Erzurum

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Erzurum
Erzurum555.jpg
Top left: Lala Kara Mustafa Pasha Mosque, Top right: Erzurum Poolside, Middle left: Cumhuriyet avenue, Top right: Statue of Nene Hatun, Bottom left: Kiremitliktepe Ski Jump, Bottom right: The Statue of Liberty in Erzurum
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Erzurum
Location of Erzurum
Coordinates: 39°54′31″N41°16′37″E / 39.90861°N 41.27694°E / 39.90861; 41.27694 Coordinates: 39°54′31″N41°16′37″E / 39.90861°N 41.27694°E / 39.90861; 41.27694
Country Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey
Province Erzurum Province
Government
  MayorMehmet Sekmen (AKP)
Elevation
1,900 m (6,200 ft)
Population
(2010)
   Urban
367,250
Time zone UTC+3 (FET)
Climate Dfb
Website www.erzurum-bld.gov.tr

Erzurum (Armenian : Կարին, Karin) [1] is a city in eastern Anatolia (Asian Turkey). It is the largest city in and eponymous capital of Erzurum Province. It is situated 1757 meters (5766 feet) above sea level. Erzurum had a population of 361,235 in the 2000 census, increasing to 367,250 by 2010.

Armenian language Indo-European language

The Armenian language is an Indo-European language spoken primarily by Armenians. It is the official language of Armenia. Historically being spoken throughout the Armenian Highlands, today, Armenian is widely spoken throughout the Armenian diaspora. Armenian is written in its own writing system, the Armenian alphabet, introduced in 405 AD by Mesrop Mashtots.

Anatolia Asian part of Turkey

Anatolia, also known as Asia Minor, Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region is bounded by the Black Sea to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, the Armenian Highlands to the east, and the Aegean Sea to the west. The Sea of Marmara forms a connection between the Black and Aegean Seas through the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits and separates Anatolia from Thrace on the European mainland.

Erzurum Province Province of Turkey in Northeast Anatolia

Erzurum Province is a province of Turkey in the Eastern Anatolia Region of the country. It is bordered by the provinces of Kars and Ağrı to the east, Muş and Bingöl to the south, Erzincan and Bayburt to the west, Rize and Artvin to the north and Ardahan to the northeast.

Contents

As Ancient Theodosiopolis in Armenia (or "in Cappadocia"), the former bishopric remains a Latin Catholic titular see.

A titular see in various churches is an episcopal see of a former diocese that no longer functions, sometimes called a "dead diocese".

The city uses the double-headed Anatolian Seljuk Eagle as its coat-of-arms, a motif that was a common symbol throughout Anatolia and the Balkans in the medieval period.

Erzurum has some of the finest winter sports facilities in Turkey and hosted the 2011 Winter Universiade.

2011 Winter Universiade

The XXV Winter Universiade, took place in Erzurum, Turkey between 27 January to 6 February. Erzurum is the city at the highest altitude in Turkey, at 1,850 m (6,070 ft), and has over 320 cultural landmarks. Located in Eastern Anatolia Region, it is a city on the traditional silk road and has been governed by many cultures over the centuries. The Erzurum Ice Hockey Arena, located on the Cemal Gürsel Sports Campus, was newly built with an ice rink of 60m x 30m and 3,000 seats for spectators.

Name and etymology

The city was originally known in Armenian as Karno K'aghak' (Armenian : Կարնո քաղաք), meaning city of Karin, to distinguish it from the district of Karin (Կարին). [2] After the Arab conquest of Armenia, the city was known to the Arabs as Kālīkalā (which was adopted from the original Armenian name). [2]

During Roman times, Erzurum was named Theodosiopolis (Latin : Theodosiopolis, Greek : Θεοδοσιούπολις), or – in Armenia or – in Cappadocia to distinguish is from several namesakes. It got its present name after its conquest by the Seljuks following the Battle of Manzikert in 1071. [2]

Greek language language spoken in Greece, Cyprus and Southern Albania

Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.

