Eskişehir

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Eskişehir
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Eskişehir
Location of Eskişehir
Coordinates: 39°47′N30°31′E / 39.783°N 30.517°E / 39.783; 30.517
Country Turkey
Region Central Anatolia
Province Eskişehir
Government
  Metropolitan Mayor Yılmaz Büyükerşen (CHP)
  GovernorAzmi Çelik
Area
   Metropolitan municipality 2,678.00 km2 (1,033.98 sq mi)
Elevation
788 m (2,585 ft)
Population
 (2016) [1]
   Metropolitan municipality 844,842
  Density236/km2 (610/sq mi)
   Metro
734,807
Time zone UTC+2 (EET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal code
26 xxx
Area code(s) (+90) 222
Registration plate 26
Website http://www.eskisehir-bld.gov.tr/
Estram, the city's tram service. Doktorlarcaddesi.JPG
Estram, the city's tram service.

Eskişehir ( US: /ˌɛskɪʃəˈhɪər/ ES-kish-ə-HEER, [2] [3] Turkish:  [esˈciʃehiɾ] ; from eski "old" and şehir "city") [4] is a city in northwestern Turkey and the capital of the Eskişehir Province. In the Byzantine era its name was Dorylaeum. [5] The urban population of the city is 717,135 with a metropolitan population of 826,135. [1] The city is located on the banks of the Porsuk River, 792 m above sea level, where it overlooks the fertile Phrygian Valley. In the nearby hills one can find hot springs. The city is 233 km (145 mi) to the west of Ankara, 330 km (205 mi) to the southeast of Istanbul and 78 km (48 mi) to the northeast of Kütahya. Known as a university town, both Eskişehir Osmangazi University and Anadolu University (which has one of the largest student enrollments in the world) are based in Eskişehir. The province covers an area of 2,678 km2 (1,034 sq mi). [6]

American English Set of dialects of the English language spoken in the United States

American English, sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. It is considered one of the most influential dialects of English globally, including on other varieties of English.

Turkey Republic in Western Asia

Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located mainly in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Greece and Bulgaria to its northwest; Georgia to its northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the south. Istanbul is the largest city, but more central Ankara is the capital. Approximately 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority; the size of the Kurdish population is a subject of dispute with estimates placing the figure at anywhere from 12 to 25 per cent of the population.

Contents

History

The name Eskişehir literally means "Old City" in Turkish; indeed, the city was founded by the Phrygians in at least 1000 BC, although it has been estimated to be older than 4000 years old. Many Phrygian artifacts and sculptures can still be found in the city's archeological museum. There is also a museum of meerschaum stone, whose production remains still notable, used to make high quality meerschaum pipes. In the fourth century AD the city moved about ten km northeast, from Karacahisar to Şehirhöyük.

Turkish language Turkic language mainly spoken and used in Turkey

Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish,, and sometimes known as Turkey Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around ten to fifteen million native speakers in Southeast Europe and sixty to sixty-five million native speakers in Western Asia. Outside Turkey, significant smaller groups of speakers exist in Germany, Bulgaria, North Macedonia, Northern Cyprus, Greece, the Caucasus, and other parts of Europe and Central Asia. Cyprus has requested that the European Union add Turkish as an official language, even though Turkey is not a member state.

Phrygians

The Phrygians were an ancient Indo-European people, initially dwelling in the southern Balkans – according to Herodotus – under the name of Bryges (Briges), changing it to Phryges after their final migration to Anatolia, via the Hellespont.

<i>Anno Domini</i> Western calendar era

The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars. The term anno Domini is Medieval Latin and means "in the year of the Lord", but is often presented using "our Lord" instead of "the Lord", taken from the full original phrase "anno Domini nostri Jesu Christi", which translates to "in the year of our Lord Jesus Christ".

Many ancient geographers described the city as one of the most beautiful in Anatolia.

Anatolia Asian part of Turkey

Anatolia, also known as Asia Minor, Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region is bounded by the Black Sea to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, the Armenian Highlands to the east and the Aegean Sea to the west. The Sea of Marmara forms a connection between the Black and Aegean seas through the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits and separates Anatolia from Thrace on the European mainland.

As with many towns in Anatolia, Christianity arrived after Constantine the Great legalized the religion in the Roman Empire. Beginning in the 4th century, records exist of bishops holding office in Eskişehir. The city was known as Dorylaeum (Δορύλαιον) in Greek in that period. One of these bishops, Eusebius, was heavily involved in shaping the evolving dogma of the church.

