolves around the assassination in Tijuana of presidential candidate Luis Donaldo Colosio from Mexico's ruling PRI party in 1994. The series follows a pair of detectives and Luis's dying widow Diana Laura investigate to unravel the truth.

1994 is a Mexican Spanish-language documentary directed by Diego Enrique Orsono, that premiered on Netflix on May 17, 2019.


  1. 1 2 "The peso crisis, ten years on: Tequila slammer". The Economist . 29 December 2004. Retrieved 8 July 2014.
  2. "The Tequila crisis in 1994". Rabobank. 19 September 2013. Archived from the original on 10 April 2015. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
  3. "Salinas vs. Zedillo" (in Spanish). La Jornada. Retrieved 9 March 2018.
  4. Salinas' Brother Charged in Mexican Assassination New York Times 1 March 1995
  5. "Wayback Machine" (PDF). 17 October 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 October 2013. Retrieved 27 January 2018.
  6. Solís, L. (comp.) (1999). Fobaproa y las recientes reformas financieras. México: Instituto de Investigación Económica y Social "Lucas Alamán", A.C.
  7. "Resuelve SCJN Atraer Caso de Acteal". 3 September 2012. Archived from the original on 3 September 2012. Retrieved 30 December 2017.
  8. "La matanza de Aguas Blancas". Archived from the original on 30 November 2006. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
  9. Nohlen, D (2005) Elections in the Americas: A data handbook, Volume I, p453 ISBN   978-0-19-928357-6
  10. Nohlen, D (2005) Elections in the Americas: A data handbook, Volume I, p475 ISBN   978-0-19-928357-6
  11. Aznarez, Juan Jesus (1 December 2000). "Zedillo abandona la presidencia con una popularidad del 60%". El Pais. Retrieved 9 August 2019.
  12. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 3 April 2012. Retrieved 1 January 2012.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  13. Gilbert, Dennis. "Rewriting History: Salinas, Zedillo and the 1992 Textbook Controversy". Mexican Studies/Estudios Mexicanos, vol. 13, no. 2, 1997, pp. 271–297. JSTOR, accessed 23 March 2019
  14. 1 2 Thomas Legler, "Ernesto Zedillo" in Encyclopedia of Mexico. Fitzroy Dearborn 1997, p.1641
  15. Legler, "Ernesto Zedillo", p. 1641.
  16. "Clinton authorizes loan to Mexico". History (U.S. TV channel). 31 January 1995. Archived from the original on 24 March 2018. Retrieved 27 January 2018.
  17. Fuentes, Carlos. "Coalticue's Skirt: Hidden Aspects of Mexico's Political Rivalry in 1995". The Brown Journal of World Affairs, vol. 2, no. 2, 1995, pp. 175–180. JSTOR, accessed 23 March 2019
  18. Oppenheimer, Bordering on Chaos, p. 242.
  19. "Zedillo rompió acuerdo de paz con el EZLN: Esteban Moctezuma - Proceso". 11 January 2013. Retrieved 27 January 2018.
  20. "El Universal - Opinion - Renuncia en Gobernación". Archived from the original on 2 August 2017. Retrieved 27 January 2018.
  21. Oppenheimer, Bordering on Chaos, pp. 244-45
  22. "Client Validation". Archived from the original on 2 November 2013. Retrieved 27 January 2018.
  23. "Cronologia del Conflicto EZLN". Retrieved 27 January 2018.
  24. accessed 23 March 2019
  25. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 5 April 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  26. accessed 23 March 2019
  27. accessed 23 March 2019
  28. "A 15 años de relaciones entre México y el Vaticano".
  29. "MEXICO: Satanizado y admirado, obispo en el centro de la polemica". 17 February 1995.
  30. "La Sedena sabía de la existencia de la guerrilla chiapaneca desde 1985 (Segunda y última parte)". 20 March 2006.
  31. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on August 25, 2018. Retrieved December 17, 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  32. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on August 25, 2018. Retrieved December 17, 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  33. Rocha Menocal, A. (2001). "Do Old Habits Die Hard? A Statistical Exploration of the Politicisation of Progresa, Mexico's Latest Federal Poverty-Alleviation Programme, under the Zedillo Administration." Journal of Latin American Studies, 33(3), 513-538. doi:10.1017/S0022216X01006113 accessed 23 March 2019