Battle of Manzikert battle between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuq Turks of 1071

The Battle of Manzikert was fought between the Byzantine Empire and the Seljuk Empire on 26 August 1071 near Manzikert, theme of Iberia. The decisive defeat of the Byzantine army and the capture of the Emperor Romanos IV Diogenes played an important role in undermining Byzantine authority in Anatolia and Armenia, and allowed for the gradual Turkification of Anatolia. Many of the Turks, who had been, during the 11th century, travelling westward, saw the victory at Manzikert as an entrance to Asia Minor.

A neighboring commercial city named Artsn (Arcn, Artze, Arzan; Armenian: Արծն) was heavily sacked by the Seljuk Turks in 1048–49. [2] [3] Its Armenian, Syrian, and other Christian inhabitants moved to Theodosiopolis, which they began calling "Artsn Rum" (meaning Arzan of the Rûm, i.e., Romans) to distinguish it from their former residence. [4] [5] [6] [2] After the Arab conquest of Armenia, the city was known to the Arabs as Kālīkalā (which was adopted from the original Armenian name Karno K'aghak' (Armenian : Կարնո քաղաք), meaning "Karin City", to distinguish it from the district of Karin (Կարին). [2] Some older sources derive the name Erzurum from the Arabic Arḍ-ar-Rūm (Arabic : ارض الروم) 'land of the Rûm'. [4] [7]

In the words of Parvaneh Pourshariati / Encyclopædia Iranica : [8]

In fact, the powerful noble family of the Kamsarakan in Armenia traced their genealogy to the Iranian Kārin Pahlav family of the Arsacid period, and specifically to one Pērōzmat (only attested by Movsēs Xorenacʿi, p. 219). The Armenian Kārins, the Kamsarakan, remained a powerful dynastic family in the region, directly involved in the history of the Byzantines and the Sasanians, and in Armenian political sphere up to the 14th century, carrying the surname of Pahlavuni, in commemoration of their origins. They lent their name to important localities, so that ancient Theodosiopolis was named Kārin, before the name was changed to Erzurum in later centuries.

History

Early history

The surroundings of Erzurum at the Urartian period presumably belonged to Diauehi. [9] Later, Erzurum existed under the Armenian name of Karin. During the reigns of the Artaxiad and Arsacid kings of Armenia, Karin served as the capital of the eponymous canton of Karin, in the province Bardzr Hayk' (Upper Armenia). [10] After the partition of Armenia between the Eastern Roman Empire and Sassanid Persia in 387 AD, the city passed into the hands of the Romans. They fortified the city and renamed it Theodosiopolis, after Emperor Theodosius I. [11] As the chief military stronghold along the eastern border of the empire, Theodosiopolis held a highly important strategic location and was fiercely contested in wars between the Byzantines and Persians. Emperors Anastasius I and Justinian I both refortified the city and built new defenses during their reigns. [12]

Middle Ages

The Seljuk era Çifte Minareli Medrese (Twin Minaret Madrasa) is the symbol of the city and appears on its coat of arms. Erzurum Cifte Minareli Sunrise.JPG
The Seljuk era Çifte Minareli Medrese (Twin Minaret Madrasa) is the symbol of the city and appears on its coat of arms.
"A Prospect of Erzeron the Capital of Armenia" from Joseph Pitton de Tournefort's 1717 book Relation d'un voyage du Levant Erzeron Tournefort.png
"A Prospect of Erzeron the Capital of Armenia" from Joseph Pitton de Tournefort's 1717 book Relation d'un voyage du Levant
Seljuk stone carving on the Yakutiye Medrese, 13th century Erzurum, Yakutiye-left.jpg
Seljuk stone carving on the Yakutiye Medrese, 13th century

Theodosiopolis was conquered by the Umayyad general Abdallah ibn Abd al-Malik in 700/701. It became the capital of the emirate of Ḳālīḳalā and was used as a base for raids into Byzantine territory. Though only an island of Arab power within Christian Armenian-populated territory, the native population was generally a reliable client of the Caliph's governors. As the power of the Caliphate declined, and the resurgence of Byzantium began, the local Armenian leaders preferred the city to be under the control of powerless Muslim emirs rather than powerful Byzantine emperors. [13]