Christianity is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth. Its adherents, known as Christians, believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God and savior of all people, whose coming as the Messiah was prophesied in the Old Testament and chronicled in the New Testament. It is the world's largest religion with over 2.4 billion followers.

Constantine the Great Roman emperor

Constantine the Great, also known as Constantine I, was a Roman Emperor who ruled between 306 and 337 AD. Born in Naissus, in Dacia Ripensis, city now known as Niš, he was the son of Flavius Valerius Constantius, a Roman Army officer of Illyrian origins. His mother Helena was Greek. His father became Caesar, the deputy emperor in the west, in 293 AD. Constantine was sent east, where he rose through the ranks to become a military tribune under Emperors Diocletian and Galerius. In 305, Constantius was raised to the rank of Augustus, senior western emperor, and Constantine was recalled west to campaign under his father in Britannia (Britain). Constantine was acclaimed as emperor by the army at Eboracum after his father's death in 306 AD. He emerged victorious in a series of civil wars against Emperors Maxentius and Licinius to become sole ruler of both west and east by 324 AD.

Religion is a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, morals, worldviews, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements. However, there is no scholarly consensus over what precisely constitutes a religion.

It was called Sultanönü during Seljuk period. [7]

Economy

Traditionally dependent on flour milling and brickyards, the city expanded with the building of railway workshops in 1894 for work on the Berlin-Baghdad Railway.

As of 1920, Eskişehir was one of the major locations for meerschaum mining. At that time, most of the mining sites were owned by the state. [8]

Devrim, the first Turkish automobile, was produced in 1961 at the TÜLOMSAŞ factory in Eskişehir. Devrim never put into mass production and stayed a concept study and can be viewed in TÜLOMSAŞ factory Eskişehir. In addition to production, first Turkish steam powered locomotive called Karakurt was produced at the TÜLOMSAŞ in 1961. Eskişehir was also the site of Turkey's first aviation industry (Aeronautical Supply Maintenance Centre) and its air base was the command center of Turkey's first Tactical Air Force headquarters on NATO's southern flank during the Cold War.

Eskişehir produces trucks, home appliances, railway locomotives, fighter aircraft engines, agricultural equipment, textiles, brick, cement, chemicals, processed meerschaum and refined sugar. Eti  [ tr ], one of Turkey's largest food brands (mostly producing biscuit, chocolate and candy varieties) is based in Eskişehir. Arçelik, a major Turkish home appliances and consumer electronics manufacturer, has one of its production plants in Eskişehir. Eskişehir was the first stage of High-speed rail in Turkey from Ankara. This service improved the travel and commerce between Eskişehir and Ankara, thanks to reduced journey time. GKN, a major global automotive supplier for passenger and commercial car powertrain systems has a plant in Eskişehir.

The city is served by the Anadolu Airport.

Education

Library of the Anadolu University Anadolu Universitesi Kutuphanesi.JPG
Library of the Anadolu University

There are two universities in Eskişehir. These are the Anadolu University and Eskişehir Osmangazi University. In addition to its on-campus study offering, Anadolu university started open university courses through TV broadcast already in the 1980s, allowing access to thousands of students who otherwise would not have been able to benefit from tertiary education. The current Metropolitan Mayor of Eskişehir, Prof. Dr. Yılmaz Büyükerşen, was formerly the rector of the Anadolu University.

Culture

The city has a significant population of Turkic Crimean Tatars. It also attracted ethnic Turks emigrating from Balkan countries such as Bulgaria, Romania, Bosnia, Macedonia and the Sandžak region of Serbia, who contributed to the development of the city's metalworking industries. Eskişehir also hosted the inaugural Turkvision Song Contest in 2013, which aims to highlight music and artists from various Turkic-speaking regions. The city is also home to the Dünya Müzeleri Müzesi or Museum of World Museums.

Other museums in the city are Eti Archaeology Museum, Aviation Museum, Meerschaum Museum, Museum of Independence, Museum of Modern Glass Art, Tayfun Talipoğlu Typewriter Museum and Yılmaz Büyükerşen Wax Museum.

Attractions

Most of modern-day Eskişehir was rebuilt after the Turkish War of Independence (1919–1923), but a number of historic buildings remain, such as the Kurşunlu Mosque. The archaeological site of the ancient Phrygian city of Dorylaeum is close to Eskişehir. The city is noted for its natural hot sulphur springs.