  34. Yunez–Naude, Antonio. "The dismantling of CONASUPO, a Mexican state trader in agriculture." World Economy 26.1 (2003): 97–122.
  35. Luz María de la Mora, "North American Free Trade Agreement" in Encyclopedia of Mexico. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn 1997, p. 1026.
  36. Zedillo, Ernesto. "The Right Track: Political and Economic Reform in Mexico". Harvard International Review, vol. 19, no. 1, 1996, pp. 38–67. JSTOR, accessed 23 March 2019
  37. Thomas Legler, "Ernesto Zedillo" in Encyclopedia of Mexico, Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn 1997, pp. 1641-42.
  38. Bruhn, Kathleen. "The resurrection of the Mexican left in the 1997 elections: implications for the party system." Toward Mexico’s Democratizations: Parties, Campaigns, Elections, and Public Opinion, New York, Routledge (1999).
  39. Ernesto Zedillo Ponce De León. "Address by Ernesto Zedillo Ponce De León". Publius, vol. 29, no. 4, 1999, pp. 15–22. JSTOR, accessed 23 March 2019
  40. Cornejo, Romer Alejandro. "México y China. Entre La Buena Voluntad y La Competencia". Foro Internacional, vol. 41, no. 4 (166), 2001, pp. 878–890. JSTOR, accessed 23 March 2019
  41. Varela, Hilda. "Crónica De Una Política Inexistente: Las Relaciones Entre México y África, 1994-2000". Foro Internacional, vol. 41, no. 4 (166), 2001, pp. 912–930. JSTOR, accessed 23 March 2019
  42. Bruhn, Kathleen. "The making of the Mexican president, 2000: parties, candidates, and campaign strategy." Jorge Domínguez and Lawson (2004): 123–56.
  43. Wallis, Darren. "The Mexican Presidential and Congressional Elections of 2000 and Democratic Transition." Bulletin of Latin American Research 20.3 (2001): 304–323.
  44. Fröhling, Oliver, Carolyn Gallaher, and John Paul Jones, III. "Imagining the Mexican election." Antipode 33.1 (2001): 2
  45. Klesner, Joseph L. "The end of Mexico's one-party regime." PS: Political Science & Politics 34.1 (2001): 107–114.
  46. Vicente Fox and Rob Allyn, Revolution of Hope: The Life, Faith, and Dreams of a Mexican President. New York: Viking 2007, pp. 192-93.
  47. Ernesto Zedillo, ed., Global Warming. Looking Beyond Kyoto. Brookings Institution Press 2008
  48. Smith, Randall (27 February 2010). "Citigroup to Restructure Its Board". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 27 January 2018.
  49. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 9 March 2009. Retrieved 22 January 2009.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  50. Member of the Board of Directors: Ernesto Zedillo Procter & Gamble.
  51. Kofi Annan Commission on Elections and Democracy in the Digital Age Kofi Annan Foundation.
  52. Board of Directors Berggruen Institute.
  53. Regional Migration Study Group Migration Policy Institute (MPI).
  54. Selection Committee Aurora Prize.
  55. "Kofi Annan announces two new Elders: Hina Jilani and Ernesto Zedillo". 11 July 2013. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
  56. "Inter-American Dialogue | Ernesto Zedillo". Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  57. Board of Directors Peterson Institute for International Economics (PIIE).
  58. "Outside Review Supports World Bank Group Reform". 21 October 2009. Retrieved 27 January 2018.
  59. "Over 1,000 Leaders Worldwide Slam Failed Prohibitionist Drug Policies, Call for Systemic Reform". Drug Policy Alliance.
  60. "Mexico and Justice: The trials of Ernesto Zedillo". The Economist . 1 September 2012. Retrieved 27 January 2018.
  61. Randal C. Archibold (8 September 2012). "U.S. Moves to Grant Former Mexican President Immunity in Suit". The New York Times . Retrieved 27 January 2018.
  62. "Former Mexican President Evades Charges of Massacre Through Immunity". Retrieved 27 January 2018.
  63. "Supreme Court won't hear suit over Indian massacre in Mexico". 15 October 2014. Archived from the original on 15 October 2014. Retrieved 27 January 2018.
  64. Beltran, Ulises. "Zedillo y Fox los ex presidentes de México más reconocidos". Imagen Radio. Retrieved 21 February 2020.
  65. "Royal Decree 50/1996, 19th January". Spanish Official Journal - BOE (in Spanish). Retrieved 2 December 2018.

Further reading

Preceded by
Luis Donaldo Colosio
PRI presidential candidate
1994 (won)
Succeeded by
Francisco Labastida