In 931, and again in 949, Byzantine forces led by Theophilos Kourkouas, grandfather of the future emperor John I Tzimiskes, captured Theodosiopolis. Its Arab population was expelled and the city was resettled by Greeks and Armenians. [14] Emperor Basil II rebuilt the city and its defenses in 1018 with the help of the local Armenian population. [15] In 1071, after the decisive battle at Manzikert, the Seljuk Turks took possession of Theodosiopolis. The Saltukids were rulers of an Anatolian beylik (principality) centered in Erzurum, who ruled from 1071 to 1202. Melike Mama Hatun, sister of Nâsırüddin Muhammed, was the ruler between 1191 and 1200.

Theodosiopolis repelled many attacks and military campaigns by the Seljuks and Georgians (the latter knew the city as Karnu-Kalaki) until 1201 when the city and the province was conquered by the Seljuk sultan Süleymanshah II. Erzen-Erzurum fell to the Mongol siege in 1242, and the city was looted and devastated. After the fall of the Sultanate of Rum in early 14th century, it became an administrative province of the Ilkhanate, and later on the city was under Empire of Trebizond occupation for a while around the 1310s. [16] Then became part of the Çoban beylik, Black Sheep Turkmen, empire of Timur Lenk and White Sheep Turkmen. It subsequently passed to Safavid Persia, until the Ottomans under Selim I in 1514 conquered it through the Battle of Chaldiran. During the Ottoman Empire reign, the city served as the main base of Ottoman military power in the region.

It served as the capital of the eyalet of Erzurum. Early in the seventeenth century, the province was threatened by Safavid Persia and a revolt by the province governor Abaza Mehmed Pasha. This revolt was combined with Jelali Revolts (the uprising of the provincial musketeers called the Jelali), backed by Iran and lasted until 1628. In 1733, the Iranian Nader Shah took Erzurum during the Ottoman–Persian War (1730–35), [17] but if returned into Ottoman possession following his death in 1747.

Modern history

In 1821, during the last major Ottoman-Persian War, the Ottomans were crushingly defeated at Erzurum despite a numerical superiority by the Iranian Qajars at the Battle of Erzurum (1821). [18] In 1829 the city was captured by the Russian Empire, but was returned to the Ottoman Empire under the Treaty of Adrianople (Edirne), in September of the same year. During the Crimean war Russian forces approached Erzurum, but did not attack it because of insufficient forces and the continuing Russian siege of Kars. The city was unsuccessfully attacked (Battle of Erzurum (1877)) by a Russian army in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78. However, in February 1878, the Russians took Erzurum without resistance, but it was again returned to the Ottoman Empire, this time under the Treaty of San Stefano. There were massacres of the city's Armenian citizens during the Hamidian massacres (1894–1896). [19] [20] The city was the location of one of the key battles in the Caucasus Campaign of World War I between the armies of the Ottoman and Russian Empires. This resulted in the capture of Erzurum by Russian forces under the command of Grand Duke Nicholas and Nikolai Nikolaevich Yudenich on February 16, 1916. Erzurum reverted to Ottoman control after the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in March 1918. In 1919, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, one of the key founders of the modern Turkish Republic, resigned from the Ottoman Army in Erzurum and was declared an "Honorary Native" and freeman of the city, which issued him his first citizenship registration and certificate (Nüfus Cuzdanı) of the new Turkish Republic. The Erzurum Congress of 1919 was one of the starting points of the Turkish War of Independence. [21] Erzurum, known as "The Rock" in NATO code, served as NATO's southeastern-most air force post during the Cold War.