Climate

Eskişehir has a humid continental climate with a warm summer subtype (Dsb) under the Köppen climate classification, [9] with cold, snowy winters and warm, dry summers. Due to the low annual precipitation, the climate is near the borderline of a cold semi-arid climate (BSk). Rainfall occurs mostly during the spring and autumn. Due to Eskişehir's high altitude and its dry summers, nightly temperatures in the summer months are cool. Precipitation levels are low, but precipitation can be observed throughout the year.

Climate data for Eskişehir (1960-2012)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)20.2
(68.4)
22.3
(72.1)
29.1
(84.4)
31.2
(88.2)
33.9
(93.0)
36.8
(98.2)
40.6
(105.1)
39.0
(102.2)
36.4
(97.5)
33.0
(91.4)
25.4
(77.7)
21.4
(70.5)
40.6
(105.1)
Average high °C (°F)4.0
(39.2)
6.4
(43.5)
11.4
(52.5)
17.0
(62.6)
21.9
(71.4)
25.9
(78.6)
29.1
(84.4)
29.3
(84.7)
25.4
(77.7)
19.4
(66.9)
12.5
(54.5)
6.1
(43.0)
17.4
(63.3)
Daily mean °C (°F)0.0
(32.0)
1.5
(34.7)
5.2
(41.4)
10.3
(50.5)
15.1
(59.2)
19.1
(66.4)
21.8
(71.2)
21.6
(70.9)
17.3
(63.1)
11.9
(53.4)
6.3
(43.3)
2.1
(35.8)
11.0
(51.8)
Average low °C (°F)−3.5
(25.7)
−2.8
(27.0)
−0.3
(31.5)
3.8
(38.8)
7.9
(46.2)
11.4
(52.5)
14.0
(57.2)
13.7
(56.7)
9.6
(49.3)
5.4
(41.7)
1.1
(34.0)
−1.3
(29.7)
4.9
(40.9)
Record low °C (°F)−27.8
(−18.0)
−23.8
(−10.8)
−16.5
(2.3)
−10.4
(13.3)
−2.2
(28.0)
0.5
(32.9)
5.0
(41.0)
3.6
(38.5)
−2.0
(28.4)
−7.1
(19.2)
−14.7
(5.5)
−20.3
(−4.5)
−27.8
(−18.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches)40.6
(1.60)
32.6
(1.28)
37.8
(1.49)
40.6
(1.60)
43.0
(1.69)
32.8
(1.29)
13.0
(0.51)
9.2
(0.36)
15.1
(0.59)
29.8
(1.17)
30.0
(1.18)
45.5
(1.79)
370
(14.55)
Average rainy days13.811.712.011.010.77.43.52.84.17.79.513.2107.4
Average snowy days109510000003634
Mean monthly sunshine hours 77.5140.6158.1183260.4309353.4331.726718612365.12,454.8
Source #1: Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü [10]
Source #2: Weather2 [11]

Sports

Association football club Eskişehirspor, founded in 1965, plays in the TFF First League. It plays its home games in the Eskişehir Atatürk Stadium.

Notable natives

Non-natives

Fikri Cantürk, Professor of Painting, Anadolu University

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Eskişehir is twinned with:

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 "Turkey: Major cities and provinces". citypopulation.de. Retrieved 2015-02-08.
  2. "Eskisehir". Oxford Dictionaries . Oxford University Press . Retrieved May 30, 2019.
  3. "Eskisehir". Merriam-Webster Dictionary . Retrieved May 30, 2019.
  4. Lewis Thomas (Apr 1, 1986). Elementary Turkish. Courier Dover Publications. p. 12. ISBN   978-0486250649.
  5. E.J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam 1913-1936. BRILL. 1987. ISBN   978-90-04-08265-6.
  6. Statoids. "Statistical information on districts and town centers in Turkey" . Retrieved 2008-04-12.
  7. Türkiye İller Ansiklopedisi 1.Cilt s.409
  8. Prothero, G.W. (1920). Anatolia. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 105.
  9. Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification - Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions
  10. "İl ve İlçelerimize Ait İstatistiki Veriler- Meteoroloji Genel Müdürlüğü". Dmi.gov.tr. 2006-09-21. Retrieved 2013-03-24.
  11. "July Climate History for Eskisehir | Local | Turkey". Myweather2.com. Retrieved 2013-03-24.
  12. "Twin-cities of Azerbaijan". Azerbaijans.com. Retrieved 2013-08-09.
  13. Vesti.az (in Azerbaijani)

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References

Coordinates: 39°46′36″N30°31′14″E / 39.77667°N 30.52056°E / 39.77667; 30.52056

  1. "December 2013 address-based calculation of the Turkish Statistical Institute as presented by citypopulation.de".