Ecclesiastical history

Theodosiopolis was important enough in the Late Roman province of Armenia Tertia to become a bishopric, which the Annuario Pontificio lists as suffragan of the Archdiocese of Comachus, but in Notitiae Episcopatuum from the seventh and early tenth centuries, its (later?) Metropolitan is the Archdiocese of Caesarea in Cappadocia. [22] In either case, it was in the sway of the Patriarchate of Constantinople.

Its historically recorded Suffragan Bishops were :

Council of Theodosiopolis (593)

After the long Byzantine-Sasanian War of 572-591, Byzantine rule was extended to all western parts of Armenia, and emperor Maurice (582-602) decided to strengthen political control over the region by supporting pro-Chalcedonian fraction of the Armenian Church. In 593, regional council of western Armenian bishops met in Theodosiopolis, proclaimed allegiance to the Chalcedonian Definition and elected John (Yovhannes, or Hovhannes) of Bagaran as new Catholicos of Chalcedonian Armenians. [23]

Economy

Erzurum Cumhuriyet Avenue Erzurum Cumhuriyet Caddesi3.jpg
Erzurum Cumhuriyet Avenue

One of the largest source of income and economic activity in the city has been Atatürk University. Established in 1950, it is one of the largest universities in Turkey, having more than forty-thousand students. Tourism also provides a portion of the province's revenues. The city is a popular destination in Turkey for winter sports at the nearby Palandöken Mountain.

Erzurum is notable for the small-scale production of objects crafted from Oltu stone: most are sold as souvenirs and include prayer beads, bracelets, necklaces, brooches, earrings and hairclips.

For now, Erzurum is the ending point of the South Caucasus Pipeline, also called the Baku-Tbilisi-Erzurum (BTE) pipeline. Erzurum will also be the starting point of the planned Nabucco pipeline which will carry natural gas from the Caspian Sea basin to the European Union member states. The intergovernmental agreement between Turkey, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Austria to build the Nabucco pipeline was signed by five Prime Ministers on 13 July 2009 in Ankara. [24] [25] The European Union was represented at the ceremony by the President of the European Commission Jose Manuel Barroso and the Commissioner for Energy Andris Piebalgs, while the United States was represented by the Special Envoy for Eurasian Energy Richard Morningstar and the Ranking Member of the United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations Senator Richard Lugar. [26] [27]

Tourism

Palandöken in August 2009, as seen from downtown Erzurum. Palandoken Erzurum 2009.JPG
Palandöken in August 2009, as seen from downtown Erzurum.

Little of medieval Erzurum survives beyond scattered individual buildings such as the citadel fortress, and the 13th century Çifte Minareli Medrese (the "Twin Minaret" madrasa). Visitors may also wish to visit the Çobandede Bridge, which dates back to late 13th century. [28]

Six kilometres to the south of the center of Erzurum is an important skiing center on the Palandöken Mountain range. There are several ski runs; the south ski run is 8 km long, while the north ski run is intended for advanced skiers. The summit of Mt. Palandöken, which is called Büyük Ejder (Great Dragon), is at an altitude of 3188 metres. It can be reached with a chair lift which rises to an altitude of 3100 metres.

Nine kilometres to the west of Erzurum, in the village of Gezköy, stands the ruined Monastery of Saint Minas of Kes.

Transport

The main bus station has bus links to most major Turkish cities. Erzurum is also the main railroad endpoint for the Eastern Anatolia region. Erzurum Airport, also used by the Turkish Air Force, has the second longest runway in Turkey.

Cuisine

One specialty of Erzurum's cuisine is Cağ Kebab. Although this kebab variety is of recent introduction outside its native region, it is rapidly attaining widespread popularity around Turkey.

Kadayıf Dolması is an exquisite dessert made with walnut.

Other regional foodstuffs include Su böreği (wet pastry), ekşili dolma (sour stuffed vegetables), kesme çorbası (soup), ayran aşı yayla çorbası (nomads soup), çiriş, şalgam dolması (stuffed turnip), yumurta pilavı (egg pilaf), and kadayıf dolması [28]

Sports

Venues

2011 Winter Universiade opening in Kazım Karabekir Stadium. Recep Tayyip Erdoğan and George Papandreou, Erzurum January 2011 12.jpg
2011 Winter Universiade opening in Kazım Karabekir Stadium.
The K-95 /left) and K-125 (right) ski jumping towers at Kiremitliktepe. Erzurum Kiremitliktepe Kayakla Atlama Kuleleri3.jpg
The K-95 /left) and K-125 (right) ski jumping towers at Kiremitliktepe.

International events hosted

Erzurum has hosted the following international winter sports events:

The city's football club Erzurumspor, which during 1998–2001 played in the Turkish Super League, was forced to relegate to the TFF Third League due to financial problems.

Erzurum's football venue, the Cemal Gürsel Stadium, has a seating capacity for 21,900 spectators. To be able to carry out the competitions of the Winter Universiade, a ski jumping ramp, an ice hockey arena and a curling hall were built in Erzurum.

Frank Lenz disappearance

In May 1894 American bicyclist Frank Lenz disappeared outside the city on the final leg of his quest to circumnavigate the globe on a bike. [29]

Climate

Erzurum has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb) with cold, snowy winters and warm, dry summers with cool nights. The average maximum daily temperature during August is around 27 °C (81 °F). The highest recorded temperature is 36.5 °C (97.7 °F), on 31 July 2000. However, the average minimum daily temperature during January is around −15 °C (5 °F); temperatures fall below −30 °C (−22 °F) most years. The lowest recorded temperature is −37.2 °C (−35.0 °F), on 28 December 2002.

Climate data for Erzurum (1960–2012 normals)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)7.9
(46.2)
9.6
(49.3)
21.4
(70.5)
26.5
(79.7)
29.1
(84.4)
31.0
(87.8)
35.6
(96.1)
36.5
(97.7)
33.3
(91.9)
27.0
(80.6)
17.8
(64.0)
14.0
(57.2)
36.5
(97.7)
Average high °C (°F)−4.0
(24.8)
−2.5
(27.5)
2.8
(37.0)
11.2
(52.2)
16.9
(62.4)
21.8
(71.2)
26.7
(80.1)
27.2
(81.0)
22.8
(73.0)
15.3
(59.5)
6.7
(44.1)
−1.0
(30.2)
12.0
(53.6)
Daily mean °C (°F)−9.4
(15.1)
−8.1
(17.4)
−2.3
(27.9)
5.4
(41.7)
10.6
(51.1)
14.9
(58.8)
19.3
(66.7)
19.3
(66.7)
14.5
(58.1)
8.0
(46.4)
0.6
(33.1)
−6.0
(21.2)
5.6
(42.0)
Average low °C (°F)−14.5
(5.9)
−13.2
(8.2)
−7.1
(19.2)
0.0
(32.0)
4.0
(39.2)
7.0
(44.6)
10.9
(51.6)
10.6
(51.1)
5.9
(42.6)
1.4
(34.5)
−4.4
(24.1)
−10.7
(12.7)
−0.8
(30.5)
Record low °C (°F)−41.0
(−41.8)
−39.0
(−38.2)
−40.0
(−40.0)
−22.4
(−8.3)
−7.1
(19.2)
−5.6
(21.9)
−1.8
(28.8)
−1.1
(30.0)
−6.8
(19.8)
−15.0
(5.0)
−34.3
(−29.7)
−37.2
(−35.0)
−41.0
(−41.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches)19.8
(0.78)
23.0
(0.91)
32.2
(1.27)
55.8
(2.20)
67.8
(2.67)
45.5
(1.79)
26.2
(1.03)
17.0
(0.67)
20.6
(0.81)
44.7
(1.76)
32.1
(1.26)
21.4
(0.84)
406.1
(15.99)
Average precipitation days11.611.412.814.816.711.16.85.54.910.19.511.5126.7
Average snowy days121212510000161261
Average relative humidity (%)79787667625852484964748066
Mean monthly sunshine hours 93.0109.2151.9180.0241.8303.0344.1331.7267.0204.6132.086.82,445.1
Source #1: Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü [30]
Source #2: Climatebase.ru [31]

Notable natives

The Statue of Nene Hatun, (1857 – 22 May 1955) was a Turkish folk heroine, who at her age of twenty showed bravery during the recapture of Fort Aziziye in Erzurum from Russian forces at the start of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878. Nene Hatun Heykeli (Erzurum Tabyalar).jpg
The Statue of Nene Hatun, (1857 – 22 May 1955) was a Turkish folk heroine, who at her age of twenty showed bravery during the recapture of Fort Aziziye in Erzurum from Russian forces at the start of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878.
Armenians
Turks
Others

Twin towns and sister cities

See also

Notes and references

  1. see other names
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Inalcik, Halil. "Erzurum". Encyclopedia of Islam. P. Bearman et al. (eds.) Leiden: Brill, 1965, vol. ii, p. 712.
  3. Garsoïan, Nina G. "Theodosioupolis". Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991, vol. 3, p. 2054.
  4. 1 2 See Joseph Laurent's extensive note in his (in French)L’Arménie entre Byzance et l’Islam depuis la conquête arabe jusqu’en 886, 1919, new edition revised and updated by Marius Canard, Lisbon: Librairie Bertrand, 1980, pp. 87–88, note 83.
  5. (in German) Markwart, Joseph. Südarmenien und die Tigrisquellen nach griechischen und arabischen Geographen. Vienna: Mechitharisten-Buchdruckerei, 1930, pp. 41, 334, 339.
  6. Hewsen. "Summit of the Earth", pp 42–44.
  7. (in Armenian) Darbinyan, M. «Էրզրում» [Erzurum] Armenian Soviet Encyclopedia. Yerevan: Armenian Academy of Sciences, 1978, vol. 4, p. 93.
  8. Pourshariati 2017.
  9. Kemalettin Köroğlu: The Northern Border of the Urartian Kingdom. In: Altan Çilingiroğlu/G. Darbyshire (Hrsg.): Anatolian Iron Ages 5, Proceedings of the 5th Anatolian Iron Ages Colloquium Van. 6.–10. August 2001. British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara Monograph 3 (Ankara 2005) 101.
  10. Hewsen, Robert H. Armenia: a Historical Atlas. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001, p. 103.
  11. Garsoïan, Nina G. "The Foundation of Theodosiopolis-Karin" in Armenian Karin/Erzerum. UCLA Armenian History and Culture Series: Historic Armenian Cities and Provinces, 4, ed. Richard G. Hovannisian. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda Publishers, 2003, pp. 63–72.
  12. (in Armenian) Arakelyan, Babken N. "Հայաստանի Խոշոր Քաղաքները" ("The Great Cities of Armenia") in Հայ Ժողովրդի Պատմություն [History of the Armenian People]. Yerevan: Armenian Academy of Sciences, 1976, vol. iii, p. 232.
  13. Whittow, Mark. The Making of Byzantium, 600–1025. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996, pp. 310, 320.
  14. Whittow. The Making of Byzantium, p. 322.
  15. Arakelyan. "The Great Cities of Armenia", pp. 232–233.
  16. Zehiroğlu, Ahmet M. ; "Trabzon Imparatorluğu 2" 2016, Trabzon, ( ISBN   978-605-4567-52-2) ; pp.133–134
  17. John A Boyle. "Persia (RLE Iran A): History and Heritage" p 43
  18. A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle, Vol.III, ed. Spencer C. Tucker, 1140.
  19. Dadrian, Vahakn N. Warrant for Genocide: Key Elements of Turko-Armenian Conflict. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers, 1999, p. 141.
  20. Balakian, Peter. The Burning Tigris: The Armenian Genocide and America's Response. New York: HarperCollins. pp. 59, 127–129. ISBN   0-06-055870-9.
  21. See Richard G. Hovannisian, "The Competition for Erzerum, 1914–1921" in Armenian Karin/Erzerum, pp. 378ff.
  22. Heinrich Gelzer, Ungedruckte und ungenügend veröffentlichte Texte der Notitiae episcopatuum, in: Abhandlungen der philosophisch-historische classe der bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1901, p. 536, nº 80, e p. 551, nº 112
  23. Meyendorff 1989, p. 108-109, 284, 343.
  24. "Europe gas pipeline deal agreed". BBC News. 2009-07-13. Retrieved 2009-07-13.
  25. "Turkey, EU countries sign gas pipeline deal". Today's Zaman. 2009-07-13. Archived from the original on 2009-07-18. Retrieved 2009-07-13.
  26. "Nabucco Summits Begins". Turkish Press. 2009-07-13. Retrieved 2009-07-13.
  27. Ian Kelly (2009-07-13). "Signing Ceremony for the Intergovernmental Agreement on the Nabucco Pipeline" (Press release). United States Department of State. Retrieved 2009-07-13.
  28. 1 2 Erzurum city guide, travel guide, hotel guide, tourism guide. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://erzurumguide.com/
  29. "A lens on Lenz on the South Side".
  30. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-11-27. Retrieved 2011-02-01.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  31. "Climatebase.ru – Erzurum, Turkey".
  32. "Urmia, Erzurum sign sisterhood agreement". 7 April 2015.

Further reading

Published in the 19th century
Published in the 20th century
Published in the 21st century
Bibliography – Ecclesiastical history
  1. "December 2013 address-based calculation of the Turkish Statistical Institute as presented by citypopulation.de".

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Sultanate of Rum Seljuq Sultanate in Western Anatolia

The Sultanate of Rûm (also known as the Rûm sultanate, Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate, Sultanate of Iconium, Anatolian Seljuk State or Turkey Seljuk State was a Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim state established in the parts of Anatolia which had been conquered from the Byzantine Empire by the Seljuk Empire, which was established by the Seljuk Turks. The name Rûm was a synonym for Greek, as it remains in modern Turkish, although it derives from the Arabic name for Romans, الرُّومُ ar-Rūm, itself a loan from Greek Ῥωμαῖοι, "Romans"; ie. citizens superordinately to Latin-speakers.

Kahramanmaraş Metropolitan municipality in Mediterranean, Turkey

Kahramanmaraş, is a city in the Mediterranean Region, Turkey and the administrative center of Kahramanmaraş Province. Before 1973, Kahramanmaraş was named Maraş. The city lies on a plain at the foot of the Ahir Dağı and has a population of 1,112,634 as of 2017. The region is best known for its distinctive ice cream, and its production of salep, a powder made from dried orchid tubers. It is connected by air to Istanbul and Ankara. Turkish Airlines has daily direct flights from İstanbul and also AnadoluJet operates direct flights from Ankara.

Bayburt Municipality in Turkey

Bayburt is a city in northeast Turkey lying on the Çoruh River and is the provincial capital of Bayburt Province.

Şebinkarahisar Place in Giresun, Turkey

Şebinkarahisar is a town in and the administrative seat for Şebinkarahisar District, Giresun Province in the Black Sea region of northeastern Turkey.

Ahlat Place in Bitlis, Turkey

Ahlat, is a historic town and district in Turkey's Bitlis Province in Eastern Anatolia Region. From 1929-1936, it had been included as a district of Van Province. The town of Ahlat is situated on the northwestern shore of Lake Van. The mayor is Abdulalim Mümtaz Çoban (AKP).

Ras al-Ayn City in al-Hasakah, Syria

Ras al-Ayn, also spelled Ras al-Ain, is a city in al-Hasakah Governorate in northeastern Syria, on the border with Turkey.

Pasinler or Basiani, is a town in Erzurum Province, Turkey on the Aras River. It is located 40 kilometres (25 mi) east of the city of Erzurum and is the site of Hasankale Castle. It was the birthplace of the Ottoman poet Nef'i. The old name "Hasankale" could be based upon the Aq Qoyunlu ruler Uzun Hasan or upon Hasan the governor of the region in the 1330s or after Küçük Hasan, grandson of Coban, who attacked the town in 1340.

Seljuk Empire Medieval empire

The Seljuk Empire or Great Seljuq Empire was a medieval Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim empire, originating from the Qiniq branch of Oghuz Turks. The Seljuk Empire controlled a vast area stretching from the Hindu Kush to western Anatolia and the Levant, and from Central Asia to the Persian Gulf. The Seljuk empire was founded by Tughril Beg (1016–1063) in 1037. From their homelands near the Aral Sea, the Seljuks advanced first into Khorasan and then into mainland Persia, before eventually conquering eastern Anatolia. Here the Seljuks won the battle of Manzikert in 1071 and conquered most of Anatolia from the Byzantine Empire, which became one of the reasons for the first crusade (1095-1099). From c. 1150-1250, the Seljuk empire declined, and was around 1260 invaded by the Mongols. The Mongols divided Anatolia into emirates. Eventually one of these, the Ottoman, would conquer the rest.

In 615, during the ongoing war with the Byzantine Empire, the Sassanid Persian army under spahbod Shahin invaded Asia Minor and reached Chalcedon, across the Bosporus from Constantinople. It was at this point, according to Sebeos, that Heraclius had agreed to stand down and was about ready to become a client of the Sasanian emperor Khosrow II, allowing the Roman Empire to become a Persian client state, as well as even allow Khosrow II to choose the emperor. The Sassanids had already captured Roman Syria and Palestine in the previous year. After negotiations with Byzantine Emperor Heraclius, a Byzantine ambassador was sent to Persian Shahanshah Khosrau II, and Shahin withdrew again to Syria.

Malazgirt Place in Muş, Turkey

Malazgirt is a town in Muş Province in eastern Turkey, with a population of 23,697.

Armenian carpet

The term Armenian carpet designates, but is not limited to, tufted rugs or knotted carpets woven in Armenia or by Armenians from pre-Christian times to the present. It also includes a number of flat woven textiles. The term covers a large variety of types and sub-varieties. Due to their intrinsic fragility, almost nothing survives—neither carpets nor fragments—from antiquity until the late medieval period.

Mongol invasions of Anatolia occurred at various times, starting with the campaign of 1241–1243 that culminated in the Battle of Köse Dağ. Real power over Anatolia was exercised by the Mongols after the Seljuks surrendered in 1243 until the fall of the Ilkhanate in 1335. Because the Seljuk Sultan rebelled several times, in 1255, the Mongols swept through central and eastern Anatolia. The Ilkhanate garrison was stationed near Ankara. Timur's invasion is sometimes considered the last invasion of Anatolia by the Mongols. Remains of the Mongol cultural heritage still can be seen in Turkey, including tombs of a Mongol governor and a son of Hulagu.

Seljuk architecture comprises the building traditions used by the Seljuq dynasty, when it ruled most of the Middle East and Anatolia during the 11th to 13th centuries. After the 11th century, the Seljuks of Rum emerged from the Great Seljuk Empire developing their own architecture, though they were influenced and inspired by the Armenian, Byzantine and Persian architectural traditions.

Şebinkarahisar District District in Giresun, Turkey

Şebinkarahisar District is a district of Giresun Province in northeastern Turkey. It is inland from the Black Sea in the Giresun Mountains. The administrative seat is the town of Şebinkarahisar. Its area is 1,318 square kilometres (509 sq mi).

Karin dialect

The Karin dialect is a Western Armenian dialect originally spoken in and around the city of Erzurum, now located in eastern Turkey.

Phasiane (historical region) region in historical southwestern Georgia

Phasiane, is a historical region now part of the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey.

Speri (region) region in north-eastern Anatolia

Speri, also known as Sper, is a historical region now part of the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey. It was centered in the upper reaches of the valley of the Çoruh River, its probable capital was the town of İspir, or Syspiritus as indicated on the map next to the Byzantine-Sassanid border, and it originally extended as far west as the town of Bayburt and the Bayburt plains.